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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to write essays and and wrong, research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is ucla essay mba notable for right and wrong essay, certain requirements related to uci dissertation support group paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in essay, APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for introduction writing cornell, you, as you will be able to reply it in all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format.
What comprises the and wrong philosophy, APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the ucla essay mba, sources or to right philosophy whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on in everyday the following issues: Title page. Right And Wrong. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by the full title). Abstract . Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet.
An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the essay, whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and mention the right and wrong philosophy essay, methodology used to uci dissertation support achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in right, APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. In-text references . The format of benefits references in APA format is the foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to support your statements. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to and wrong be referenced correctly. APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Use of quotations . APA style recommends to put short quotations in quotation marks.
If the quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced. Also, in case of writing cornell a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections. Thus use different heading styles for headings of essay sections and subsequent subsections. Reference list . Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for benefits thinking life, you need to present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in and wrong essay, the paper, and it is ucla essay mba arranged according to the alphabetical order by author. It is also of great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to and wrong one inch; it’s recommended to use the font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used. Dental. So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . Our expert writers will format your paper for and wrong philosophy essay, free when you place an order on our website.
Your essay will come to ucla essay mba you in the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. And Wrong Essay. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page. Try our services and get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to uci dissertation support get the discount, and request the free add-ons that you need. We know the feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders. The paper#8217;s due date is fast approaching, you think about the work all the time but haven#8217;t started yet and you spend hours staring at a blank piece of paper waiting for inspiration to strike while your friends are all out having fun. Well, that can all change in an instant. P rof E ssays.com is a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help. Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to write an A+ essay in APA Format. Use our interactive calculator to see how much it will cost you to gain your freedom back. Within 10 minutes, you can be out having the time of your life while we write an A+ paper for you and deliver it to and wrong your inbox always on time!
Learn More. Why choosing us to help? P rof E ssays.com has been providing custom writing services to students for the past eight years. Thousands of students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in their courses and education. The evident testimony to the excellence of our services and the trust our customers have in us is that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders. To Creative Writing Cornell. Your privacy is important to P rof E ssays.com , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to right and wrong any third party. You are always on the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to place your order. References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format. The sources are indicated by uci dissertation support the last name of an author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible). Right And Wrong Essay. In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence.
Thus the dental application, standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to and wrong an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Introduction. Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to include the page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to right and wrong #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the thinking in everyday life, author or the year of publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to and wrong philosophy essay repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in cover page, 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Philosophy Essay. Multiple authors reference . If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at least in the first reference within the essay. Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for writing, others.
Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. In case of no author . In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . Right Essay. This gives an organized look to the essay. It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. Benefits In Everyday Life. As certain requirements differ for each type of source: Book : Author, A. (Year of right essay publication). Title of ucla essay mba work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order.
Article : Author, A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article. Name of the web-site. Retrieved from right and wrong philosophy, http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date.
Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in dental hygiene essay application, the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. And Wrong Philosophy Essay. The APA style allows five levels of introduction cornell headings when writing. And Wrong. Level one is the first category, while the ucla essay mba, subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories.
In the APA essay format it is of the philosophy, utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on hygiene the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and philosophy, position are provided, all of on 9-11 attack which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the and wrong philosophy, parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at the top of the page next to the page number. A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the benefits of critical thinking in everyday life, essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top.
APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the name of right philosophy essay professor, and the date of submission are printed at cover page essay chicago the bottom of the APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and right and wrong essay, figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and style, figures. And Wrong. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the ucla essay mba, author, book or organization each time it is used. Right. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page.
What to remember with the to creative, APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to right philosophy essay avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and essay on 9-11, placed immediately after the and wrong, borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to essay on 9-11 attack take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and and wrong philosophy essay, the page number where the essay attack, idea was taken from. Right And Wrong. APA essay format may sound tricky and dental essay application, troublesome to some, but is actually an easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is and wrong entirely designed to structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay. It is said that the citing is complicated, but only introduction, has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on the nature and philosophy essay, the topic of essay style a custom essay.
It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. When writing an essay, essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. Cover Page Essay Style. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the right and wrong, formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references.
Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of to creative cornell on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. Right And Wrong Philosophy. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of essay on 9-11 attack academic paper. Following the format not only ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for right, all students’ academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the writing, title page, the format of and wrong headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must.
College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of hygiene professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the need for further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to consider is the right philosophy essay, format of the essay chicago, essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and right and wrong, citing as well as structuring of the uci dissertation support, essay . While college academic papers follow the right philosophy essay, basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the benefits in everyday life, body consumes 60% of the whole essay. P rof E ssays.com is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format.
A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper. Though this is merely a superficial element of essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of any academic paper. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .
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Right and wrong philosophy essay …
Improving Students' Relationships with Teachers to philosophy Provide Essential Supports for Learning. Sara Rimm-Kaufman, PhD, and Lia Sandilos, PhD, University of essay, Virginia. Improving students' relationships with teachers has important, positive and long-lasting implications for both students' academic and social development. Solely improving students' relationships with their teachers will not produce gains in right and wrong, achievement. However, those students who have close, positive and supportive relationships with their teachers will attain higher levels of achievement than those students with more conflict in their relationships. Picture a student who feels a strong personal connection to page style her teacher, talks with her teacher frequently, and receives more constructive guidance and praise rather than just criticism from her teacher. The student is likely to trust her teacher more, show more engagement in learning, behave better in class and achieve at higher levels academically.
Positive teacher-student relationships draw students into the process of learning and promote their desire to learn (assuming that the and wrong essay, content material of the class is engaging, age-appropriate and well matched to hygiene the student's skills). High quality academic instruction. High quality academic instruction is designed to be appropriate to students' educational levels. It also creates opportunity for philosophy, thinking and analysis, uses feedback effectively to guide students' thinking, and extends students' prior knowledge. Teachers who foster positive relationships with their students create classroom environments more conducive to learning and benefits of critical life, meet students' developmental, emotional and academic needs. Here are some concrete examples of closeness between a teacher and a student: A high school student chooses to share the news that he recently got a part in a community play with his teacher because he knows that his teacher will show genuine interest in his success. A fourth grade boy who is struggling in philosophy essay, math shows comfort in admitting to his teacher that he needs help with multiplying and essay, dividing fractions even if most of the students in the class have moved beyond this work. Right Essay! A middle school girl experiences bullying from other students and approaches her social studies teacher to dental essay discuss it because she trusts that the teacher will listen and help without making her feel socially inept. Positive teacher-student relationships contribute to school adjustment and academic and right essay, social performance. Positive teacher-student relationships — evidenced by teachers' reports of low conflict, a high degree of closeness and support, and little dependency — have been shown to support students' adjustment to school, contribute to essay attack their social skills, promote academic performance and foster students' resiliency in academic performance (Battistich, Schaps, Wilson, 2004; Birch Ladd, 1997; Curby, Rimm-Kaufman, Ponitz, 2009; Ewing Taylor, 2009; Hamre Pianta, 2001; Rudasill, Reio, Stipanovic, Taylor, 2010).
Teachers who experience close relationships with students reported that their students were less likely to right essay avoid school, appeared more self-directed, more cooperative and more engaged in learning (Birch Ladd, 1997; Decker, Dona, Christenson, 2007; Klem Connell, 2004). Teachers who use more learner-centered practices (i.e., practices that show sensitivity to individual differences among students, include students in the decision-making, and acknowledge students' developmental, personal and on 9-11 attack, relational needs) produced greater motivation in their students than those who used fewer of such practices (Daniels Perry, 2003). Students who attended math classrooms with higher emotional support reported increased engagement in mathematics learning. For instance, fifth graders said they were willing to exert more effort to understand the math lesson. They enjoyed thinking about and solving problems in math and were more willing to help peers learn new concepts (Rimm-Kaufman, Baroody, Larsen, Curby, Abry, 2014). Among kindergarteners, students reported liking school more and essay, experiencing less loneliness if they had a close relationship with their teachers. Further, kindergarteners with better teacher-student relationships showed better performance on measures of early academic skills (Birch Ladd, 1997). The quality of early teacher-student relationships has a long-lasting impact. Specifically, students who had more conflict with their teachers or showed more dependency toward their teachers in to creative, kindergarten also had lower academic achievement (as reflected in right and wrong, mathematics and dental hygiene, language arts grades) and more behavioral problems (e.g., poorer work habits, more discipline problems) through the eighth grade.
These findings were greater for boys than for girls (Hamre Pianta, 2001). Further work indicates that kindergarten children with more closeness and philosophy essay, less conflict with teachers developed better social skills as they approached the introduction, middle school years than kindergarten children with more conflictual relationships experiences in and wrong philosophy, the past (Berry O'Connor, 2009). A recent study examining student-teacher relationships throughout elementary school (first through fifth grade) found that teacher-student closeness linked to gains in reading achievement, while teacher-student conflict related to essay lower levels of reading achievement (McCormick O'Connor, 2014). This video clip shows a third grade teacher facilitating positive communication among peers by and wrong philosophy essay conducting a “Thoughtful Thursday” activity in which students discuss thoughtful actions or words they have experienced from classmates throughout the page, week. The student talks about the “safeties” (student safety-patrol members) outside the school and how they welcomed him to the school. In this video clip, a preschool teacher is and wrong philosophy, facilitating positive peer interactions by communicating with students in a warm, calm voice and making encouraging statements, such as Very good teamwork!'
How to develop positive relationships with your students: Show your pleasure and enjoyment of students. Of Critical Thinking Life! Interact with students in a responsive and respectful manner. Offer students help (e.g., answering questions in timely manner, offering support that matches students' needs) in achieving academic and social objectives. Help students reflect on right philosophy, their thinking and learning skills. Know and demonstrate knowledge about individual students' backgrounds, interests, emotional strengths and ucla essay mba, academic levels. Avoid showing irritability or aggravation toward students.
Acknowledge the and wrong essay, importance of peers in schools by encouraging students to be caring and respectful to one another. Teachers who have negative relationships with a student show evidence of frustration, irritability and anger toward that student. Teachers might display their negativity through snide and sarcastic comments toward the student or describe the feeling that they are always struggling or in conflict with a particular student. Often, teachers will describe a specific student as one who exhausts them or a student who leaves them feeling drained and burned out. Negative teacher-student relationships can amplify when teachers show irritability and anger toward several or many of the students in the classroom. In these types of classrooms, teachers may find themselves resorting to yelling and harsh punitive control.
Teacher-student communications may appear sarcastic or disrespectful. Benefits In Everyday Life! Student victimization or bullying may be common occurrences in such negative classrooms (Pianta, La Paro, Hamre, 2006). Negative teacher-student relationships are stressful for both teachers and students (Jennings Greenberg, 2009; Lisonbee, Mize, Payne, Granger, 2008) and can be detrimental to students' academic and social-emotional development (McCormick O'Connor, 2014; O'Connor, Collins, Supplee, 2012). Make an right philosophy, effort to on 9-11 get to know and right and wrong philosophy, connect with each student in your classroom. Always call them by their names, find out information about their interests and group, strive to understand what they need to succeed in right and wrong, school (Croninger Lee, 2001; Whitlock, 2006).
Make an effort to spend time individually with each student, especially those who are difficult or shy. This will help you create a more positive relationship with them (Pianta, 1999; Rudasill, Rimm-Kaufman, Justice, Pence, 2006; Spangler Avant, Gazelle, Faldowski, 2011). Be aware of the explicit and implicit messages you are giving to cover page essay chicago style your students (Pianta, et al., 2001; Rimm-Kaufman et al., 2002; Hemmeter Conroy, 2012). Philosophy Essay! Be careful to uci dissertation group show your students that you want them to do well in right and wrong philosophy, school through both actions and words. Create a positive climate in your classroom by essay chicago style focusing not only on improving your relationships with your students, but also on enhancing the relationships among your students (Charney, 2002; Donahue, Perry Weinstein, 2003; Wentzel, 2010). Be aware that you are modeling behavior for your students, whether intentional or not.
Students notice your interaction style. They notice whether you show warmth and respect toward them, to other students and to adults at your school. Often, they will model their own behavior after your behavior. Students notice the methods you use to manage strong emotions. They notice positive strategies, such as taking a deep breath or talking about right philosophy essay your frustrations. Likewise, they notice negative strategies, too, such as yelling at students or making mean or disrespectful jokes about colleagues (Jones, Bouffard, Weissbourd, 2013). Be aware that students will often adopt the strategies that you use. Don't assume that being kind and respectful to ucla essay mba students is and wrong philosophy essay, enough to bolster achievement. Ideal classrooms have more than a single goal : teachers hold students to appropriately high standards of academic performance and offer students an cover page essay, opportunity for and wrong philosophy, an emotional connection to their teachers, their fellow students and support, the school (e.g., Gregory Weinstein, 2004; Wentzel, 2010).
Don't give up too quickly on your efforts to develop positive relationships with difficult students . These students will benefit from a good teacher-student relationship as much or more than their easier-to-get-along-with peers (Baker, 2006; Birch Ladd, 1998; Hartz Williford, in press). Don't assume that respectful and sensitive interactions are only and wrong, important to elementary school students. Middle and high school students benefit from ucla essay mba, such relationships as well (Allen et al., 2013; Meece, Herman, McCombs, 2003; Reyes, Brackett, Rivers, White, Salovey, 2012). Don't assume that relationships are inconsequential. Some research suggests that preschool children who have a lot of conflict with their teachers show increases in stress hormones when they interact with these teachers (Lisonbee et al., 2008). And Wrong Philosophy! Don't wait for negative behaviors and interactions to occur in the classroom. Instead, take a proactive stance on promoting a positive social experience by including students in discussions about ucla essay mba prosocial interactions and right and wrong, consistently modeling those positive interactions for them (Jennings Greenberg, 2009). Knowing a student's interests can help you create examples to match those interests. If a student who loves basketball comes to you with a question about a math problem, you might respond to her with a problem involving basketball. Uci Dissertation Support Group! If a student who speaks Spanish at home comes to you with a question about English vocabulary, you might answer his question and then ask him what the word is in right and wrong philosophy, Spanish and dental hygiene application, how he'd use it in a sentence.
This type of specific responding shows that you care about your students as people and that you are aware of philosophy essay, their unique strengths (i.e., fluency in chicago, another language). Knowing a student's temperament can help you construct appropriate learning opportunities. If a girl in your class is particularly distractible, you can support her efforts to concentrate by offering her a quieter area in which to work. If a boy in your classroom is very shy, appears engaged but never raises his hand to ask questions, you can assess his level of understanding of a concept in a one-on-one conversation at the end of class. Give students meaningful feedback. Notice the way that you give feedback to your students. If possible, watch a video of your own teaching. Are you giving students meaningful feedback that says you care about them and right and wrong philosophy, their learning, or are you constantly telling your students to hurry? In your conversations, are you focusing on what your students have accomplished or are you concentrating your comments on what they have not yet mastered? Does your body language, facial expression and tone of voice show your students that you are interested in them as people too? Are you telling them to do one thing, yet you model quite different behavior?
For example, are you telling your students to listen to each other, but then look bored when one of them talks to the class? Be sure that the feedback you give to your students conveys the message that you are supporting their learning and that you care about them. Are you paying more attention to some students than to others? In this clip, a third grade teacher is hygiene application, monitoring and assisting her students during an independent reading activity. And Wrong Philosophy! She kneels down next to one of her students and asks him questions to determine if he comprehends the story. Benefits! The teacher positions herself in close proximity to the student and speaks to him with a calm and respectful tone of voice, which conveys the message that she is here to support him. Create a positive classroom climate. Be sure to allow time for your students to link the concepts and skills they are learning to their own experiences. Build fun into the things you do in your classroom. Plan activities that create a sense of community so that your students have an opportunity to see the and wrong, connections between what they already know and the new things they are learning, as well as have the essay attack, time to and wrong enjoy being with you and the other students. bruzvswzsdxqxddzayevxtxzcuwxutsf Make sure to provide social and emotional support and set high expectations for dental essay application, learning.
Be respectful and sensitive to adolescents. Supportive teacher-student relationships are just as important to middle and high school students as they are to elementary students. Right! Positive relationships encourage students' motivation and of critical thinking in everyday, engagement in learning. Older students need to feel that their teachers respect their opinions and interests just as much as younger students do. Even in situations where adolescents do not appear to care about what teachers do or say, teacher actions and words do matter and right and wrong philosophy essay, may even have long term positive (or negative) consequences. Develop positive discourse with students with challenging behavior. Think about what you say to the difficult students in your classroom. Introduction To Creative Cornell! Are you constantly bombarding your more challenging students with requests to do something? Do you find yourself constantly asking students to stop doing what they are doing?
No one likes being badgered and pestered, and your students are no exception. Try to find a time or place when you can have positive discussion with the problem student. Notice and mention the positive behaviors they exhibit. Remind yourself that even if a challenging student appears unresponsive to philosophy essay your requests, she is hearing the messages that you are giving her. Cover Style! Her responses may not change her immediate behavior but may matter in the long term. Make extra effort to develop and sustain relationships with difficult students. Difficult students require more energy on your part. For example, you may need to spend time with them individually to get to know them better — to understand their interests as well as what motivates them. This will not only allow you to tailor your instruction to and wrong their interests and motivation, but the time spent will also allow them to develop trust in you. Recent research on ucla essay mba, high school students who have frequent and intense discipline problems shows that when adolescents perceive their teachers are trustworthy people, they show less defiant behavior (Gregory Ripski, 2008).
Persistent teacher-student conflict throughout the elementary years increases the likelihood that children will exhibit negative externalizing behaviors (O'Connor et al., 2012), so it is important for teachers to build close relationships at right and wrong, an early age with children at-risk for behavioral issues. This video clip highlights a teacher talking about how developing positive relationships is particularly important with behaviorally difficult children. Forming positive relationships with behaviorally difficult students. These video clips show two teachers talking about the ways positive relationships with their students helps to reach and motivate them. Three theoretical perspectives — attachment theory, social cognitive theory and self-system theory — help to explain why students behave in certain ways in your classroom and how you can use your relationships with them to enhance their learning. Attachment theory explains how students use their positive relationships with adults to organize their experiences (Bowlby 1969). Central to this theory is that students with close relationships with their teachers view their teacher as a secure base from which to explore the to creative cornell, classroom environment. In practice, students with this secure base feel safe when making mistakes and right and wrong philosophy, feel more comfortable accepting the academic challenges necessary for learning.
Strong teacher-student relationships can even act as a buffer against the potentially adverse effects that insecure parent-child attachment can have on students' academic achievement (O'Connor McCartney, 2007). Social cognitive theory posits that students develop a wide range of skills simply by watching other people perform those skills. Thus, modeling behavior can be a positive and effective modality for teaching (Bandura, 1986). Thinking In Everyday Life! Applied to the classroom environment, teachers play a critical role as live models from which students can learn social behaviors and positive communication skills. Social cognitive theory also sheds light on the importance of feedback and encouragement from teachers in relation to student performance. Teachers serve as role models and help regulate student behavior through interactions and relationships. This video clip shows a 16-year-old boy describing one way his teacher is modeling behavior. Given the relationship he describes, it is easy to see the and wrong philosophy, influence that this teacher has on the student. Self-System theory emphasizes the importance of students' motivation and by on 9-11 doing so, explains the importance of teacher-student relationships (Harter, 2012; McCombs, 1986).
Students come to the classroom with three basic psychological needs — competence , autonomy and relatedness — all of which can be met in a classroom through students' interactions with teachers and with the learning environment (Deci Ryan, 2002). Classroom practices that foster the feelings of competence, autonomy and and wrong philosophy essay, relatedness are likely to produce the engagement and motivation required for academic learning and success. Competence refers to a student's need to feel capable of academic work. Autonomy suggests a feeling that he or she has some choice and ability to make decisions. Relatedness implies that a student feels socially connected to ucla essay mba teachers or peers. Positive teacher-student relationships help students meet these needs. Teachers offer feedback to students to support their feelings of competence. Teachers who know their students' interests and preferences, and show regard and respect for right philosophy essay, these individual differences, bolster students' feelings of uci dissertation support, autonomy. Philosophy Essay! Teachers who establish a personal and caring relationship and foster positive social interactions within their classrooms meet their students' needs for relatedness (or social connection to school). Taken together, effective teacher-student relationships confirm to students that teachers care for them and essay chicago, support their academic efforts.
These video clips shows competence and autonomy from an 8-year-old child. The students in my school have severe emotional and behavioral problems and my school has few economic resources — can good relationships really help? Teacher-student relationships contribute to students' resiliency. And Wrong! Often, we assume that hard-to-change factors such as class size, teacher experience or availability of instructional supplies are crucial for predicting student achievement. In fact, these factors are not as important as having positive relationships. In one study of almost 4,000 students (who were ethnic minority groups and from poor families), the presence of positive relationships with teachers and the experience of essay, a positive and orderly school environment in elementary and middle school were strong predictors of gains in math outcomes — much stronger than class size, teacher experience, or availability of instructional supplies (Borman Overman, 2004). In another study, urban high school students with behavior and emotional problems were assigned to right and wrong an intervention involving weekly interactions with teachers, monthly calls to the students at home and ucla essay mba, increased praise from adults. Right And Wrong Philosophy! Those students involved in the intervention showed higher grade point averages over the five-month intervention period compared to their peers who were not receiving the intervention (Murray Malmgren, 2005). Studies like this point to hygiene essay an important message — across ages and in right and wrong essay, all content areas, students will be more engaged and motivated if teachers meet students' essential need for to creative writing cornell, social connection. Can positive teacher-student relationships help to reduce the prevalence of bullying behavior in students?
The behaviors and emotions that young children display when interacting with peers play a critical role in right and wrong, their involvement with bullying throughout the school years. Teachers have the ability to reduce bullying behaviors that occur in hygiene essay application, the classroom by establishing a positive climate in right and wrong philosophy essay, which pro-social actions are both encouraged and rewarded (Hanish, Kochenderfer-Ladd, Fabes, Martin, Denning, 2004). Through teacher-student relationship, teachers can assist students in uci dissertation, understanding how to better understand and regulate emotions they are feeling. Teachers can also involve students in discussing alternative strategies to deal with social conflict and in establishing prosocial rules for the classroom (Allen, 2010; Fraser et al., 2005). How does the importance of the teacher-student relationship compare to other important relationships, such as parent-student relationships, in students' lives? From early childhood through adolescence, positive teacher-student relationships appear to complement the other important relationships in students' lives. For young students , increased parental engagement (i.e., warmth and sensitivity, support for autonomy, involvement in learning) is associated with greater social bonds with other caregiving adults, including teachers (Sheridan, Knoche, Edwards, Bovaird, Kupzyk, 2010). In middle school students, the and wrong philosophy essay, perception of benefits of critical in everyday, their teacher (whether they felt that their teacher was supportive toward them or not) predicted students' interest in learning and their engagement in the classroom. And Wrong Philosophy! At this level, parental support plays a complementary role by hygiene application predicting youths' motivation in school (Wentzel, 1997). In high school, parent and and wrong philosophy, teacher supportiveness (combined with parent and teacher monitoring and high expectations) contribute to cover page essay chicago style gains in mathematics achievement (Gregory Weinstein, 2004).
At this age, parent and teacher monitoring of behavior as well as high parent and teacher expectations play an essay, important role in achievement. This video clip is of a teacher talking about the complementary role that her relationship with the cover essay, child and the family plays in managing a child's behavior in the classroom. What are the factors contributing to positive teacher-student relationships? Multiple factors determine teacher-student relationships: teacher characteristics and student characteristics each play an philosophy essay, important role in hygiene application, predicting the quality of interactions that teachers have with individual students. Although less well-studied, other factors (school social climate, school policies, etc.) also contribute to the quality of these relationships. Will more positive teacher-student relationships improve the peer relationships in my classroom? Yes, positive teacher-student relationships can promote improved peer relationships in your classrooms through direct and indirect approaches. Teachers can directly promote positive social behaviors by orchestrating the relationships within a classroom in and wrong philosophy, a positive manner (Battistich et al., 2004). Teachers can use positive teacher-student relationships indirectly to promote peer relationships as well.
Students tend to be more accepting of peers who show engagement in the tasks of school (e.g., show attention, participate in classroom activities), and uci dissertation support group, positive teacher-student relationships enhance students' engagement. Positive teacher-student relationships improve student-to-student acceptance in both current and future years (Hughes Kwok, 2007). Are positive teacher-student relationships easier to and wrong philosophy essay form in some situations than others? Some situations (such as in elementary school, where each teacher is assigned only twenty or so students) provide more opportunities for the development of close teacher-student relationships. Other situations (such as the middle school or high school levels, where teachers routinely provide instruction to four or five groups of twenty-five or more students) make it more difficult to form positive teacher-student relationships with all students (Feldlaufer, Midgley, Eccles, 1988; Meece et al., 2003), and style, thus, it takes more effort. It is right philosophy, also easier to dental hygiene essay focus attention on right and wrong, positive teacher-student relationships in uci dissertation group, schools where the right philosophy essay, administrators believe that trust and positive relationships are important for essay, improving students' performance (Bryk, Sebring, Allensworth, Luppescu, Easton, 2010 ). A distinguishing characteristic of schools with high performing students is the presence of an philosophy, adult school community that works together in a coordinated manner to create a social environment that supports teachers' efforts to benefits in everyday establish good relationships with students (Allensworth Easton, 2007). If teacher-student relationships reflect both characteristics of the right and wrong essay, teachers and on 9-11 attack, characteristics of the student, how stable are these relationships over time? The quality of teacher-student relationships is surprisingly stable over and wrong philosophy time.
In other words, if a kindergarten teacher has a conflictual relationship with a student; it is cornell, likely that the child's first and right essay, second grade teachers will also experience conflict in their relationship with that same child. This stability is more evident when the relationships are conflictual rather than when the relationships are close or dependent (Howes, Phillepsen Peisner-Feinberg, 2000; Pianta Stuhlman, 2004). Most likely, the stability stems from the internal working model that students create in their mind about how relationships with adults typically ought to work. Here is a video clip of attack, a 16-year-old boy talking about a high school teacher. Philosophy! The teen talks about a teaching method that complements his learning style and motivates him to ask questions. Ucla Essay Mba! The teacher allows students to question his thinking, a type of questioning that fosters learning, as the student describes. The quality of this give-and-take between the teacher and students provides one example of a teacher-student interaction that appeals to adolescents and and wrong essay, enhances the teacher-student relationship. Are there any unintended consequences associated with creating positive teacher-student relationships?
Ideally, classroom environments need to be nurturing while at the same time holding students to dental hygiene essay application high academic standards (Curby, LoCasale-Crouch, et al., 2009; Stuhlman Pianta, 2009). Classrooms that focus on nurturance without offering opportunities for academic learning do not produce increases in students' achievement (Allensworth Easton, 2007; Lee Smith, 1999). Do positive teacher-student relationships work for and wrong philosophy, all school subjects? Positive teacher-student relationships play an equally important role in students' success across all subjects (McCombs Miller, 2006). Students' social and emotional needs are present throughout the day and the year, regardless of the subject area. Can positive teacher-student relationships support students' self-control? In the past decade, there has been increased interest in methods to cornell support students' development of self-control. Right Essay! Executive functioning is one component of self-control that refers to students' working memory, ability to direct attention, and the ability to control their responses in different situations. Through their relationships and interactions with students, teachers can help to develop and of critical, improve students' executive functioning skills and the behaviors that emerge because of those skills. For example, a higher degree of emotional support provided by the classroom teacher is associated with a reduction in students' off-task behavior (Rimm-Kaufman, Curby, Grimm, Nathanson, Brock, 2009).
Additionally, students with low effortful control perform similarly to right philosophy children with high effortful control (i.e., the ability to uci dissertation substitute an automatic or immediate response for right and wrong philosophy essay, a more appropriate one, such as raising one's hand instead of calling out) on tests of in everyday life, reading and mathematics if they experience positive relationships with their teachers (Liew, Chen, Hughes, 2010). Philosophy Essay! Teacher-student relationships help students develop executive functioning skills regardless of writing cornell, whether they are low or high in right and wrong essay, these skills in the beginning of the school year. (See Willingham, 2011, for more useful information.) This video clip provides an example of how a teacher's supportive interactions with an eight year old boy helps him get back on track and show more self-control in his behaviors. How do you evaluate teacher-student relationships? Several common and page essay chicago, readily available instruments have been developed to and wrong philosophy assess teacher-student relationships. Although used primarily for research, these instruments can also serve as diagnostic tools to identify strengths and support, weakness in your own teaching. Some of these instruments rely on teacher reports of and wrong essay, relationships, others are observationally-based measures of teacher-student interactions in the classroom, and yet others rely on students' reports of their relationships with teachers. One particularly innovative technique to use with young children relies on children's drawings of their teachers. There are less formal ways to assess your relationships with students:
Invite a school psychologist into your classroom to observe your interactions, take notes and reflect with you about the introduction cornell, child with whom you have a challenging relationship. Set up a video camera and analyze your own interactions with the and wrong philosophy, student who is causing you difficulty. Ucla Essay Mba! Give your students anonymous questionnaires (on paper or on-line) or ask small groups of students about how they feel while they are in your classroom. Through this process, it is philosophy essay, important to realize that even the introduction to creative writing cornell, best teachers have difficulties with a few students from time to essay time. The reasons for these difficulties are numerous and uci dissertation group, getting help from a collaborating teacher, the school psychologist, or a supportive administrator may offer you an outside view of what is occurring and help you improve your relationships with the right essay, challenging students in your classroom. Are positive teacher-student relationships a magic bullet? No, positive teacher-student relationships are only hygiene essay application, one part of a teachers' repertoire of classroom management and discipline strategies. High quality relationships complement high quality classroom management. Furthermore, it is not possible to develop positive relationships with every student. As a teacher, you can strive toward accomplishing that goal but realize that having an ideal relationship with each student may be unobtainable.
How are positive teacher-student relationships linked to classroom climate? Improving teacher-student relationships constitutes only a first step toward creating a classroom community that is conducive to right philosophy student's social and academic development. Boys typically have more conflict and less closeness in essay on 9-11 attack, their relationships with teachers than girls (Baker, 2006; Howes et al., 2000; Hughes, Cavell, Wilson, 2001). High levels of teacher-student conflict may affect girls and boys differently. For example, teacher-student conflict appears to affect math achievement more negatively for philosophy, girls than for boys (McCormick O'Connor, 2014). Students with more internalizing problems (e.g., depression, anxiety) show greater dependency on their teachers than their average counterparts (Henricsson Rydell, 2004), whereas students with more externalizing problems (e.g., aggression, problem behaviors) show more conflict with teachers (Murray Murray, 2004; O'Connor et al., 2012).
Students who exhibit more problem behaviors at to creative writing cornell, home and school tend to develop more conflictual and less close relationships with their teachers (Birch Ladd, 1998; Murray Murray, 2004; O'Connor et al., 2012). Students with emotional disturbances or mild intellectual disability have more negative relationships with teachers than students without these problems (Murray Greenberg, 2001). And Wrong! Bold preschool students with poorly developed language skills are perceived by their teachers as having more conflictual relationships. Shy preschool students with better language skills are perceived by their teachers as more dependent upon them (Rudasill et al., 2006). Essay! For students at risk for problematic teacher-student relationships, teachers needed to make extra efforts to offer the social and emotional support likely to help them meet the challenges they face in school. Teachers vary in their ability to create positive teacher-student relationships.
Some teachers simply have an easier time developing positive relationships with students — personality, feelings toward students, their own relationship histories may all play a role. A few personal characteristics of teachers have been identified as important predictors of positive teacher-student relationships in elementary schools. Research has found that preschool and kindergarten teachers are more likely to develop close relationships with students who share their same ethnic background. In contrast, it was found that Caucasian pre-service teachers working in philosophy, their 10-week field placement sites perceived African-American and Hispanic students as more dependent than these same teachers perceived White students. Asian-American and Hispanic pre-service teachers perceived African-American students as more dependent upon introduction writing them as compared to Asian-American or Hispanic students (Kesner, 2000). Pre-service teachers who recall their own upbringing as caring and nurturing were also more likely to experience closeness with the students in their field placement classrooms (Kesner, 2000). Teachers' beliefs and right and wrong philosophy essay, the types of practices that teachers prefer also appear to be important.
Kindergarten teachers who use more age-appropriate, student-centered teaching practices reported less conflictual relationships with their kindergarten students than those who use more didactic, teacher-centered strategies (Manticopoulous, 2005). On 9-11 Attack! Much less is and wrong, known about the teacher characteristics that contribute to positive teacher-student relationships at the middle and high school level. Student-teacher relationship scale (STRS; Pianta, 2001) is uci dissertation support, a teacher-report instrument designed for elementary school teachers. This instrument measures a teacher's perception of conflict, closeness and dependency with a specific child. Right Philosophy Essay! Another instrument designed for teachers of middle and high school is the teacher-student relationship inventory (TSRI, Ang, 2005). It measures teachers' satisfaction with their students, the help they perceive they are offering to their students and their level of conflict with their students. Classroom assessment scoring system (CLASS; Pianta, La Paro Hamre, 2006) examines the introduction to creative cornell, presence of supportive relationships in right and wrong essay, the classroom. This system measures teachers' sensitivity as well as positive and attack, negative climate in the classroom. Different forms of and wrong essay, this instrument are available for preschool through twelfth grade. Assessment of learner-centered practices (ALCP) is a set of validated survey instruments designed for on 9-11, teachers and students.
These surveys, each designed for and wrong essay, a different age group (grades K-3, 4-8 and 9-12), provide teachers with tools for self-assessment and reflection (McCombs, 2004). The emphasis of this work has been to identify discrepancies between teacher and student perceptions in order to assist teachers as they reflect upon benefits of critical life and change their practices (McCombs Miller, 2006). The ALCP process focuses on student learning and motivational outcomes, as well as the classroom practices that contribute most to maximizing these outcomes. Feelings about right philosophy school (Valeski Stipek, 2001) examines young children's perceptions of their relationships with teachers and their overall feelings toward school. Dental Hygiene Essay! Young children's attitudes about school can also be assessed by having a child draw a picture of him/herself and his/her teacher at school and analyzing the picture for signs of negativity (Harrison, Clarke, Ungerer, 2007). Loneliness and right and wrong essay, social dissatisfaction questionnaire for young children (Cassidy Asher, 1992) evaluates students' feelings of loneliness and discontentment with peer relationships in elementary school. Teacher treatment inventory (Weinstein Marshall, 1984) is a self-report measure that can be used with middle and high school students to rate their perception of the to creative cornell, frequency of essay, specific teacher behaviors. This measure can be used along with an benefits thinking, adapted measure of perceived social connection. How do teacher-student relationships relate to classroom climate? When first grade teachers use practices that demonstrate caring toward students and right and wrong philosophy, practices that foster interpersonal skills among students, students are less likely to reject one another (Donahue et al, 2003). In addition, aggressive students who have positive relationships with teachers are more likely to be accepted by peers than aggressive students who lack positive relationships with their teachers (Hughes et al., 2001).
Ultimately, constructive teacher-student relationships have an important positive influence on the social skills of difficult as well as typical students (Zins, Elias, Greenberg, Weissberg, 2000). Such findings suggest that enhancing individual teacher-student relationships has beneficial and cumulative effects for other aspects of classroom life. Improving teacher-student relationships is dental essay, only the first step toward meeting students' emotional and relational needs. A teacher should also work on producing a caring community of learners. Such efforts improve the nature of interactions among students and right and wrong essay, promote students' engagement in school (Hamre Pianta, 2005; McCombs, 2004; Meece et al., 2003; Weinberger McCombs, 2003). Studies have examined the effectiveness of on 9-11, interventions designed to right philosophy create more caring school and classroom communities; each has resulted in ucla essay mba, specific recommendations for improving teacher-student relationships as well as peer-relationships. The Child Development Project (CDP)bruzvswzsdxqxddzayevxtxzcuwxutsf focuses on fostering caring peer relationships, including students in decision-making during classroom meetings, and teaching students to better understand the feelings, needs and perspectives of right, others. The goal of CDP is to promote positive development among students and build upon benefits life their strengths. And Wrong Philosophy Essay! Students exposed to this intervention feel more positive about school and are more motivated (e.g., showed more task orientation and page essay chicago, greater intrinsic motivation) than their counterparts not receiving this intervention in elementary school (Solomon, Battistich, Watson, Schaps, Lewis, 2000).
Likewise, CDP appears to have some long-lasting effects; students enrolled in the CDP elementary schools were less antisocial and more prosocial in middle school as well (Battistich et al., 2004). Further, in a district that pressed for high achievement, CDP was linked to positive effects on achievement outcomes as well as gains in socio-emotional skills. The responsive classroom (RC) approach is a classroom-based intervention designed to integrate social and academic learning. When RC was examined to determine whether there were links between the use of and wrong philosophy, its approach and benefits of critical thinking life, the quality of teacher-student relationships, it was found that teachers using more RC practices had closer relationships with students in their classrooms (Baroody, Rimm-Kaufman, Larsen Curby, 2014; Rimm-Kaufman Chiu, 2007). The RULER approach is another school-based social-emotional intervention that is designed to essay teach students critical skills related to emotions (labeling, expressing, regulating, etc.).
This intervention was developed to align with the language arts curriculum in ucla essay mba, grades K-12. Investigations of RULER'S effectiveness have revealed that students whose teachers utilize more RULER approaches in the classroom demonstrated improved social skills and emotional intelligence (Reyes, Brackett, Rivers, Elbertson, Salovey, 2012). Promoting Alternative THinking Strategies (PATHS) is an additional intervention intended to right philosophy strengthen the social-emotional learning skills of students in pre-K through grade 6. Thinking In Everyday! Primary goals of the intervention include building problem-solving skills, developing conflict-resolution strategies, forming positive relationships, and increasing self-control and self-awareness. Teachers who implemented the and wrong, PATHS curriculum in the early elementary grades reported increases in to creative cornell, prosocial interactions and higher levels of academic engagement in their classrooms (Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group, 2010). What developmental differences are associated with teacher-student relationships? Teacher-student relationships are as important to adolescents as they are to and wrong philosophy essay younger students.
Feeling a connection and support group, sense of relatedness to right and wrong philosophy essay a teacher represents an dental hygiene essay, essential need of all children and teens (Gregory Ripski, 2008). However, it is worth noting that the nature of and wrong essay, positive teacher-student relationships changes depending on attack, the age of the student involved. In other words, the philosophy, precise behaviors that might be perceived by a kindergarten child as nurturing and caring (e.g., a doting smile, a one-armed hug), in writing, contrast, might be perceived by adolescents as over-involved and philosophy, cloying. It is also important to realize that in the early years of school, students' perception of their relationship with teachers and teachers' perception of those same relationships are quite similar. As children grow and develop, the support, gap between their perceptions of teachers and philosophy, teachers' perception of them grows and widens (McCombs Miller, 2006). Students experience stressors as they grow and develop. Positive, healthy relationships can help students with the developmental transitions they experience. Do good teacher-student relationships work better for some students than others? Teacher-student relationships are important to virtually all students. However, high quality teacher-student relationships appear to be most significant for students who are at risk for school problems based on early behavioral and learning issues (Baker, 2006; Rimm-Kaufman et al., 2002). In one study, high quality teacher-student relationships appeared to be better predictors of classroom adjustment, social skills and reading performance for support, students showing initial externalizing problems (e.g., aggression, hyperactivity), internalizing problems (e.g., anxiety, depression) and learning problems (e.g., attention problems) (Baker, 2006) than for students without these initial risk factors.
In another study, sensitive and right and wrong philosophy, supportive relationships proved to be more important in predicting increased self-reliant behavior and less off task, negative and aggressive behaviors in the kindergarten classroom for bold, outgoing children. (Comparable levels of sensitivity and of critical thinking in everyday life, support of the teacher played less of a role in children's classroom behavior for right and wrong essay, shy, hesitant children [Rimm-Kaufman et al., 2002). Teacher sensitivity and emotional supportiveness played a greater role in predicting children's academic achievement gains in first grade (after taking into consideration children's earlier achievement) for children at risk for school failure than for of critical, those without these risk factors (Hamre Pianta, 2005). Similarly, a recent study on children from rural families found that high emotional support provided by teachers was associated with increased behavioral self-control and lower levels of aggression in first grade students. This study also found that attending an emotionally-supportive classroom was equally important for students regardless of whether they were from families living with poverty or not and whether they were from families headed by right philosophy essay a single parent or two parents (Merritt, Wanless, Rimm-Kaufman, Cameron, Peugh, 2012). In another study, poor teacher-student relationships correlated with a reading achievement gap between African-American and White students, all of whom initially demonstrated below average literacy skills.
Specifically, when Hughes and Kwok (2007) studied a group of low achieving readers, they found that first grade children who had poorer relationships with their teachers were less engaged in school and had lower academic achievement in second grade. Essay On 9-11 Attack! It is very important to note that Hughes and philosophy essay, Kwok found that African-American children had poorer relationships with their teachers than children of benefits of critical life, other ethnic backgrounds (i.e., Caucasian, Hispanic). This suggests how important it is for right and wrong philosophy, teachers to develop the on 9-11, best possible relationship with all students, regardless of essay, their ethnic background. Taken together, such findings suggest that high quality teacher-student relationships can partially compensate for disadvantages in other facets of students' social-emotional lives. Positive teacher-student relationships can offset some of the normal stressors that students experience as they grow and develop. The transition to middle school can be a stressful time for children; middle school students often show declines in motivation, self-esteem and academic performance (Feldlaufer et al., 1988). Students who perceive greater support from their teachers experience less depression and have more growth in self-esteem between the ucla essay mba, sixth and right philosophy essay, eighth grades (Reddy, Rhodes, Mulhall, 2003). Students who perceive their teachers as respectful, eager to support their autonomy, focused on setting realistic and individualized expectations for performance, and offering nurturing and constructive feedback are more motivated in school (Wentzel, 1997). More specifically, if a student believes my teacher trusts me or my teacher calls on me to give the ucla essay mba, answer, he or she is more likely to be interested in class, more likely to and wrong conform to the positive social norms of the classroom, and more eager to master the academic material being taught (Wentzel, 1997). Like other professionals in demanding roles, teachers may experience depleted energy and increased stress or burnout.
Physically and emotionally exhausted teachers struggle to sustain strong relationships with students (Jennings Greenberg, 2009). Teachers are developing people and their psychological health is crucial to uci dissertation group their success in the classroom, especially their ability to create high quality relationships with students (Rimm-Kaufman Hamre, 2010). Teachers need to take time to care for themselves and receive support from others to improve their capacity to work with students. During difficult times, an and wrong philosophy, important source of support for teachers is the adult community within the school (Bryk et al., 2010). Uci Dissertation Group! Increased collaboration and communication among teachers and other educational personnel can provide the social support needed to reduce feelings of right essay, stress and to renew teachers' energy. Teachers who feel positively about their own ability to cope with challenging situations and to form close relationships with others are more likely to essay provide higher quality environments that improve student outcomes (Brown, Jones, LaRusso, Aber, 2010).
There is a growing body of research showing how important it is for teachers to tend to their own psychological health and well-being. In this closing video, teachers and students describe qualities that make a great teacher. Several books designed for teachers may be useful in promoting teacher-student relationships. Most of these books address the philosophy, needs of children in early and middle childhood: Charney, R. (2002). Essay On 9-11! Teaching children to care: Classroom management for ethical and academic growth, K-8. Greenfield, MA: Northeast Foundation for Children.
Howes, C. Ritchie, S. Right And Wrong Essay! (2002). A matter of in everyday, trust: Connecting teachers and learners in the early childhood classroom. New York: Teachers College Press. Pianta, R. C. (1999). Enhancing relationships between children and teachers. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Several research briefs and blogs about teacher-student relationships and social emotional learning in right and wrong essay, pre-K, elementary and secondary grades:
Allen, K. P. (2010). Classroom management, bullying, and teacher practices. The Professional Educator , 34 (1), 1-15. Allen, J., Gregory, A., Mikami, A., Lun, J., Hamre, B., Pianta, R. (2013). Observations of effective teacher-student interactions in secondary classrooms: Predicting student achievement with the Classroom Assessment Scoring System — Secondary. Uci Dissertation Group! School Psychology Review, 42 (1), 76-98. Allensworth, E. M., Easton, J. Q. (2007). Right And Wrong! What matters for staying on-track and graduation in Chicago public high schools.
Consortium of Chicago School Research at the University of Chicago . Retrieved from benefits of critical, https://ccsr.uchicago.edu/sites/default/files/publications/07%20What%20Matters%20Final.pdf. Ang, R. Right And Wrong Philosophy! P. (2005). Development and validation of the teacher-student relationship inventory using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The Journal of Experimental Education, 71(1), 55-74. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory . Essay Attack! Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
Baker, J. A. Right! (2006). Contributions of thinking in everyday, teacher-child relationships to right and wrong positive school adjustment during elementary school. Journal of School Psychology, 44 , 211-229. Battistich, V., Schaps, E., Wilson, N. (2004). Effects of an elementary school intervention on in everyday life, students' connectedness to school and social adjustment during middle school. The Journal of Primary Prevention , 24(3), 243-262. Berry, D., O'Connor, E. (2009). Behavioral risk, teacher-child relationships, and social skill development across middle childhood: A child-by-environment analysis of change. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 31 (1), 1-14.
Birch, S. H., Ladd, G. W. (1997). The teacher-child relationship and early school adjustment. Right And Wrong Philosophy Essay! Journal of essay, School Psychology, 55 (1), 61-79. Birch, S. H., Ladd, G. W. (1998). Children's interpersonal behaviors and the teacher-child relationship. Developmental Psychology, 34(5), 934-946. Borman, G. Overman, L. (2004). Academic resilience in philosophy essay, mathematics among poor and minority students. Elementary School Journal, 104 (3), 177-195.
Bowlby, J. (1969). Attachment and loss: Volume 1. Attachment. New York: Basic Books. Brown, J. L., Jones, S., LaRusso, M. D., Aber, J. L. (2010). Improving classroom quality: Teacher influences and experimental impacts of the 4Rs program.
Journal of introduction to creative, Educational Psychology, 102 (1), 153-167. Bryk, A. S., Sebring, P. B., Allensworth, E., Luppescu, S., Easton, J. Q. (2010). Organizing schools for Improvement: Lessons from Chicago . Right And Wrong Essay! Chicago, IL: The University of chicago style, Chicago Press. Cassidy, J. Asher, S.R. (1992). Philosophy Essay! Loneliness and peer relations in young children. Child Development, 63, 350-365.
Conduct Problems Prevention Research Group. (2010). Page! Effects of a multiyear social-emotional learning program: The role of philosophy, student and school characteristics. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology , 78 (2), 156-168. Croninger, R. G., Lee, V. Benefits Thinking Life! E. (2001). And Wrong! Social capital and dropping out of high school: Benefits to at-risk students of ucla essay mba, teachers' support and and wrong essay, guidance. Teacher College Record, 103(4), 548-581. Curby, T. W., LoCasale-Crouch, J., Konold, T. R., Pianta, R. C., Howes, C., Burchinal, M., Bryant, D., . Chicago Style! Barbarin, O. (2009). The relations of observed pre-k classroom quality profiles to and wrong children's achievement and social competence. Early Education and Development, 20(2), 1556-6935. Curby, T. W., Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., Ponitz, C. C. (2009). Teacher-child interactions and children's achievement trajectories across kindergarten and first grade.
Journal of Educational Psychology, 101 (4), 912-925. Daniels, D. H., Perry, K. Uci Dissertation Group! E. (2003). Learner-centered according to children. Theory Into Practice, 42(2), 102-108. Deci, E. L., Ryan, R. M. (2002).
Overview of and wrong essay, self-determination theory: An organismic dialectical perspective. In E. Essay Attack! L. Deci R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 3-33). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press. Decker, D. M., Dona, D. P., Christenson, S. L. (2007). Behaviorally at-risk African American students: The importance of student-teacher relationships for student outcomes. Journal of School Psychology , 45 (1), 83-109. Donohue, K. M., Perry, K. E., Weinstein, R. S. (2003). Teachers' classroom practices and children's rejection by their peers.
Applied Developmental Psychology , 24, 91-118. Ewing, A. R., Taylor, A. R. (2009). The role of child gender and ethnicity in teacher-child relationship quality and right and wrong philosophy essay, children's behavioral adjustment in attack, preschool. Early Childhood Research Quarterly , 24 (1), 92-105. Feldlaufer, H., Midgley, C. Eccles, J. S. (1988). Student, teacher, and observer perceptions of the classroom environment before and after the transition to junior high school. Right Philosophy! Journal of Early Adolescence , 8(2), 133-156. Fraser, M. W., Galinsky, M. J., Smokowski, P. Group! R., Day, S. H., Terzian, M. A., Rose, R. A., Guo, S. (2005). Social information-processing skills training to promote social competence and prevent aggressive behavior in the third grade. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73 (6), 1045-1055. Gregory, A., Ripski, M. (2008).
Adolescent trust in teachers: Implications for behavior in the high school classroom. School Psychology Review, 37 (3), 337-353. Gregory, A., Weinstein, R. S. (2008). The discipline gap and African Americans: Defiance and cooperation in the high school classroom. Right Philosophy! The Journal of School Psychology , 46 (4), 455-475. Hamre, B. K., Pianta, R. C. Hygiene Application! (2001). Early teacher-child relationships and the trajectory of children's school outcomes through eighth grade. Child Development , 72, 625-638.
Hamre, B. K., Pianta, R. C. (2005). Can instructional and emotional support in essay, the first-grade classroom make a difference for children at cover page chicago, risk of school failure? Child Development , 76(5), 949-967. Hanish, L.D., Kochenderfer-Ladd, B., Fabes, R. A., Martin, C. L., Denning, D. And Wrong Essay! (2004). Bullying among young children: The influence of ucla essay mba, peers and teachers. In D. L. Espelage, S. M. Swearer. (Eds). Right Essay! Bullying in American schools: A social-ecological perspective on prevention and intervention (pp. 141-150). Mahwah, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Harrison, L. Of Critical Thinking Life! J., Clarke, L., Ungerer, J. A. (2007). Children's drawings provide a new perspective on teacher-child relationship quality and school adjustment. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 22 , 55-71. Harter, S. (2012). The construction of the self: Developmental and sociocultural foundations (2nd. Right! ed.). Chicago! New York: Guilford Press. Hartz, K., Williford, A. Right And Wrong! P. (in press). Differential susceptibility to sensitivity: Maternal and teacher influences on ucla essay mba, children's kindergarten behavior problems. Infant and Child Development . Hemmeter, M. L., Conroy, M. A. (2012). Right And Wrong Philosophy! Supporting social competence of young children with challenging behavior in the context of Teaching Pyramid model.
In R. C. Pianta, W. S. Barnett, L. Of Critical In Everyday! M., Justice, Sheridan, S. M. (Eds.), Handbook of early childhood education (pp. Right! 416-434). New York: Guilford Press. Henriccson, L., Rydell, A. Ucla Essay Mba! (2004). Right And Wrong! Elementary school children with behavior problems: Teacher-child relations and cover essay chicago, self-perception.
Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 50(2), 111-138. Howes, C., Phillipsen, L. C., Peisner-Feinberg, E. (2000). The consistency of philosophy essay, perceived teacher-child relationships between preschool and kindergarten. Journal of on 9-11 attack, School Psychology, 58 (2), 115-132. Hughes, J. Right Philosophy! N., Cavell, T. Hygiene! A., Wilson, V. Right And Wrong Philosophy Essay! (2001). Of Critical In Everyday Life! Further support for right philosophy, the developmental significance of the quality of the teacher-student relationship. Journal of School Psychology, 39 (4), 289-301. Hughes, J., Kwok, O. (2007). Introduction Cornell! Influence of student-teacher and parent-teacher relationships on lower achieving readers' engagement and achievement in right essay, the primary grades. Cover Page! Journal of Educational Psychology, 99(1), 39-51.
Jennings, P. A., Greenberg, M. T. (2009). Right And Wrong Philosophy! The prosocial classroom: Teacher social and emotional competence in relation to student and classroom outcomes. Review of introduction writing, Educational Research, 79 (1), 491-525. Jones, S. M., Bouffard, S. M., Weissbourd, R. (2013). And Wrong Philosophy Essay! Educators' social and emotional skills vita to learning. Benefits Of Critical Thinking Life! Phi Delta Kappan , 94 , 62-65.
Kesner, J. E. (2000). Teacher characteristics and the quality of child-teacher relationships. Journal of School Psychology, 28 (2), 135-149. Klem, A. M., Connell, J. And Wrong Philosophy! P. (2004). Relationships matter: Linking teacher support to student engagement and achievement. Journal of School Health , 74(7), 262-273. Lee, V., Smith, J. B. (1999). Social support and achievement for young adolescents in Chicago: The role of benefits in everyday life, school academic press. American Educational Research Journal, 36(4), 907-945. Liew, J., Chen, Q., Hughes, J. Right Philosophy Essay! N. (2010). Child effortful control, teacher-student relationships, and achievement in academically at-risk children: Additive and interactive effects.
Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 25, 51-64. Lisonbee, J., Mize, J., Payne, A. L., Granger, D. (2008). Children's cortisol and the quality of dental hygiene essay, teacher-child relationships in child care. Child Development , 79(6), 1818-1832. Manticopoulos, P. (2005). Right And Wrong Philosophy! Conflictual relationships between kindergarten children and their teachers: Associations with child and classroom context variables. Journal of uci dissertation, School Psychology, 43 , 425-442. McCombs, B. L. (1986). The role of the self-system in self-regulated learning.
Contemporary Educational Psychology, 11 , 314-332. McCombs, B. L. (2004). The learner-centered psychological principles: A framework for balancing a focus on academic achievement with a focus on right essay, social and emotional learning needs. In E. Zins, R. P. Hygiene! Weissberg, M. C. And Wrong Essay! Wang, H. Benefits Of Critical In Everyday! J. Walberg (Eds.), Building academic success on social emotional learning: What does the research say? (pp. 23-39).
New York: Teachers College Press. McCombs, B. L., Miller, L. (2006). The journey to learner-centered practices: A series for teachers and administrators. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. McCormick, M. P., O'Connor, E. Right And Wrong Philosophy Essay! E. (2014).
Teacher-child relationship quality and academic achievement in elementary school: Does gender matter? Journal of Educational Psychology . Advanced online publication. Meece, J. L., Herman, P., McCombs, B. L. (2003). Relations of learner-centered teaching practices to adolescents' achievement goals. International Journal of Educational Research, 39 (4-5), 457-475. Merritt, E. G., Wanless, S. B., Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., Cameron, C., Peugh, J. L. (2012).
The contribution of teachers' emotional support to children's social behaviors and self-regulatory skills in first grade. School Psychology Review, 41 (2), 141-159. Murray, C., Greenberg, M. T. (2001). Relationships with teachers and bonds with school: Social and emotional adjustment correlates for children with and without disabilities. Of Critical Thinking In Everyday Life! Psychology in the Schools , 38(1), 25-41. Murray. Essay! C., Malmgren, K. (2005).
Implementing a teacher-student relationship program in support group, a high-poverty urban school: Effects on social, emotional and academic adjustment and lessons learned. Journal of School Psychology, 43 (2), 137-152. Murray, C., Murray, K. Right Philosophy! M. (2004). Child level correlates of teacher-student relationships: An examination of demographic characteristics, academic orientations, and behavioral orientations. Psychology in the Schools , 41(7), 751-762. O'Connor, E. Support! E., Collins, B. A., Supplee, L. (2012). Behavior problems in right and wrong essay, late childhood: The roles of early maternal attachment and hygiene essay, teacher-child relationship trajectories.
Attachment Human Development, 14 (3), 265-288. O'Connor E., McCartney, K. Right And Wrong Philosophy! (2007). Examining teacher-child relationships and achievement as part of the ecological model of development. Chicago! American Educational Research Journal , 44 (2), 340-369. Pianta, R.C., La Paro, K., Hamre, B. (2006). CLASS: Classroom Assessment Scoring System Manual: K-3 Version.
Charlottesville, VA: The Center for Advanced Study of Teaching and Learning. Pianta, R. Philosophy Essay! C., Stuhlman, M. W. (2004). Teacher-child relationships and children's success in the first years of school. Uci Dissertation Support! School Psychology Review, 33(3), 444-458. Reddy, R., Rhodes, J. E., Mulhall, P. (2003). The influence of and wrong essay, teacher support on student adjustment in cover page essay, the middle school years: A latent growth curve study.
Development and Psychopathology, 15, 119-138. Reyes, M. R., Brackett, M. A., Rivers, S. E., Elbertson, N. A., Salovey, P. (2012). The interaction effects of program training, dosage, and philosophy essay, implementation quality on targeted student outcomes for THE RULER Approach to social and emotional learning. School Psychology Review , 41 (1), 82-99. Reyes, M. Hygiene Essay! R., Brackett, M. A., Rivers, S. E., White, M., Salovey, P. And Wrong Philosophy! (2012). Classroom emotional climate, student engagement, and academic achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology , 104 (3), 700-712. Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., Baroody, A. E., Larsen, R. A. A., Curby, T. W., Abry, T. (2014). To what extent do teacher-student interaction quality and ucla essay mba, student gender contribute to fifth graders' engagement in and wrong essay, mathematics learning? Journal of Educational Psychology . Essay Application! Advance online publication. Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., Chiu, Y. I. (2007).
Promoting social and academic competence in philosophy, the classroom: An intervention study examining the contribution of the Responsive Classroom Approach. Psychology in the Schools , 44(4), 397-413. Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., Curby, T. Page Essay Chicago Style! W., Grimm, K. J., Nathanson, L., Brock, L. L. (2009). The contribution of children's self-regulation and classroom quality to children's adaptive behaviors in the kindergarten classroom. Developmental Psychology, 45 (4), 958-972. Rimm-Kaufman, S. E., Early, D., Cox, M., Saluja, G., Pianta, R., Bradley, R. et al. (2002). Philosophy! Early behavioral attributes and teachers' sensitivity as predictors of competent behavior in writing, the kindergarten classroom. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 23 , 451-470.
Rimm-Kaufman, S. And Wrong! E. Hamre, B. (2010). The role of psychological and developmental science in efforts to improve teacher quality. Teacher College Record,112 (12), 2988-3023. Rudasill, K. M., Reio, T. G., Stipanovic, N., Taylor, J. E. (2010). A longitudinal study of student-teacher relationship quality, difficult temperament, and risky behavior from essay, childhood to early adolescence. Journal of School Psychology, 48 (5), 389-412. Rudasill, K. M., Rimm-Kaufman, S. And Wrong! E., Justice, L. M., Pence, K. (2006). To Creative! Temperament and philosophy, language skills as predictors of teacher-child relationship quality in preschool. Early Education and Development , 17(2), 271-291. Saft, E.W. Cover Essay Style! Pianta, R.C. (2001).Teachers' perceptions of their relationships with students: Effects of child, age, gender and ethnicity of teachers and children.
School Psychology Quarterly, 16, 125-141. Sheridan, S. Right And Wrong Philosophy! M., Knoche, L. L., Edwards, C. P., Bovaird, J. A., Kupzyk, K. A. (2010). Parent engagement and school readiness: Effects of the Getting Ready intervention of preschool children's social and emotional competencies. Early Education and Development, 21 (1), 125-156. Solomon, D., Battistich, V., Watson, M., Schaps, E., Lewis, C. (2000). A six district study of on 9-11 attack, educational change: Direct and and wrong philosophy essay, mediated effects of the Child Development Project. Social Psychology of Education , 4, 3-51. Spangler Avant, T., Gazelle, H., Faldowski, R. (2011). Classroom emotional climate as a moderator of attack, anxious solitary children's longitudinal risk for peer exclusion: A child x environment model. Developmental Psychology , 47 (6), 1711-1727.
Stuhlman, M. W., Pianta, R. C. (2009). Profiles of educational quality in first grade. The Elementary School Journal , 109 (4), 323-342. Valeski, T.N. Stipek, D.J. (2001). Young children's feelings about school.
Child Development , 72, 1198-1213. Weinberger, E., McCombs, B. L. Philosophy! (2003). Applying the LCPs to high school education. Page Chicago Style! Theory into Practice, 42(2), 117-126. Weinstein, R., Marshall, H. H. (1984). Right Essay! Ecology of students' achievement expectations. Final report to the National Institute of Education. Washington, DC: National Institute of Education. Wentzel, K. (1997). Student motivation in middle school: The role of perceived pedagogical caring. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 411-419.
Wentzel, K. (2010). Benefits Of Critical Thinking! Students' relationships with teachers. In J. L. Meece, J. S. Eccles (Eds.), Handbook of right and wrong philosophy, research on schools, schooling, and human development (pp. Essay Attack! 75-91). Right And Wrong Philosophy! New York: Routledge. Whitlock, J. L. (2006). Youth perceptions of life at school: Contextual correlates of school connectedness in essay on 9-11, adolescence. Applied Developmental Science , 10 (1), 13-29.
Williams, J. M. Bryan, J. (2013). Overcoming adversity: High achieving African American youth's perspectives on educational resilience. Right And Wrong Philosophy Essay! Journal of Counseling Development , 91 (3), 291-300. Willingham, D. T. (2011). Ask the cognitive scientist: Can teachers increase students' self-control? American Educator , 35 (2), 22-27. Zins, J. Cover Page Essay! E., Elias, M. J., Greenberg, M. T., Weissberg, R. P. (2000). Promoting social and emotional competence in children. In K. Right Essay! M. Minke G. Ucla Essay Mba! G. Bear (Eds.), Preventing school problems — promoting school success: Strategies and programs that work (pp.
71-99). Bethesda, MD: National Association of philosophy essay, School Psychologists. 750 First St. Ucla Essay Mba! NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242 | Contact Support. 750 First St. NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242 | Contact Support.
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Remove anything high school-related unless you’re a year out of college or need to bulk up your resume and right philosophy essay, did something highly relevant (and awesome) during your high school years. Add any new skills you’ve gained, and remove anything that is essay style, a little dated (nobody wants to hear that you have Microsoft Word experience anymore—they expect it). If you have lots of skills related to a position—say, foreign language, software, and leadership skills—try breaking out right one of support those sections and listing it on and wrong philosophy, its own (“Language Skills” or “Software Skills”). Make sure formatting is consistent across your resume. You want all headers to support group be in the same style, all indentations to right and wrong philosophy line up, all bullet points to dental essay application match, and the like. You don’t want the styling to look sloppy! Find any acronyms, and write out the full name of the right philosophy essay title, certification, or organization. You should include both, at least the first time, to make sure the recruiter knows what you’re talking about and so an applicant tracking system will pick it up no matter which format it is looking for.
For example: Certified Public Accountant (CPA). Unless you are a designer or are submitting a (carefully crafted) creative resume, remove any photos or visual elements. On a more traditional resume, they generally just distract from the information at hand (and can confuse applicant tracking systems). If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, swap out the usual start and end dates for each position with years only benefits of critical thinking life, (e.g., 2010-2012). Right And Wrong Philosophy. Swap out a couple of your boring verbs for some more powerful (and interesting) ones. Check out our list if you need inspiration. Swap out a couple of benefits of critical thinking life generic adjectives or titles (words like “detail-oriented” or “experienced” are overused and don’t tell a recruiter much) with stronger language that better describes your more unique strengths. 24. Right And Wrong. List Your Promotions Correctly. To Creative Writing. Worked multiple jobs within the philosophy essay same organization?
Learn how to list them right on your resume, then update it as such. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10 to hygiene essay application 15 years of your career history and and wrong philosophy essay, only include the dental hygiene essay application experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. So if you have anything really dated or random, remove it and use the space to bulk up other sections or add something more relevant. Go through line by line and take note of any orphan words (single words left on a line by and wrong philosophy essay themselves). See how you can edit the previous line so they can fit—making your resume look cleaner and opening up extra lines for you to do other things with. Introduction Writing. Make your document easier to skim by right essay adding divider lines between sections. Check out section three of essay on 9-11 this great guide for and wrong essay, instructions. Thinking In Everyday Life. Include any numbers on right and wrong, your resume?
Go through and change them all to numerical form, instead of written out (i.e., 30% instead of thirty percent). Of Critical Thinking. Even small numbers that are often spelled out should be written numerically—it makes them pop to the reviewer and saves space. Philosophy Essay. This will not only help you catch any spelling or grammar errors, but it will also help you notice any sentences that sound awkward or that are hard to understand. Look at your resume “above the fold.” In other words, take a close look at the top third of your resume—the part that will show up on the screen when the hiring manager clicks “open” on that PDF. That’s what’s going to on 9-11 attack make your first impression—so make sure it serves as a hook that makes the and wrong philosophy essay hiring manager eager to ucla essay mba read more. Right And Wrong Philosophy Essay. Make sure you have no more than six to seven bullet points for any given position. Ucla Essay Mba. If you do? Cut and condense.
No matter how long you’ve been in a job or how good your bullets are, the and wrong recruiter just isn’t going to get through them. Give your resume to someone who doesn’t know you well to cover style look at for 30 seconds. Then ask: What are the three most memorable things? What’s the and wrong essay narrative? Take this feedback and think about ucla essay mba, how you can adjust your resume to get it closer to where you want. Similarly, drop your resume into a word cloud generator and see which keywords are popping out. If the most prominent ones aren’t what you want to be remembered by, or if there are important words that aren’t present, think about how you can tweak your resume to make that more clear. Go through your bullet points, and add as many numbers and percentages as you can to philosophy quantify your work. How many people were impacted? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? (And, yes, it’s OK to estimate as long as you can roughly prove it.) Pick a few statements to take one step further, and add in what the ucla essay mba benefit was to your boss or your company. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what you’re capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you.
36. Consider Adding a Qualifications Section. Perhaps in lieu of your now-deleted “Career Objective?” This should be a six-sentence (or bullet pointed) section that concisely presents the creme of the right and wrong philosophy crop of support your achievements, major skills, and important experiences. By doing this, you’re both appeasing any applicant tracking systems with keywords and giving the hiring manager the juicy, important bits right at the top. 37. Update Your Header to Make it Pop. You don’t have to have a ton of right design knowledge to make a header that looks sleek and catches a recruiter’s eye. (Hint: Use this same header on your resume and cover letter to make your “personal brand” look really put together.) Need to fill up more space on your resume, or feel like you’re light on the experience? There’s no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if you’ve participated in ucla essay mba, a major volunteer role, worked part-time, freelanced, or blogged?
Add a couple of these things as their own “jobs” within your career chronology. If you need more space on your resume, check and see if any of your formatting decisions are taking up unnecessary space. Does your header take up too much at the top? Do you have any extra line breaks that you don’t really need? Tinker around with the formatting and see how much space you can open up (without your resume looking crowded or messy). 40. Right Philosophy. Make Your Bullet Points Make Sense. Look at each bullet point and make sure it’s understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executive—and you want to uci dissertation group be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them. Download this free resume template so you’ll look extra polished. Make sure all of the right and wrong philosophy experience on your resume is updated.
Add any awards you’ve received, new skills you’ve taken on, articles you’ve published, or anything else awesome you’ve done. Uci Dissertation Group. Hop over to your LinkedIn profile, and make any updates you’ve just made to your resume to your summary and essay, experience sections there. Email three of your friends or professional contacts asking (nicely!) for a peek at their resumes. You might be able to get some inspiration for your own (or even help them out). Find an awesome job to support apply to with one of our partner companies, then get started on your cover letter with our easy-to-follow guide. WANT YOUR RESUME TO HELP YOU GET A JOB?
Of course you do. Photo of person editing resume courtesy of Hero Images/Getty Images#46; Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out and wrong philosophy essay all the amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.
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Corporate Sustainability Strategies: A Siemens Case Study. An independent SIS Market Intelligence Report by Michael Stanat, Research Executive, SIS International Research. Siemens is one of the world’s most prominent companies and Europe’s largest technology conglomerate. With 430,000 employees, $77 billion in revenue and industrial manufacturing, the company naturally has a major impact on right and wrong philosophy essay greenhouse gases emissions emitting 4.53 million tons CO2e. Siemens has acknowledged the importance of climate change as one of the most important challenges facing humanity, alongside world poverty and access of on 9-11 attack all people to proper sanitation and energy. Philosophy! This perspective has helped the company’s manufactured products eliminate 15 times the company’s total emissions. Investing ˆ2 billion annually in research and benefits of critical thinking in everyday, development, Siemens has a hefty 30,000 environmental technology patents and offers efficient solutions that better combat climate change. The company’s goal is to become a leader in climate change reduction by improving the right performance of customers through efficient products. In fact, it has proclaimed to media that it has the most environmentally-friendly industrial technologies portfolio. Further, Siemens has publicly embraced the ucla essay mba need to address climate change and energy efficiency into its operations, communications, cross functional boards, product development and its membership at non-governmental organizations.
Beyond this, Siemens has set tangible targets for the future: its leadership expects by 2011 a 20% increase in energy efficiency and a 20% reduction of global carbon dioxide emissions. Right Philosophy Essay! Given the dental hygiene essay application company’s size, global research and industrial technology solutions, the company has a strong platform to impact climate change. Central Question of Inquiry. This inquiry seeks to answer a central question: How has Siemens implemented plans to manufacture green products and make its operations green? Indeed Siemens has a vertical organization comprised of many strategic business units with vastly different operations. This question delves into right and wrong how a very diverse conglomerate like Siemens has integrated climate change among its units. Benefits Of Critical Life! Exploring this question further can help to provide recommendations and understand existing challenges. Analysis on philosophy essay Siemens’ embracing climate change. Siemens’ overall stance and message on climate change is that climate change fits into a larger discourse on serious challenges facing humanity and the socially responsible corporation. Essentially, Siemens views its role as providing the technologies to better resolve those issues while creating shareholder value. Its management acknowledges the seriousness of climate change to human life, without neglecting the complexity of issues.
Another consideration is advancing a sustainability campaign mirroring that of its competitors, which have largely incorporated climate change into introduction writing their sustainability goals. For example, Phillips (EcoVision) was one of the right philosophy essay first competitors to launch major global PR efforts to demonstrate its green credentials to publics and customers. General Electric (GE) launched its salient “Ecomagination” campaign in 2005. ABB had a slogan “Power and productivity for a better world”. Addressing these issues after many of its competitors, Siemens joined these efforts with its own campaign and advanced a definition of environmental best practices in cover page essay style, industrial engineering along with the Boston Consulting Group. They arrived at the definition ““Environmentally intelligent products and solutions” that apply to “significantly superior environmental standards in right philosophy, comparison to the installed-base average”. This definition favored Siemens’ products, by showing Siemens as having the cover essay style largest volume of right philosophy green products. With Siemens’ definition, Siemens claims ˆ19 billion versus GE’s ˆ13 billion and dental application, Phillips’ ˆ6 billion. In addition, Siemens can claim that the share of green products among its manufacturing composes 25% compared to GE’s meager 14% and Phillip’s 23%.
Exploring Siemens’ Green Initiatives. Siemens, as a global conglomerate, has hundreds of global projects part of a large “eco portfolio”. This paper will only illuminate several most recent international projects, with the right purpose of showing how different business units are combating climate change in diverse ways. Indeed, Siemens is a global German company in industrial manufacturing requiring complex cross-border transactions with global clients. Thus, analyzing its operations in the United States is page essay within the international scope of essay this analysis. Uci Dissertation Support Group! Generally, the right and wrong philosophy company focuses on renewable power generation, efficient traditional power generation, efficient energy transmission systems, efficient heating and lighting, efficient transportation, and energy / greenhouse gas monitoring systems. Siemens Power Generation (SPG) is focused three key solutions. First, it embraces Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) in coal power generation longterm.
The approach is based on increased efficiency in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Plants (IGCC) pre-combustion carbon capture. Siemens’ management expects that this will be ready for wide scale commercial use by 2014. Secondly, Siemens is focused on Post-Combustion Carbon Capture by optimizing current solvents and processes, and cover page essay chicago style, incorporating the unit into the energy facility. For Siemens, the overall post-combustion capture system involves another stage to remove CO2 and right and wrong philosophy essay, is particularly used in retrofitted older power plants. Introduction! Also, Siemens is right philosophy a member of the CASTOR project under the European Commission, which is essay committed to lowering the cost of Post-Combustion Carbon Capture to 20-30 ˆ /t CO2. Thirdly, the company is focused on CO2 Compressors efficiency, particularly “gear type” compressors. And Wrong! Analytically, Siemens’ approach accepts that coal has enormous cost advantages that economically outweigh dramatic changes, but still seeks to responsibly capture and store carbon to fight climate change. Moreover, Siemens has developed and commercialized technology to provide efficient energy transmission. One of Siemens’ advanced transmission initiatives is High Voltage DC (HVDC) transmission links targeting the grid efficiency. For example, Siemens Energy won a 2008 contract to benefits of critical life, build a 3000-megawatt HVDC system between China’s Guizhou province to Guangdong.
The project, in right and wrong essay, conjunction with Chinese partners, consisted of developing a system that could transport energy by 800 kV transmission voltage. The benefits were reductions in Greenhouse Gases by more easily connecting remote power plants. This boosted the amount of benefits of critical in everyday life energy into the grid and right and wrong philosophy, simultaneously made energy transmission more efficient. Another similar Siemens HVDC project in China connected a hydroelectric dam from Yunan province to Guangzhou and Shenzhen. In China, the alternative would be coal power. Likewise, the benefits of efficiently connecting a renewable energy source to more remote areas without building polluting coal power plants were significant.
Furthermore, wind renewable energy is a major part of Siemens’ eco-portfolio. Siemens Energy builds wind turbines, claiming to have globally 1,800 megawatts of offshore wind capacity installed or on order as of page style late 2008. One major project off of Denmark’s seacoast was its 2008 Rodsand II wind farm contract with E.ON to right, manufacture 90 wind turbines. To be completed in 2010, the turbines will provide 207 megawatts. Another major project in Sweden is Siemens contract to essay, build Wind turbines for a vast wind farm by the Vattenfall company. The project will generate 170 megawatts. Right And Wrong Essay! Beyond turbine manufacturing, Siemens also ensures turbine efficiency through vast research and modeling worldwide. To these ends, Siemens operates wind turbine RD centers in Denmark, Germany, the ucla essay mba Netherlands and United Kingdom.
In Colorado recently, Siemens opened a US wind turbine research center in collaboration with the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC). The facility, focused on essay researching and developing better turbines, will distribute wind technology research to Siemens’ other centers worldwide. Additionally, Siemens Energy is working with Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory to cover page essay chicago, provide laboratory atmospheric modeling. This can help boost wind farm efficiency, which is plagued in some cases by 20% differentials from actual performance and initial forecasts. Analytically, this commitment is consistent with Siemens’ approach to providing effective products while furthering technology that fights climate change. Siemens has commercialized landfill renewable energy to convert methane greenhouse gas from rotting trash into energy for industrial purposes. Siemens views this renewable energy as both profitable and environmentally valuable. For example, the Three Rivers landfill in South Carolina partnered with Siemens building technologies to treat the gas for usage as fuel. Philosophy Essay! Siemens then worked with Kimberly Clark, which treats the gas and consumes it for introduction writing cornell, its own purposes. This process reduces fossil fuels by harnessing existing waste. As the process took place over a distance of several dozen miles, it also boosted transmission efficiency with Siemens advanced energy transmission technology.
At the right and wrong same time, it provided economic benefits to the purchaser Kimberly Clarke, who can purchase the energy from Siemens at essay, a much lower cost than from traditional electricity. The reduction from this Siemens project has removed the right philosophy essay greenhouse gas impact of 41,000 cars from the road, according to the EPA. Energy-saving retrofitted improvements by Siemens Building Technologies are another major part of Siemens eco-portfolio. Writing Cornell! An example of this was the Greensboro Coliseum in North Carolina, one of the largest coliseums on the US East Coast. Siemens was contracted to essay, retrofit energy-saving lighting systems, water saving systems and large modifications to the heating ventilation and benefits, air conditioning (HVAC) system. The renovation cut energy consumption by 25%. Water and natural gas usage fell 50%.
The coliseum saw lower maintenance costs, energy savings and increased comfort to tenants. And Wrong Essay! This Siemens project will have the effect of eliminating 530 cars’ carbon footprint. Efficient transportation is another facet of the eco-portfolio. Siemens’ hybrid drive sy. stems, sold to bus manufacturers globally, are comprised of an ELFA system which optimizes energy usage. The effect on these buses was comfortable performance using 40% less energy usage and carbon dioxide emissions. As they often run in urban areas, the buses can also boost urban air quality and reduce the impact of smog. As a result of the cover essay systems, the Clinton Climate Initiative inducted Siemens Energy and Automation Inc because of the wide scale implementation of over 1,000 hybrid-drive systems in cities worldwide.
Another part of Siemens’ plan to combat climate change is right and wrong philosophy essay membership in non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Uci Dissertation Support Group! Siemens’ recent contribution included working on the World Economic Forum’s working paper. Siemens is also a member of the top companies of the philosophy essay Carbon Disclosure Project’s Climate Leadership Index. Another key membership is The U.S. Climate Action Partnership (USCAP). Notably, Siemens worked with two-dozen corporations at essay on 9-11 attack, USCAP in developing a legislative consensus part of a “Blueprint for Legislative Action”. Right Philosophy Essay! This membership suggests that Siemens supports climate change legislation to cover essay style, 80% emissions reduction cuts in 2050 back to and wrong, 2005 levels, and a cap and trade emissions scheme.
GE, a direct competitor, is also a member showing that competitors view climate change seriously and conveying their own green credentials to dental essay application, publics. Additionally, Siemens has built a sustainability board of and wrong philosophy executives to convey messages to publics and uci dissertation support group, manage sustainability efforts throughout the organization. It appointed a Chief Sustainability officer Barbara Kux to implement sustainable measures throughout diverse businesses. While the right essay Sustainability board’s role is to introduction to creative writing cornell, coordinate sustainability efforts, little information is available about the board’s efforts. Siemens has acknowledged the philosophy essay impact of the Global Recession on its businesses performance. Siemens’ stock from April 2008-09 lost approximately half its value but remains stable as of late April 2009 around $65 per cover essay chicago, share. Yet the company predicts its “environmental portfolio” will account for nearly ˆ25 billion of global revenues by 2011, based on 10% annual anticipated growth. Analytically this target shows management’s high expectations for and wrong philosophy, Siemens’ green solutions. Essay Chicago! According to and wrong essay, PricewaterhouseCoopers, Siemens products’ impact by 2011 is essay projected to slash emissions by 275 million tons, equaling the total emissions generated by six of the world’s largest cities. If this happens, Siemens will gain another green credential to reduce some criticism levied against the company.
Fang Zhou extensively studied Siemens’ sustainability commitment. In a 2004 study focused on Siemens Australia, Fang found several challenging findings. Right And Wrong Philosophy Essay! Fang found that only 40% of business units participated in Siemens’ top improvement program, involving environmental and social sustainability. The reason was that employees considered it too general, unclear and wasteful of their time. Lacking were incentives, awareness, and performance benchmarks outside of strict emphases on financial performance. Put bluntly, Fang proclaimed, “The results indicated a significant gap between what is important for Siemens and ucla essay mba, how well Siemens is performing in terms of environmental and social sustainability.” Essentially, Siemens needs to right philosophy essay, better harness and ucla essay mba, optimize its human resources to achieve its goals.
Experts have taken issue of Siemens’ definition of and wrong philosophy being green, particularly because it was favorable to Siemens in showing publics a stronger commitment to essay on 9-11 attack, combating climate change. Specialist Gunter Schoech at GL Group raised his concern. Siemens offers combined gas and steam turbine. His point was how could it be considered green when this turbine system will still annually emit 2 million tons of and wrong essay carbon dioxide. His analysis was that it could be considered green only in the sense that it offers efficiency gains over essay application, the past generations. Siemens would have to claim explicitly that it is and wrong essay 2% more efficient than the last generation of turbines. Additionally, Schoech analyzed that Siemens’ sustainability board may face a dismal inefficacy that preceded many of Siemens’ cross-functional company wide boards. The source of their failure has been an inability for ucla essay mba, cross-functional implementation across units, which certainly vary across Siemens’ diverse specialties. He hypothesized that in philosophy, the past there were not sufficient incentives and essay, motivation to work together among units for sustainable solutions, similar to Fang’s aforementioned findings.
Other challenges exist for Siemens, particularly in comparison with its competitors. Siemens message of its stronger commitment to climate change may have less salience than GE’s robust marketing campaign “Ecomagination”. To this day, Siemens’ initiative does not have a salient slogan or messaging program to essay, convey to publics a commitment to climate change unlike GE and ABB. Instead, publics see climate change on the Siemens Youtube channel, a point of of critical thinking in everyday life contact with consumers and businesses, as only one of many other issues that Siemens is addressing. Siemens faced humiliating bribery scandals over the past decade, which threaten relations with governments and publics. First, the company participated in the Oil-for-Food program and was alleged to have paid surcharges to Saddam Hussein’s government. Secondly, Siemens was in the spotlight for ˆ1.3 billion in and wrong philosophy essay, corruption scandals in the past few years.
Thirdly, the company was forced to pay a fine of $300 million to a court in cover chicago style, Germany due to corruption abroad. Siemens also faces a lawsuit in Chattanooga for poor design of a sludge treatment plant. Other scandals involve funding AUB, a rival trade union, to disarm its primary rival trade union, IG Metall Union. On April 23 2009, the right philosophy essay Defense Department Criminal Investigative Services raided Siemens Medical Solutions’ offices in Pennsylvania following an awarded military imaging contract. Thus, Siemens needs to build trust not only for its climate initiatives but also for its ability to win government contracts. Publics are also not fully satisfied with Siemens’ commitment. While Siemens ranks highly in cover page chicago style, its policy stance, Climate Counts calls Siemens a “Striding” company that still has a lot of work to do outside of its strong 2007 gains.
In fact, Climate Counts gave Siemens unsatisfactorily half marks in transparency (6 out of 12 points), internal usage of energy (23 out of 56 points), and internal carbon auditing (14 out of 22 points). Furthermore, Greenpeace has questioned how forthright Siemens was in disclosing and eliminating harmful chemicals from and wrong essay, its operations and manufacturing. For example, Fujitsu-Siemens has not promised to on 9-11 attack, disclose chemical usage and has not committed to right essay, eliminate polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and brominated ?ame retardants (BFRs). Recommendations Evaluative Conclusions. Siemens is a paragon of cover page essay a company that sees environmentally-friendly products as a way to fight global warming while becoming more efficient in its own operations. Right! With fewer inputs to make more outputs, Siemens is providing shareholder value and environmental benefit. Cornell! Its strategy has not limited revenues or jeopardized its operational integration; on philosophy essay the contrary, it has grown them to the extent that Siemens’ management is proudly proclaiming that 25% of its eco-portfolio will come from environmentally-friendly products by 2011. With collaboration with governments and prominent NGOs, Siemens is quietly buil. ding goodwill for stakeholders concerned with climate change. The major issue lies with Siemens optimizing its commitment and implementing a unified effort across diverse business units.
Research showed that employees and managers are not fully aware of how to manage sustainability, particularly among different units. As a result, the efficacy of Siemens’ efforts may not be at their potential. Application! As suggested earlier, Siemens’ cross functional sustainability board may be ineffective because of the past failures in similar boards at philosophy, Siemens. There are several recommendations, according to Fang Zhou who extensively conducted fieldwork research on sustainability among Siemens employees. First, Siemens needs to develop both management’s awareness and skills to introduction to creative writing cornell, be socially responsible. Secondly, it needs to right and wrong, provide robust performance metrics that can be audited for essay attack, proper implementation. Thirdly, incentives need to be improved. Fourthly, communications need to better assert Siemens’ visions to stakeholders.
Lastly, sustainability needs to right and wrong philosophy, be integrated into strategic planning and global strategy to better balance performance, operational excellence and sustainability. Beyond these research-based suggestions, Siemens should consider aggressively developing industry’s most efficient products. Efficiency is a major paradigm in industrial products because of (1) climate change, (2) the global recession’s emphasis on efficiency and (3) rising energy costs. Companies with the most efficient products can develop competitive advantages. Such competitive advantages are crucial because competition among GE, ABB and Siemens is fierce. Additionally, publics are less aware of Siemens’ commitment to ucla essay mba, climate change, in comparison to GE’s initiatives. Siemens self-defined metrics show the and wrong essay company to be the best in its class with efficient products and having one of the largest annual investments in environmentally friendly products. But its communications message are not as salient as GE’s. This leads back to the issue of optimizing and enhancing the cover page chicago sustainability campaign’s implementation.
Furthermore, although Siemens is transparent about its activities, that has not prevented publics like Greenpeace from philosophy essay, questioning its disposal of dangerous chemicals. Cover Page Essay Chicago! As Siemens Power Generation embraces Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS), the company should consider clearly defending the merits and safety. This is right and wrong philosophy essay because anti-“clean coal” organizations are making claims in cover chicago, mainstream television and online media. Philosophy Essay! Simultaneously, Siemens should cultivate relations with governments as it faces very serious corruption allegations. Not doing so can jeopardize its aims in hygiene, combating climate change. With an optimized effort at implementing further efforts throughout different businesses, Siemens can optimize a currently robust climate change effort and simultaneously deliver superior value to customers and right and wrong, investors. Exhibit 1: Siemens Power Generation company witnesses major profits and growth in page essay, providing efficient energy transmission due to the ageing US power grid. The overall message to shareholders in right and wrong essay, this speech was that Siemens advanced technologies are not only contributing to profits, but also upgrading the grid to hygiene essay, fight inefficient energy transmission impacting climate change. The chart shows a red spike showing a ballooning need to replace ageing infrastructure, and Siemens can fulfill that need with efficient grid solutions. Highlighted summary of right and wrong philosophy data:
According to UBS and Siemens, the major needs for application, “replacement” of European ageing infrastructure in 2012, 2016, 2018, 2026 and right and wrong philosophy essay, 2030 The value of European replacements range from ˆ5 billion to on 9-11, ˆ26 billion per year. Source: Siemens Publications. Exhibit 2: Siemens Power Generation demonstrated to right and wrong philosophy, shareholders how it has maximized the division’s profits. Indeed this measure of success shows how incorporating environmentally friendly products in ucla essay mba, power generation can benefit the bottom line. Revenue growth rose by 15% CAGR in and wrong philosophy essay, 2008 Return on Capital Employed (ROCE) rose by a hefty 80% The division’s profit rose by 40% CAGR. Source: Siemens Publications. Exhibit 3: Financial Contribution of cover chicago style power generation to right and wrong, Siemens’ bottom line. Writing! The table shows how businesses targeting climate change are contributing some of the highest contributions to philosophy essay, Siemens’ bottom line. Highlighted summary of Siemens’ Green Businesses’ growth:
Renewable Energy – 38% adjusted growth in orders from 2008 – 2009 Drive Technologies – 16% adjusted growth in orders from essay on 9-11 attack, 2008 – 2009 Building Technologies (e.g. Right And Wrong Philosophy Essay! green retrofits) – 3% adjusted growth in orders from 2008 – 2009 Power Transmission – 1% adjusted growth in orders from 2008 – 2009 Power Distribution – 6% adjusted growth in orders from 2008 – 2009. “Barbara Kux appointed to Managing Board to head Supply Chain Management and serve as Chief Sustainability Officer.” Siemens AG. 25 Apr. 2009 http://w1.siemens.com/press/en/pressrelease/2008/corporate_communication/2008-q4/axx2008116.htm. “Clean Coal Air Freshener.” YouTube. 25 Apr. 2009 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W-_U1Z0vezw. “Clinton Climate Initiative Enlists Siemens to Help Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions with Hybrid Drive Systems for City Buses.” Siemens USA – Press.
25 Apr. 2009 http://press.siemens.us/index.php?s=43item=736. “Company Report: Siemens.” Global Investment Watch. 21 Mar. Cover Essay Chicago Style! 2009 http://globalinvestmentwatch.com/2008/08/14/company-report-siemens/. “Corporations, environmental groups agree on essay major climate initiatives.” RDS Business Suite.
21 March 2009. http://search.rdsinc.com/texis/rds/suite/+HdehFEkezxbtqAtndG. “Defense Department agents search Siemens offices | Philly | 04/23/2009.” Philly News. Essay Application! 25 Apr. 2009 http://www.philly.com/philly/business/20090423_Defense_Department_agents_search_Siemens_offices.html. “Don’t give up on and wrong essay climate change during recession, urges CBI – CBI News.” CBI on climate change. Climate change policy and lobbying for UK business. To Creative Cornell! 21 Mar. 2009 http://climatechange.cbi.org.uk/latest_news/00092/. “LLNL signs agreement with Siemens to improve wind energy efficiency.” EurekAlert! 25 Apr. 2009 http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2009-02/dlnl-lsa022409.php.
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Schoech, Gunter. “Why industrial conglomerate Siemens suddenly discovered it’s “green” mission.” March 2, 2009. GLG Group. 21 March 2009. http://www.glgroup.com/News/Why-industrial-conglomerate-Siemens-suddenly-discoverd-its–green–mission-34852.html “Siemens AG”. Google Finance. 25 April 2009. http://www.google.com/finance?q=NYSE%3ASI. “Siemens – Climate Action.” Climate Action. 21 Mar. 2009 http://www.climateactionprogramme.org/companies/article/siemens/. “Siemens, E.ON sign ˆ275M deal for offshore wind | Cleantech Group.” Cleantech Group. 23 Apr. 2009 http://cleantech.com/news/3664/siemens-eon-sign-%E2%82%AC275m-deal-offshore-wind.
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