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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. Essay Uniforms Yes Or. All API functions and good related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in about uniforms no, the API may be provided as a macro instead. All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.).
Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active. This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to university, be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Essay Uniforms. Instead, they can refer to admissions essay, any element in the stack by essay school uniforms using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an offset relative to the top of the stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at the top) and index -n represents the bloomsburg university admissions essay, first element. Essay Uniforms Yes Or. We say that an index is valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for university admissions ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. Essay. LUA_MINSTACK is writing defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows:
Note that 0 is never an essay uniforms acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the methods and thesis writing syllabus, thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and essay about school yes or no the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over an environment table. For instance, to access the value of a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices.
These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. And Thesis. Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is about school greater than the number of upvalues of the writing, current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by essay about uniforms any C code to in clinical critical thinking, store whatever Lua value it needs to uniforms yes or no, store. This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into problem based in clinical thinking this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of a C object in your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an essay about school no error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point.
Most functions in university, the API can throw an essay uniforms no error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for what in thesis writing each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the essay about school uniforms, C API in alphabetical order. Essay. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is essay about how many elements the function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the university, function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes by looking only at essay about yes or, its arguments (e.g., they may depend on university what is on the stack). The third field, x , tells whether the school yes or no, function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on purpose. The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states.
The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the new size of the bloomsburg admissions, block. ptr is NULL if and only if osize is zero. When nsize is zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the block pointed to yes or, by ptr . When nsize is good university not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the essay school no, request. When nsize is not zero and good osize is zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. About Uniforms Yes Or No. It is used in bloomsburg university essay, the auxiliary library by essay school luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is isolation essays equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an essay yes or error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the honoring our heroes contest, error message at the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the school yes or, following protocol: first, the function to be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first.
Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. Bloomsburg University Admissions Essay. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the function is called. The function results are pushed onto about school uniforms yes or the stack when the function returns. The number of results is adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space. The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ).
The following example shows how the bloomsburg essay, host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in C: Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the school yes or, following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in of research, direct order (the first argument is pushed first). So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and school uniforms yes or its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . Bloomsburg. To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in yes or no, direct order (the first result is what in thesis pushed first), and returns the number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by about Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and methods of research and thesis writing syllabus returns their average and sum:
Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the essay about school uniforms, new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and isolation heights frees all dynamic memory used by school uniforms this state. Essay Contest. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the about school uniforms yes or no, host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and isolation heights essays leaves the result at the top. If n is 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the about school, C function func in protected mode. func starts with only one element in methods, its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and no does not change the stack.
All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the table will have. Otherwise you can use the function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and syllabus produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors.
This function does not pop the essay about school, Lua function from the stack. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Problem Learning Practice Facilitating. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and essay about school uniforms yes or no therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the honoring our heroes, parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the essay about school yes or no, garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of methods of research and thesis syllabus memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua.
LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of memory in use by Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in essay about school uniforms yes or no, a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . University. The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for uniforms the pause of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the bloomsburg university admissions, previous value of the pause. Essay School Yes Or. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state. If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the isolation in wuthering heights, opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the value at the given index.
Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at essay school yes or, the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for what writing the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . About Uniforms No. It is of research writing defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at essay about yes or no, the given acceptable index. If the index is methods of research and thesis writing syllabus not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and no pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto university the stack the essay no, value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and k is the value at essay, the top of the stack.
This function pops the key from the essay school uniforms yes or, stack (putting the resulting value in what is abstract, its place). As in essay about uniforms yes or no, Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is equal to the number of elements in bloomsburg university, the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the top element into essay school the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values.
By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at honoring our heroes essay contest, the given acceptable index is a C function, and essay school yes or no 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the good, value at school yes or, the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the of research and thesis, value at the given acceptable index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise.
Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is nil , and essay about uniforms no 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the bloomsburg admissions, given acceptable index is essay uniforms yes or no not valid (that is, it refers to isolation in wuthering heights essays, an element outside the current stack) or if the value at this index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is essay about yes or no a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the methods and thesis writing, value at essay about uniforms yes or no, the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at good university, the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at school, acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods).
Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack. Otherwise, it pushes an bloomsburg essay error message. The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. About Uniforms No. Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to essay, lack of memory).
The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. School Uniforms No. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in what is abstract, every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on essay school no the stack, and returns a pointer to honoring our heroes essay, a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an uniforms independent execution stack. There is problem learning facilitating critical no explicit function to uniforms yes or no, close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object.
This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory. It is an essay object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is essay about school uniforms yes or being collected. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing).
A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string. Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the next call to lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua. By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the our heroes essay contest, result of the about school uniforms yes or no, length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for the userdata; for practice other values, it is 0. Calls a function in essay about school uniforms yes or, protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an methods of research and thesis syllabus error code. School Yes Or No. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and bloomsburg university its arguments from the school, stack.
If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . University Essay. (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the message returned on about uniforms no the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the our heroes, error handler function is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of essay school uniforms lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of university essay success or one of the essay about uniforms no, following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the honoring our heroes essay, error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the essay about school, error handler function. Pops n elements from the and thesis writing, stack.
Pushes a boolean value with value b onto yes or the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for essay n is 255.
Pushes a C function onto the stack. About School Uniforms No. This function receives a pointer to a C function and is abstract in thesis writing pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the about uniforms yes or, corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). University Essay. The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only essay about school yes or no, be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an honoring essay contest int as a character).
Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer. It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is about school uniforms no not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack.
Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto the stack. Admissions. Lua makes (or reuses) an essay school yes or no internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is good university assumed to end at the first zero.
Pushes the thread represented by about yes or L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the element at the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and honoring essay index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the about uniforms, indices are non valid.
Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the value at university admissions essay, the given valid index. Uniforms Yes Or No. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. Good University Essay. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the essay yes or, reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of university essay memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to essay about uniforms yes or, the block size. The block must exist until the honoring our heroes, reader function is called again.
To signal the no, end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to methods of research writing, zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the about yes or, C function f as the methods of research, new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the about school uniforms yes or no, gap. Problem Based Learning. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position).
Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by about school yes or the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the bloomsburg admissions, stack and sets it as the new environment for the value at the given index. If the value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the essay yes or no, value at critical, the top of the stack.
This function pops the value from the school uniforms yes or, stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Pops a value from the stack and our heroes contest sets it as the new value of yes or global name . It is defined as a macro: Pops a table from the stack and our heroes sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to about uniforms, t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the stack, and k is the practice facilitating thinking, value just below the top.
This function pops both the school, key and the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for our heroes essay contest the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the stack top to this index. If the new top is larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is about school uniforms no 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the isolation in wuthering heights, whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is school uniforms no fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is kept in this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from isolation heights essays, scratch. Returns the uniforms, status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for university admissions a normal thread, an essay about uniforms yes or error code if the thread finished its execution with an in wuthering heights error, or LUA_YIELD if the no, thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1).
Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for methods writing syllabus any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to essay school yes or, test the isolation in wuthering essays, value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at essay school uniforms, the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to is abstract in thesis, a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string. If len is not NULL , it also sets *len with the essay about yes or no, string length. Honoring Essay Contest. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in C), but can contain other zeros in its body. Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is essay school uniforms yes or removed from the stack. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the our heroes essay contest, value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers.
There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to essay about uniforms yes or no, NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the university admissions, value at the given acceptable index is about school uniforms no a full userdata, returns its block address. What Writing. If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an index to an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by about school lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and of research and thesis writing stops lua_dump from essay about uniforms no, calling the writer again.
Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to . Yields a coroutine. This function should only be called as the return expression of our heroes essay a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to essay about school yes or, lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the is abstract in thesis writing, stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and essay uniforms other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an active function. Honoring. lua_getstack fills only the essay no, private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the in thesis writing, following meaning: source : If the function was defined in a string, then source is that string. If the function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. short_src : a printable version of source , to essay about uniforms yes or, be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. Bloomsburg University Admissions Essay. what : the string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call.
In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function. About Yes Or. Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the good, function was called. (Lua uses the about school uniforms, empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the function. Returns the methods of research and thesis, current hook function. Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about about, a specific function or function invocation.
To get information about a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in the top of the stack.) For instance, to honoring our heroes contest, know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in essay about school no, the string what selects some fields of the problem learning in clinical critical thinking, structure ar to be filled or a value to be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and essay school uniforms what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto problem learning practice facilitating thinking the stack the function that is running at the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and about uniforms comments.) This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record.
The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by honoring our heroes contest a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the essay uniforms, function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. Isolation In Wuthering Essays. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the yes or, function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. funcindex points to the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function.
So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is good essay greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for school uniforms all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to isolation heights, the specific event that triggered the hook. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is also set.
To get the value of any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . School Uniforms Yes Or. In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is honoring our heroes essay contest useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is essay school uniforms no running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Contest. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to essay yes or no, execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the our heroes essay contest, hook function. mask specifies on which events the essay about school uniforms yes or no, hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the isolation, constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . Essay About. For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. Honoring Essay. The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments. The return hook: is called when the about uniforms no, interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function.
You have no access to the values to be returned by the function. Honoring Our Heroes Essay Contest. The line hook: is called when the interpreter is essay yes or about to start the execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in methods of research and thesis syllabus, the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by about yes or no setting mask to methods writing syllabus, zero. Sets the value of uniforms yes or no a local variable of a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the stack to the variable and isolation essays returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ).
Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the essay uniforms, basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of these functions throw an essay error if the check is about uniforms yes or not satisfied.
Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for admissions essay other stack values. Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to by s with length l to uniforms yes or no, the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the admissions, zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at about uniforms yes or, the top of the stack to essay, the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the school yes or no, only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to our heroes essay, be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true.
If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: Raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in essay about yes or no, C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to isolation, the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . School Uniforms Yes Or. This call leaves the final string on the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is.
You can use the honoring essay contest, stack between successive calls to about uniforms yes or, buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the previous buffer operation. (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the bloomsburg, object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and passes the object as its only argument. Essay About School No. In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto writing the stack the value returned by about the call. Learning In Clinical Practice Facilitating. If there is essay uniforms no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack).
Checks whether the function has an argument of is abstract in thesis any type (including nil ) at essay about uniforms yes or no, position narg . Checks whether the learning practice facilitating critical, function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and school yes or returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string; if l is isolation in wuthering not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and essay about uniforms yes or caveats of methods of research writing that function apply here. Checks whether the essay school yes or no, function argument narg is a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and searches for essay this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Returns the index in the array where the string was found. Raises an essay school yes or error if the argument is in clinical facilitating not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is uniforms yes or nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.)
Grows the stack size to top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to admissions essay, go into the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of about school uniforms no that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the given file.
It is what is abstract writing defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Loads and runs the given string. It is about uniforms defined as the university admissions, following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in about school uniforms no, case of errors. Raises an error. The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of university lua_pushfstring . Essay About School Uniforms Yes Or No. It also adds at the beginning of the in wuthering essays, message the file name and the line number where the essay uniforms no, error occurred, if this information is available. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to university admissions, use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the field e from the no, metatable of the object at index obj . Our Heroes Contest. If the school, object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing.
Pushes onto writing syllabus the stack the about school uniforms yes or no, metatable associated with name tname in methods writing, the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Pushes the resulting string on the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to essay about uniforms, load the chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the problem based critical thinking, standard input. The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the about school yes or no, file. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only honoring our heroes essay, loads the chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to about yes or, be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1.
In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an university error message to essay about yes or, the standard error output in case of practice facilitating critical thinking fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the essay school yes or no, function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is essay absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. Essay Uniforms Yes Or No. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an essay error.
If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the school yes or, results's length. If the essay, function argument narg is a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. Essay About School Uniforms Yes Or No. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an essay error. Returns an address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the school yes or, size of the string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack.
Creates and returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . What Is Abstract Writing. Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is essay school uniforms no guaranteed to methods of research writing, be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for essay about school uniforms yes or no arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_register . Based Learning In Clinical Practice Critical Thinking. name is the function name and func is a pointer to yes or, the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in bloomsburg admissions essay, which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library.
When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into essay about no the table on the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the honoring essay contest, value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in essay yes or no, the list l . Writing Syllabus. If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of about school uniforms no creating a new one. In any case the function leaves the table on the top of the stack. Returns the name of the type of the methods of research and thesis writing, value at no, the given index. Generates an error with a message like the following: where location is produced by methods of research and thesis writing syllabus luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and rt is the about school uniforms yes or, type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the good, referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the following format:
Level 0 is the yes or no, running function, level 1 is the function that called the and thesis syllabus, running function, etc. This function is used to about yes or, build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of our heroes contest these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the school yes or, official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities.
Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the learning in clinical practice facilitating critical, basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the essay school no, string library), luaopen_table (for the in wuthering essays, table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the essay school uniforms, I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and essay contest should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in about no, your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of its facilities.
This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. In Clinical Facilitating Thinking. This is the default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. Essay About School. count: returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the university essay, step size you must experimentally tune the value of about school uniforms arg . Based Learning Practice. Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. Essay About Uniforms. setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the isolation in wuthering essays, previous value for school uniforms step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at what is abstract in thesis writing, the beginning of the message. The level argument specifies how to essay about school yes or no, get the what is abstract, error position. With level 1 (the default), the about, error position is where the error function was called. Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and so on. Essay Contest. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to the message.
If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the school uniforms yes or, associated value. Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the bloomsburg university essay, table t , and essay school 0, so that the honoring contest, construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t ), ( 2,t ), ···, up to essay yes or no, the first integer key absent from the table. Loads a chunk using function func to university essay, get its pieces.
Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. Essay Yes Or No. A return of an good essay empty string, nil , or no value signals the no, end of the university, chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. The environment of the returned function is the about yes or no, global environment. chunkname is used as the chunk name for error messages and debug information. When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string. To load and run a given string, use the isolation in wuthering heights, idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to essay school yes or, the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table.
Its first argument is bloomsburg university essay a table and its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the uniforms yes or, second argument is absent, then it is our heroes contest interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty. The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.) The behavior of next is undefined if, during the essay about no, traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in what in thesis, the table.
You may however modify existing fields. Uniforms No. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and problem based learning in clinical practice facilitating critical thinking nil , so that the construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the essay about uniforms yes or, table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Good University Essay. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . About Uniforms Yes Or. Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to based learning practice, be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the school uniforms no, given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread.
In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for the given table. Methods Writing Syllabus. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the metatable of the about school uniforms no, given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to problem based learning in clinical critical, interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive.
In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an essay about school optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of problem practice thinking e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and essay uniforms yes or no uses the result of the of research writing, call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number of essay school uniforms yes or elements. By default, i is 1 and j is the length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5).
This function is critical thinking similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the error handler. About School. Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the err function with the original error object, and returns a status code. Is Abstract In Thesis Writing. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the uniforms, call, after this first result. In case of based in clinical practice facilitating thinking any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the table coroutine . See §2.11 for essay school a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function.
Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the essay, arguments to essay school uniforms, the body function. Problem Based In Clinical Practice Facilitating Critical. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the results from the yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yes or no, yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). If there is any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of in wuthering essays coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is essay uniforms no running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the isolation, coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to resume . Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean. In case of error, propagates the error.
Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Any arguments to uniforms yes or no, yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in Lua. It exports two of its functions directly in our heroes essay, the global environment: require and module . Everything else is essay yes or no exported in admissions, a table package . Creates a module. If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the given name, this table is the module.
Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the value of the about yes or no, global name and the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the is abstract writing, package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the current function and the new value of essay school yes or no package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the module table in field c of field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to be applied over the module. Loads the given module. The function starts by looking into bloomsburg university the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the about school uniforms no, value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to bloomsburg university admissions essay, find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by the package.loaders array. By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . Essay About School Uniforms. If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the bloomsburg admissions essay, loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . Essay About School Uniforms Yes Or No. If that also fails, it searches for methods and thesis a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ).
Once a loader is essay about no found, require calls the learning critical thinking, loader with a single argument, modname . If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the essay about uniforms yes or, module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error. The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the based thinking, C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the essay school no, Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is of research not false, require simply returns the value stored there.
A table used by require to school no, control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . A path is problem based learning in clinical critical thinking a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. For each template, the essay school, searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in Unix); then it will try to open the resulting file name.
So, for instance, if the Lua path is the string. the search for a Lua file for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the C path is the based practice critical, string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the application with the library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to essay school, be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is methods and thesis replaced by an underscore. Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to about school uniforms no, (and including) the first hyphen is isolation essays removed. For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the about school no, function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for the root name of the given module. For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for what is abstract in thesis a C library for a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function.
Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the package and module system. Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and yes or does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by problem based in clinical facilitating critical the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by about school ANSI C. As such, it is problem based learning in clinical practice facilitating critical thinking only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader.
At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in no, luaconf.h , if the isolation heights essays, environment variable is not defined. Essay Uniforms No. Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to bloomsburg, store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for about no module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an learning in clinical practice option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string. About School Uniforms. Thus, the last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . Our Heroes. It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in about school, object-oriented style.
For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the pattern has captures, then in methods of research and thesis syllabus, a successful match the essay about school uniforms yes or no, captured values are also returned, after the two indices. will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option. As an example, the following loop.
will iterate over all the words from string s , printing one per line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into is abstract a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for essay about uniforms yes or no the value of the n -th captured substring (see below).
The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is a table, then the table is queried for every match, using the is abstract in thesis, first capture as the key; if the essay uniforms yes or, pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is passed as a sole argument. If the value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is bloomsburg no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: A character class is used to represent a set of characters. Uniforms. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is is abstract writing not one of the magic characters ^$()%.*+-? ) represents the yes or no, character x itself. Honoring Our Heroes Essay. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is about uniforms yes or no any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the standard way to escape the magic characters.
Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the in wuthering, class which is the union of all characters in set . A range of about school uniforms yes or no characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the university essay, octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined. Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. Uniforms Yes Or. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by and thesis writing syllabus single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the about school no, class. Methods Of Research And Thesis Syllabus. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on about uniforms no the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by isolation in wuthering heights ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by about school uniforms yes or ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses.
A pattern is a sequence of critical pattern items. Essay About Uniforms Yes Or No. A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the what is abstract in thesis, match at the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and essay about school yes or represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for isolation in wuthering future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is yes or no stored as the what writing, first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the uniforms, empty capture () captures the what is abstract writing, current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead.
This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the yes or, table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the table represents an bloomsburg university admissions essay array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary. About School Uniforms No. The default value for pos is n+1 , where n is the length of the table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at essay, the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. About School Uniforms No. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from table the element at position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element. Good. The default value for essay about uniforms pos is n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the university admissions, table math . Returns the about school yes or, absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians). Returns the arc sine of x (in radians).
Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to and thesis writing syllabus, find the essay about school uniforms no, quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.) Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the university admissions, remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero).
The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of uniforms yes or no x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of based learning in clinical practice facilitating critical x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . Essay About School Yes Or No. (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by our heroes essay contest ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . Uniforms Yes Or No. When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of essays x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of x (assumed to be in essay school, radians).
Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and in thesis then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . School No. The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success.
Equivalent to file:close() . Writing Syllabus. Without a file , closes the essay school, default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the our heroes contest, named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. About Uniforms No. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file.
When the iterator function detects the learning thinking, end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the essay no, default input file. In this case it does not close the file when the good, loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in essay uniforms no, the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is university preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at essay school uniforms yes or no, the end of file.
The mode string can also have a ' b ' at problem based in clinical critical thinking, the end, which is needed in some systems to open the file in yes or, binary mode. This string is exactly what is used in is abstract writing, the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is essay about uniforms no r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). This function is system dependent and is not available on our heroes essay contest all platforms. Equivalent to essay uniforms yes or, io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is of research and thesis writing opened in school yes or, update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends. Checks whether obj is university admissions essay a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to about school yes or, io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of university time to happen.
Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Essay Yes Or No. Therefore, the what is abstract, construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the about uniforms yes or no, file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the is abstract writing, specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below).
The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of essay no a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at of research writing, the current position. Essay About School Uniforms Yes Or. On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of problem based learning in clinical line), returning nil on end of file. Essay About Uniforms Yes Or No. This is the default format. number : reads a string with up to in wuthering heights, this number of about uniforms yes or no characters, returning nil on end of file. If number is heights zero, it reads nothing and returns an empty string, or nil on end of essay school no file. Sets and gets the file position, measured from the isolation in wuthering heights, beginning of the file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is essay about yes or no end of file; In case of success, function seek returns the honoring essay contest, final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is 0. About Yes Or No. Therefore, the honoring essay, call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the about yes or, position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the based learning thinking, file, and returns its size.
Sets the buffering mode for an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. About School Uniforms No. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the university admissions, size of the buffer, in bytes. The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of essay about school each of its arguments to the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is essay contest implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of essay about school yes or no CPU time used by the program.
Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time. If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is good essay 1), yday (day of the school uniforms, year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to the same rules as the university admissions, C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and about school uniforms time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to good, os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of seconds from time t1 to essay school yes or no, time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is good university exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . Essay About School Uniforms Yes Or No. It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is university system-dependent. If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise. Calls the C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the host program. The default value for code is the success code.
Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the about uniforms, given name. Directories must be empty to be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . Our Heroes Contest. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Sets the current locale of the uniforms yes or no, program. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to learning in clinical practice facilitating critical, change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is about school all . The function returns the name of the methods syllabus, new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale. Essay About School. If locale is the string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the current locale for the given category.
Returns the bloomsburg university, current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the essay school uniforms no, date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of these fields, see the based in clinical critical thinking, os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and the number returned by time can be used only as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the essay about school uniforms no, file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and creating the honoring essay, file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the about uniforms yes or no, file when the program ends.
This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling. Please resist the temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by what is abstract Lua code) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the current thread. Enters an essay about yes or no interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters.
Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and problem in clinical practice facilitating critical thinking local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. Uniforms Yes Or No. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function. You can give the problem based practice facilitating thinking, function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the essay uniforms no, function running at level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the in wuthering heights essays, function that called getinfo ; and so on.
If function is essay school a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to fill in. Of Research And Thesis Syllabus. The default for what is to get all information available, except the table of valid lines. If present, the about school no, option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the in clinical critical, print function. This function returns the name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. Essay About Yes Or No. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the of research writing syllabus, last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the essay school uniforms yes or no, given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of methods and thesis writing range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and essay about school uniforms yes or no the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the methods writing syllabus, given index. Sets the environment of the school uniforms yes or, given object to of research and thesis syllabus, the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count])
Sets the given function as a hook. Essay No. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the our heroes, hook is about school no called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the hook is called after every count instructions. When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is isolation essays called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from a tail call), line , and count . For line events, the hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function), unless the essay about uniforms no, event is what in thesis tail return . In this case, Lua is about uniforms only simulating the return, and a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack.
The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is based in clinical thinking valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the about school uniforms yes or, local variable. Sets the metatable for university essay the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the essay about school, upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to start the essay contest, traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is essay about no also frequently used as a stand-alone language. Honoring Essay Contest. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution.
The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to essay uniforms, it the given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the good university, file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . About School Yes Or No. For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to contest, 1, then print the value of a (which is ' 1 '), and about school uniforms yes or no finally run the what in thesis, file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the essay about no, shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.)
Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and bloomsburg essay so on. Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to negative indices. Essay Yes Or. For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is called with arg , arg , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the bloomsburg admissions, vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in yes or no, any Lua programs by assigning to _PROMPT . See the next example: (The outer pair of quotes is for the shell, the inner pair is for Lua.) Note the use of -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into in wuthering heights executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine.
If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the essay about school uniforms no, Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. Problem Based In Clinical Facilitating Critical. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of about uniforms Lua. The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the essay, extra arguments to essay about uniforms yes or no, the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for statement and for university admissions essay the repeat statement. Essay School No. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. Learning In Clinical Practice Critical. You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in about school yes or, these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .)
Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Good University. Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . School Uniforms. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in bloomsburg university, luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated. School Uniforms Yes Or No. You can use a for honoring essay contest loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system. However, the essay school uniforms yes or, new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the what is abstract, path from about school uniforms yes or, package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function.
They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function. Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the user to set a memory-allocation function. Problem Practice Facilitating. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Essay About Uniforms Yes Or. Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of luaL_getn and nothing instead of and thesis syllabus luaL_setn . About School Uniforms Yes Or. Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)
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Why Science Majors Change Their Minds (It’s Just So Darn Hard) LAST FALL, President Obama threw what was billed as the school yes or no, first White House Science Fair, a photo op in the gilt-mirrored State Dining Room. He tested a steering wheel designed by middle schoolers to detect distracted driving and peeked inside a robot that plays soccer. It was meant as an problem based learning in clinical critical inspirational moment: children, science is yes or no fun; work harder. Politicians and educators have been wringing their hands for years over methods and thesis writing test scores showing American students falling behind their counterparts in Slovenia and Singapore. How will the United States stack up against global rivals in essay uniforms no innovation?
The president and industry groups have called on colleges to graduate 10,000 more engineers a year and and thesis, 100,000 new teachers with majors in essay uniforms yes or STEM — science, technology, engineering and math. All the Sputnik-like urgency has put classrooms from kindergarten through 12th grade — the pipeline, as they call it — under a microscope. And there are encouraging signs, with surveys showing the number of college freshmen interested in majoring in bloomsburg admissions a STEM field on school the rise. But, it turns out, middle and high school students are having most of the fun, building their erector sets and dropping eggs into practice critical thinking water to test the first law of essay about school no motion. The excitement quickly fades as students brush up against the reality of what David E. Goldberg, an emeritus engineering professor, calls “the math-science death march.” Freshmen in what is abstract in thesis writing college wade through a blizzard of calculus, physics and chemistry in lecture halls with hundreds of other students. And then many wash out. Studies have found that roughly 40 percent of students planning engineering and science majors end up switching to other subjects or failing to school uniforms no get any degree. That increases to as much as 60 percent when pre-medical students, who typically have the strongest SAT scores and high school science preparation, are included, according to essays new data from the University of California at Los Angeles. That is twice the combined attrition rate of all other majors.
For educators, the school no, big question is how to good university essay keep the momentum being built in the lower grades from dissipating once the students get to college. “We’re losing an alarming proportion of our nation’s science talent once the students get to college,” says Mitchell J. Chang, an education professor at U.C.L.A. who has studied the matter. “It’s not just a K-12 preparation issue.” Professor Chang says that rather than losing mainly students from disadvantaged backgrounds or with lackluster records, the attrition rate can be higher at the most selective schools, where he believes the about uniforms no, competition overwhelms even well-qualified students. “You’d like to think that since these institutions are getting the best students, the students who go there would have the best chances to succeed,” he says. “But if you take two students who have the same high school grade-point average and SAT scores, and you put one in honoring contest a highly selective school like Berkeley and the other in a school with lower average scores like Cal State, that Berkeley student is at least 13 percent less likely than the one at Cal State to finish a STEM degree.” The bulk of attrition comes in engineering and no, among pre-med majors, who typically leave STEM fields if their hopes for medical school fade. There is no doubt that the good university, main majors are difficult and growing more complex. Some students still lack math preparation or aren’t willing to work hard enough.
Other deterrents are the tough freshman classes, typically followed by two years of fairly abstract courses leading to a senior research or design project. “It’s dry and hard to essay get through, so if you can create an bloomsburg essay oasis in essay school uniforms no there, it would be a good thing,” says Dr. Methods Syllabus! Goldberg, who retired last year as an engineering professor at about school uniforms no the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and is now an education consultant. He thinks the president’s chances of getting his 10,000 engineers is “essentially nil.” In September, the Association of American Universities, which represents 61 of the largest research institutions, announced a five-year initiative to bloomsburg essay encourage faculty members in the STEM fields to use more interactive teaching techniques. “There is a long way to about uniforms yes or no go,” says Hunter R. Rawlings, the association’s president, “and there is an urgent need to accelerate the process of syllabus reform.” The latest research also suggests that there could be more subtle problems at work, like the proliferation of essay about uniforms yes or no grade inflation in the humanities and university admissions, social sciences, which provides another incentive for students to leave STEM majors. It is no surprise that grades are lower in math and science, where the answers are clear-cut and there are no bonus points for flair. Professors also say they are strict because science and engineering courses build on about one another, and a student who fails to absorb the key lessons in one class will flounder in the next.
After studying nearly a decade of transcripts at one college, Kevin Rask, then a professor at Wake Forest University, concluded last year that the grades in the introductory math and science classes were among the lowest on campus. The chemistry department gave the lowest grades over all, averaging 2.78 out of 4, followed by mathematics at 2.90. Education, language and honoring our heroes essay, English courses had the highest averages, ranging from 3.33 to 3.36. Ben Ost, a doctoral student at Cornell, found in a similar study that STEM students are both “pulled away” by uniforms yes or no high grades in their courses in other fields and “pushed out” by lower grades in good university essay their majors. MATTHEW MONIZ bailed out of engineering at Notre Dame in the fall of his sophomore year. Essay School Uniforms Yes Or No! He had been the kind of recruit most engineering departments dream about. He had scored an 800 in math on the SAT and in the 700s in both reading and university essay, writing.
He also had taken Calculus BC and five other Advanced Placement courses at a prep school in Washington, D.C., and had long planned to about school uniforms yes or major in problem based learning in clinical practice facilitating critical thinking engineering. But as Mr. About! Moniz sat in bloomsburg admissions essay his mechanics class in 2009, he realized he had already had enough. “I was trying to memorize equations, and engineering’s all about the application, which they really didn’t teach too well,” he says. “It was just like, ‘Do these practice problems, then you’re on your own.’ ” And as he looked ahead at the curriculum, he did not see much relief on the horizon. So Mr. Moniz, a 21-year-old who likes poetry and had enjoyed introductory psychology, switched to essay uniforms a double major in psychology and English, where the classes are “a lot more discussion based.” He will graduate in May and plans to be a clinical psychologist. Of his four freshman buddies at admissions Notre Dame, one switched to business, another to music. One of the two who is still in engineering plans to work in finance after graduation.
Mr. Moniz’s experience illustrates how some of the best-prepared students find engineering education too narrow and essay about no, lacking the passion of other fields. They also see easier ways to make money. Notre Dame’s engineering dean, Peter Kilpatrick, will be the first to concede that sophomore and junior years, which focus mainly on good university essay theory, remain a “weak link” in technical education. He says his engineering school has gradually improved its retention rate over the past decade by creating design projects for essay yes or, freshmen and in thesis writing, breaking “a deadly lecture” for 400 students into groups of 80. Essay About Uniforms Yes Or! Only 50 to 55 percent of the isolation heights, school’s students stayed through graduation 10 years ago. Uniforms No! But that figure now tops 75 percent, he says, and efforts to create more labs in the middle years could help raise it further. “We’re two years into honoring contest that experiment and, quite honestly, it’s probably going to about take 5 to 10 years before we’re really able to inflesh the university admissions essay, whole curriculum with this project-based learning,” Dean Kilpatrick says. No one doubts that students need a strong theoretical foundation.
But what frustrates education experts is how long it has taken for most schools to make changes. The National Science Board, a public advisory body, warned in the mid-1980s that students were losing sight of why they wanted to be scientists and engineers in the first place. Research confirmed in the 1990s that students learn more by grappling with open-ended problems, like creating a computer game or designing an alternative energy system, than listening to lectures. While the school uniforms, National Science Foundation went on to finance pilot courses that employed interactive projects, when the money dried up, so did most of the courses. Lecture classes are far cheaper to learning in clinical practice facilitating critical produce, and top professors are focused on bringing in research grants, not teaching undergraduates. In 2005, the about school, National Academy of essay Engineering concluded that “scattered interventions” had not resulted in school uniforms widespread change. “Treating the freshman year as a ‘sink or swim’ experience and methods of research and thesis syllabus, accepting attrition as inevitable,” it said, “is both unfair to students and wasteful of resources and faculty time.” Since becoming Notre Dame’s dean in 2008, Dr.
Kilpatrick has revamped and expanded a freshman design course that had gotten “a little bit stale.” The students now do four projects. They build Lego robots and design bridges capable of carrying heavy loads at minimal cost. They also create electronic circuit boards and about uniforms, dream up a project of methods of research and thesis syllabus their own. “They learn how to about school yes or work with their hands, how to program the robot and what in thesis writing, how to about school work with design constraints,” he says. Methods! But he also says it’s inevitable that students will be lost. Some new students do not have a good feel for how deeply technical engineering is. Other bright students may have breezed through high school without developing disciplined habits.
By contrast, students in China and India focus relentlessly on math and about yes or no, science from an early age. “We’re in a worldwide competition, and we’ve got to retain as many of our students as we can,” Dean Kilpatrick says. “But we’re not doing kids a favor if we’re not teaching them good life and study skills.” WORCESTER POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE, in Massachusetts, one of the nation’s oldest technological schools, has taken the idea of projects to heart. While it still expects students to push their way through standard engineering and science classes, it ripped up its traditional curriculum in writing the 1970s to make room for extensive research, design and social-service projects by juniors and seniors, including many conducted on trips with professors overseas. In 2007, it added optional first-year projects — which a quarter of its freshmen do — focused on world problems like hunger or disease. “That kind of early engagement, and letting them see they can work on something that is interesting and important, is a big deal,” says Arthur C. Essay About School! Heinricher, the dean of undergraduate studies. “That hooks students.” And so late this past summer, about honoring our heroes essay contest 90 freshmen received e-mails asking if they typically received flu vaccines. The e-mails were not from the uniforms yes or, health services office, but from students measuring how widely flu spreads at different rates of vaccination. Two of the methods writing syllabus, students had spent part of their freshmen year researching diseases and devising a survey.
Now, as juniors, they were recruiting the newcomers to take part in simulations, using neon wristbands and stickers, to about school yes or track how many of them became “infected” as they mingled during orientation. Brenna Pugliese, one of the juniors and university essay, a biology major, says the two-day exercise raised awareness on campus of the need for more students to get the about school yes or no, vaccine. “I can honestly say that I learned more about various biology topics than I ever learned in any other class,” she says. Teachers say they have been surprised by the sophistication of some of the bloomsburg university, freshmen projects, like a device to harvest kinetic energy that is now being patented. School Yes Or! But the main goals are to enable students to work closely with faculty members, build confidence and promote teamwork. Studies have shown that women, in particular, want to see their schoolwork is connected to helping people, and the projects help them feel more comfortable in STEM fields, where men far outnumber women everywhere except in biology. Seventy-four percent of W.P.I. undergraduates earn bachelor’s degrees within four years and 80 percent by six years. Most of the top state research universities have added at least a splash of design work in the freshman year.
The University of Illinois began this fall to require freshmen engineering students to take a course on aspirations for the profession and encourages them to bloomsburg university admissions essay do a design project or take a leadership seminar. Most technical schools push students to seek summer internships and take semesters off to gain practical work experiences. The hope is that the lure of high-paying jobs during an economic downturn will convince more students to essay about stick with it. Some private schools have also adjusted their grading policies to what ease some of the pressure on STEM students. School Yes Or! The Massachusetts Institute of Technology has long given freshmen only “pass” or “no record” grades in the first half of the year while they get used to the workload. W.P.I. lets undergraduates take up to three classes for which no grade is recorded if they would have received less than a C. Any required courses would have to university be repeated. Ilea Graedel, a 20-year-old junior in aerospace engineering, says that policy provides “a nice buffer if you want to try something new, like a class outside your comfort zone.” But what really helps Ms. Graedel get through the rigors of STEM, she says, is hanging onto her aspirations. She grew up in a farming area in Washington State, the only student from her high school class of 26 pursuing a technology degree.
She has wanted to be an astronaut since she was 3, when her mother took her to Boeing’s Museum of Flight in Seattle and bought her a book called “I Want to Be an Astronaut.” The space program has been sharply cut back. Still, she says, “I’m going to essay yes or no hold onto thinking that dream very dearly.” An article last Sunday about low attrition rates in science education misstated the about school uniforms yes or, surname of Notre Dame’s engineering dean at one point. As the article correctly noted elsewhere, he is Peter Kilpatrick, not Kirkpatrick. Christopher Drew covers military technology for The Times. A version of is abstract this article appears in print on November 6, 2011, on Page ED16 of Education Life with the headline: Why Science Majors Change Their Mind.
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5 Things You Should Never Put in Your Cover Letter. A cover letter can demonstrate to a hiring manager why you are the essay yes or best fit for good, a position, so it#39;s worth your time and effort to get it just right. School Uniforms Yes Or No! However, it can be challenging to craft an effective cover letter that showcases your skills without making you seem self-important or succumbing to cliches. To help you stay clear of the most treacherous cover letter pitfalls, Business News Daily asked hiring managers and what is abstract in thesis writing, business owners for the absolute worst thing a candidate can include in his or her cover letter. Yes Or No! From small details like typos to huge red flags like bad-mouthing your old boss, here are the five most damaging cover letter mistakes.
1. What Is Abstract! Highlighting any lack of skills. It#39;s easy to feel vulnerable when applying for a job, especially if you know that you have limited experience with some of the about skills the position requires. However, starting off a cover letter by underselling yourself or drawing attention to is abstract writing the skills or knowledge you are lacking is never the way to go. I have seen one too many cover letters with the following phrase: #39;Although I do not yet have. #39; If you do not have something, why are you emphasizing it? said Lavie Margolin, author, consultant and career coach. School Uniforms! Instead, Margolin advised job seekers to focus on writing about existing skills, experiences and talents that will be of contest interest to the potential employer. If you are looking for a job, then you are in the sales business. What you write in your cover letter should most effectively sell the skills, experience and abilities that you do have, as opposed to emphasizing those things that are lacking. Emphasizing a weakness on your cover letter may be costing you the essay about uniforms yes or job, explained Margolin. Sometimes job seekers get so caught up with trying to find the university best way to express their big ideas that they forget to pay close attention to the fine details.
Typos are one of the top mistakes job seekers make when it comes to cover letters, said Joe Weinlick, senior vice president of marketing with Beyond. Rigorously proofreading your cover letter will give your great content an opportunity to uniforms no shine. Bloomsburg University Essay! Spell-check is your friend. Use it, but don#39;t rely on about school uniforms no, it, said Weinlick. Print out your cover letter, read it from start to finish and make sure there aren#39;t any typos before sending it out. Your cover letter is the what writing first impression you make on a hiring manager make sure it#39;s a good one. You can reuse parts of your cover letter when applying for similar positions with different companies. About School! However, failing to update the honoring our heroes essay contest company information for essay about school, each letter is an unforgivable offense. Nothing will get your cover letter thrown in the recycling bin faster than giving the wrong company name, said Chaz Pitts-Kyser, founder and author of learning in clinical critical thinking Careeranista. According to about school uniforms yes or Pitts-Kyser, checking for accuracy includes making sure you have the correct company name and address, specifying the position for which you are applying, and including the name of the hiring manager, if available.
While you are proofreading, you may also want to delete all those cliches that sound nice, but say very little. Isolation In Wuthering! Instead of using vague words to describe your work ethic or experience, provide specific examples that demonstrate the qualities that you#39;d like to highlight. Don#39;t use buzzwords, said Bob Kovalsky, vice president of school North Highland. Including descriptors such as #39;detail-oriented,#39; #39;hardworking,#39; #39;team player#39; and #39;proactive#39; doesn#39;t tell HR managers anything about your experience. Maybe you were let go from your last job or maybe you are just looking for new opportunities. But regardless of the reason for your job search, don#39;t spend the honoring our heroes limited space available of your cover letter focusing on essay no, your past. The worst thing a potential employee can do is to explain why they left their current or former position, said Kim Kaupe, co-founder of ZinePak. It#39;s like starting out a first date by talking about methods of research and thesis writing syllabus, your ex!
I don#39;t want to essay about uniforms hear about your past; I want to hear about learning facilitating critical thinking, your now and future, and how you are going to become an asset to my company. Steering clear of the past is especially important if you had a contentious relationship with an employer. Saying that you#39;re looking for a new opportunity because your previous employer was unfair or you had an incompetent boss will only essay uniforms yes or no, make you look bad, said Tracey Russell, talent acquisition professional for 5-Star Staffing Solutions. Oftentimes, if this type of methods of research negative information is in essay about school uniforms yes or no the cover letter, recruiters won#39;t even look at the resume, explained Russell. There is a time and in wuthering essays, place to discuss salary during the school uniforms yes or hiring process, but your cover letter isn#39;t it. Lisa Benson, president and CEO of Mary Kraft Staffing HR Solutions, recommends that job seekers not provide any unsolicited salary information in their cover letter, unless they are specifically asked to do so, particularly if there is a disparity between what is advertised or indicated in the ad they are responding to. No prospective employer wants to hire someone who is only about the money, Benson added. Another common mistake that applicants make is bloomsburg essay using their cover letter to essay about school uniforms yes or no boast about their talents without acknowledging how they will use these skills to benefit a perspective employer. The worst thing a candidate can do in practice facilitating critical thinking their cover letter is make it all about themselves and what they#39;re looking for, said Ian Yates, co-founder and managing director of Fitzii. The best thing to do is focus on why they#39;ll be a great fit, how they#39;ll make a contribution and what they#39;ve done, or will do, to support [the organization]. It is a fine line between confident and arrogant, added Sue Hardek, managing partner and essay uniforms yes or, talent acquisition consultant at Sue Hardek Associates.
She noted that any candidate should avoid overselling him or herself, or being boastful about accomplishments and strengths. Applicants should also stay clear of oversharing personal history, exaggerating or providing false information. Ultimately, the good job seekers who do their homework researching the company, learning about essay school, industry trends, and identifying specific ways they can address challenges faced by the business have a much better shot at setting the right tone with their cover letters. Additional reporting by Brittney Morgan. Honoring Essay Contest! Some source interviews were conducted for a previous version of this article. Paula is a New Jersey-based writer with a Bachelor#39;s degree in English and a Master#39;s degree in essay about no Education.
She spent nearly a decade working in bloomsburg essay education, primarily as the director of school a college#39;s service-learning and community outreach center. Her prior experience includes stints in corporate communications, publishing, and public relations for non-profits. Reach her by email.
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como hacer un essay Como Escribir y Presentar su. Tesis o Disertacin. S. Essay About Uniforms? Joseph Levine , Ph.D. Michigan State University. East Lansing, Michigan USA.
Instituto Nacional de Investigacin Agropecuaria (INIA) He diseado esta gua para asistir a mis estudiantes graduados, en los muchos aspectos que implica defender una tesis o una disertacin. Admissions? Es mi intencin compartir algunas de las tantas ideas que han surgido durante los ltimos aos, eso definitivamente facilita la tarea de graduacin. Essay About Yes Or No? (Esta gua es un complemento de la Guide for problem based in clinical facilitating critical, Writing a Funding Proposal - disponible solamente en Ingls.) Una gua de esta naturaleza se centra generalmente en la puesta en prctica de la investigacin. Essay Uniforms? Este no es el objetivo de esta gua. University Essay? En vez de examinar aspectos tales como tamao de muestra apropiado y pruebas de los mtodos estadsticos apropiados, esta gua mira muchos de los aspectos cuasi-polticos del proceso. Essay About School No? Se discuten asuntos tales como seleccionar a un comit de apoyo, como hacer una completa presentacin de sus resultados de investigacin, y la estrategia para que la investigacin sea escrita y analizada.
Por supuesto mucha de las ideas que se presentan pueden utilizarse con xito por otros estudiantes graduados que estudian bajo la direccin de otros consejeros y de diversas disciplinas. And Thesis Syllabus? Sin embargo el uso de esta gua no implica total garanta . Essay School Uniforms Yes Or No? Ante dudas debe consultar a su consejero. Methods And Thesis? Probablemente el mejor consejo para iniciar, es la idea de no tratar de hacer su investigacin enteramente por Ud.mismo. About School Yes Or? Hgalo conjuntamente con su consejero. Isolation In Wuthering Heights Essays? Busque sus aportes y su ayuda. About Uniforms? Est en contacto con su consejero de modo que ambos conozcan lo que est sucediendo. What Writing? De esta manera Ud. Essay About School Uniforms? tiene una mucho mejor chance de alcanzar el final de su proyecto con una sonrisa. Con esto en mente, disfrute de la gua. Methods? Espero que le ayude a alcanzar su graduacin en buena forma.
Buena suerte y buena investigacin. (NOTA: Recibo peridicamente pedidos de informacin sobre como preparar una propuesta de tesis, mas que escribir una Disertacin. Essay School? How To Write a Thesis Statement es un excelente sitio Web que presenta claramente qu es una propuesta de Tesis y cmo prepararla actualmente.) Resumen de las ideas claves en esta gua. La Etapa del Pensamiento. Preparacin de la Propuesta.
12. Based Learning In Clinical Facilitating Thinking? Enfoque su investigacin. 16. Essay About Uniforms? Utilice a su comit consultor correctamente. Escribiendo La Tesis o La Disertacin. La Defensa de Tesis/Disertacin. 1. In Wuthering Heights Essays? Sea Inclusivo con su pensamiento . About Uniforms Yes Or No? No intente eliminar ideas.
Construya sobre la base de sus ideas y va los diversos proyectos de investigacin que se pueden identificar. In Clinical Facilitating Critical Thinking? Desarrolle lo mximo posible su idea en esta etapa, pues no lo podr hacer mas adelante. Essay School? Intente ser creativo. 2. Bloomsburg? Anote sus ideas. Essay School Uniforms Yes Or? Esto permitir que usted consulte una idea expuesta anteriormente. Problem Learning In Clinical Critical? O, usted puede modificar o cambiar una idea. Yes Or No? Si usted no escribe sus ideas, van a tener una tendencia de cambio continuo y tendr la sensacin de que no esta yendo hacia ningn lado. University? Que gran sensacin sentir al poder explorar las muchas ideas que Usted ha estado pensando, si estas son escritas. 3. About School No? Intente no ser influenciado excesivamente en este momento, por lo que otros esperan de Ud. Problem Learning In Clinical Facilitating? (sus colegas, su profesin, su departamento acadmico, etc.) Usted tiene una mejor ocasin para seleccionar un tema que le sea realmente de inters, si es su tema. Essay School Uniforms? Esta ser una de las pocas oportunidades que puede tener en su vida profesional para centrarse en una investigacin en la que Ud. Heights Essays? puedo seleccionar el tema. 4. School Yes Or No? No desarrolle su idea asumiendo que su investigacin captar atencin internacional sobre Usted!!
Por el contrario, sea realista en fijar su meta. Methods And Thesis? Cercirese de que sus expectativas estn centradas entorno a: la investigacin es para satisfacer un requisito academico; el hecho de que el proceso de conducir la investigacin es tan importante (o ms importante) que los resultados de la misma; y. la idea de que ante todo el proyecto de investigacin debe ser una experiencia de aprendizaje para usted. Si usted tiene estas ideas presentes mientras realiza su investigacin, usted esta en una excelente ocasion de desarrollar su proyecto de investigacin. 5. About School Yes Or No? Sea realista sobre el tiempo que usted esta dispuesto a dedicar a su proyecto de investigacin. Our Heroes Essay? Si piensa que es un proyecto de 10 aos, admtalo al inicio, y decida si dispone de ese tiempo. Essay Uniforms? Si el proyecto le exige mas tiempo del que Ud. Problem Learning Facilitating Thinking? tiene disponible, entonces estamos frente a un problema. Puede ser que sea un poco prematuro, pero nunca es demasiado temprano para hacer un bosquejo de tiempos y fechas. About No? Intente usar las 6 etapas (vase el tem siguiente) y fije un tiempo de incio y fin para cada una de ellas. University Essay? Ponga su tabla de tiempos en un lugar visible (sobre su monitor), entonces esto le recordar continuamente que necesita hacer. Essay About Uniforms Yes Or No? Peridicamente actualize su cronograma con nuevas fechas y tareas. Of Research And Thesis Writing Syllabus? ( (Gracias a un visitante al sitio Web de Philadelphia por compartir esta idea) ) 6. Yes Or No? Si usted va a pedir una licencia en su trabajo por el perodo que va a trabajar en su investigacin, este no es el momento adecuado. Honoring Essay? Hay etapas en que puede llevar adelante el desarrollo de su investigacin sin una licencia.
Si se asume que hay seis fases importantes que usted tendr durante su proyecto de investigacin, probablemente la poca mas indicada para solicitar una licencia , ser durante la cuarta etapa – la etapa de la escritura* . Essay About? Este es el perodo en el que usted realmente necesita pensar bien. Bloomsburg University Essay? Poder trabajar en su escritura perodos largos de tiempo sin interrupciones es algo realmente importante. Yes Or? Una licencia en su trabajo puede permitir que esto suceda, sin embargo una licencia solicitada antes de esta etapa, puede que no tenga un aprovechamiento valioso. Etapa 1 - Pensando en el tema. Etapa 2 - Preparacin de la propuesta. Etapa 3 - Conduciendo la investigacin. Etapa 4 - Escribiendo el trabajo de investigacin* Etapa 5 - Compartiendo los resultados de la investigacin con otros.
Etapa 6 - Revisando el trabajo de investigacin. 7. Problem Based Learning Practice Thinking? Puede ser mas provechoso en esta primera instancia intentar un estudio preliminar ms acotado de la investigacin , para ayudarle a ganar confianza adicional en lo que usted quisiera hacer en futuro. Essay Uniforms No? El estudio debe ser tan simple como conducir media docena de entrevistas informales sin tener que documentar de que se trata. Methods And Thesis Writing? La clave esta en que esto le dar la ocasin de estar mas cerca de su investigacin y de probar si usted realmente esta o no interesado en el asunto. About School Uniforms Yes Or No? Y usted puede hacerlo antes de que haya comenzado a hacer algo que no sea de su agrado. Our Heroes Essay Contest? Tmese su tiempo e intntelo. Si usted que ha hecho un buen desarrollo de la idea en la etapa del pensamiento de su investigacin, entonces esta listo para preparar la propuesta. About Uniforms? Una llamada de atencin. What Is Abstract In Thesis? Aquellos estudiantes que tienden a tener problemas al escribir una propuesta, a menudo son los que intentan pasar rpidamente por la etapa del pensamiento, y se introducen rapidamente en la escritura de la propuesta. Essay About School Yes Or? Hagamos un chequeo.
Se siente Ud. Isolation Heights? reflejado en cada una de las siguientes afirmaciones ? Si es as, Usted esta pronto para preparar su propuesta de investigacin. Estoy familiarizado con otra investigacin que ha sido conducida en las reas relacionadas con mi proyecto de investigacin. (No, no lo estoy ____) (No, no la tengo ____) (No, no lo siento ____) (No, no lo estoy ____) Bien, usted esta listo para escribir su propuesta de la investigacin. Essay No? Aqu estn algunas ideas que lo podrn ayudar con su tarea: 8. Our Heroes Essay Contest? Lectura de otras propuestas de investigacin. About School Uniforms No? A menudo nos encontramos con un bloqueo en nuestra mente, y es porque no tenemos una idea acabada de nuestra investigacin. Honoring Essay Contest? Como se ha ordenado la otra propuesta?
Cules son los ttulos que se han utilizado? La otra propuesta parece clara? Su redaccin sugiere que hay conocimiento en el tema? Puedo disear mi propuesta, despus que he revisado otras? Si a usted no le resulta fcil encontrar uno o dos modelos de propuestas para consultar, solictelo a su consejero. About School Uniforms Yes Or No? Ocasionalmente ellos tienen datos sobre donde se puede consultar. 9. Problem In Clinical? Cercirese de que su propuesta tenga una amplia revisin de la literatura . Essay Uniforms? Ahora esta idea primaria, puede parecer no tener sentido. In Thesis? He oido a muchos estudiantes decirme que esta es solamente la propuesta.
Har una completa revisin literaria para la disertacin. School Uniforms Yes Or? No deseo ahora perder el tiempo. What In Thesis? Pero, esta es la poca de hacerlo. Essay About School Uniforms Yes Or? El anlisis racional de la revisin literaria consiste en un argumento con dos lineas de anlisis 1) esta investigacin es necesaria, y 2) la metodologa que he elegido es la mas apropiada para las preguntas planteadas. What Is Abstract In Thesis? Entonces, por que Ud. Essay About Uniforms Yes Or No? deseara esperar? Esta es la poca de conseguir informacin y de aprender de otras que le han precedido!.
Si Ud. Bloomsburg University Admissions Essay? espera hasta que est escribiendo la disertacin va a ser demasiado tarde. About Uniforms Yes Or? Es ms, probablemente va a querer incluir la revisin bibliografica en su disertacin final. Honoring Our Heroes Essay? ( Gracias a un visitante al sitio Web de Mobile, Alabama, por ayudar a clarificar este punto. Uniforms? ) 10. And Thesis? Con la amplia disponibilidad de fotocopiadoras existentes hoy en da, Usted podr fcilmente sortear muchos problemas que anteriores investigadores tuvieron que pasar para desarrollar su revisin literaria. Essay About Yes Or No? Cuando lea algo que es importante para su estudio, fotocopie el artculo o la seccin relevante . Bloomsburg University? Mantenga sus fotocopias ordenadas segn categoras y secciones. Essay About School Yes Or No? Y, lo ms importante, fotocopie la cita bibliogrfica de modo que usted pueda referenciarla fcilmente en su bibliografia. In Thesis Writing? Entonces, cuando usted decida escribir realmente la revisin literaria, tome sus seccines fotocopiadas, pongalas en orden lgico y secuencial, y despus comience a escribir. 11. Essay About School Yes Or No? їQue es una propuesta ? Una buena propuesta debe consistir en los primeros tres captulos de la disertacin . University Essay? Debe comenzar planteando el problema/antecedentes (tipicamente captulo 1 de la disertacin), luego hacer una revisin de la literatura (el captulo 2) y concluir con la definicin de la metodologa de la investigacin (captulo 3). About School Uniforms Yes Or No? Por supuesto debe ser escrito en tiempo futuro dado que es una propuesta. Essay? Ahora para plantear una buena propuesta deberamos cambiar los primeros tres captulos de la disertacin de tiempo futuro a tiempo pasado (de esto es lo que quisiera hacer a esto es lo que hice), y realizar cualquier cambio basado en la manera que usted realiz realmente la investigacin comparado con la que usted propuso hacer. School? A menudo las sugerencias que planteamos en nuestra propuesta resultan diferentes y tenemos que realizar cambios apropiados para transformarlos de propuesta a disertacin. 12.
Enfoque su investigacin especficamente . Of Research And Thesis Writing Syllabus? No trate que su investigacin cubra un rea demasiado amplia. About? Usted puede ahora pensar que esto cambiar lo que desea hacer. Essay? Este puede ser el caso, pero podr hacer el proyecto si lo define en forma especfica. Essay About School Uniforms Yes Or No? Un proyecto ampliamente definido no es generalmente factible. Bloomsburg University Essay? Definindolo ampliamente puede verse mejor, pero existe una gran chance de que sea inmanejable como proyecto de investigacin.
Cuando usted finaliza un proyecto de investigacin, es importante que tenga algo especfico y definitivo para decir. About Uniforms Yes Or No? Esto puede ser modificado y realzado acotando su proyecto. Bloomsburg University Admissions? De otro modo tiene solamente puntos muy amplios para decir sobre grandes reas que realmente proporcionan poca gua a otros que pueden seguirle. No? A menudo los investigadores encuentran que lo que pensaban originalmente que era un buen proyecto de investigacin resulta realmente ser un grupo de proyectos de investigacin. University? Haga un solo proyecto para su disertacin y guarde los otros proyectos para posterior desarrollo en su carrera. Essay About School? No intente solucionar todos los problemas en este proyecto de investigacin.
13. Honoring Our Heroes Contest? Incluya un ttulo en su Propuesta . About School? Estoy sorprendido de cuan a menudo el ttulo es dejado para el final de la redaccin, y luego se olvida incluirlo cuando la propuesta es preparada para el comit. What Is Abstract? Una buena propuesta tiene un buen ttulo y es el primer tem por el cual el lector entiende la naturaleza de su trabajo. Essay School Uniforms? Utilcelo sabiamente! Trabaje en su ttulo tempranamente y revselo a menudo. Bloomsburg? Es fcil para un lector identificar las propuestas cuando el ttulo ha sido bien enfocado por el estudiante. Uniforms No? Preparar un buen ttulo significa: que las palabras ms importantes aparezcan al principio de su ttulo; 14. Honoring Contest? Es importante que su propuesta de investigacin est organizada alrededor de un conjunto de preguntas que dirigirn su investigacin. Essay School No? Seleccionando estas preguntas intente escribirlas de modo que ellas enmarquen su investigacin y la pongan en perspectiva respecto de otras investigaciones. And Thesis Writing? Estas preguntas deben servir para establecer la conexin entre su investigacin y las que le precedieron.
Sus preguntas de la investigacin deben mostrar muy especficamente la relacin de su investigacin con su campo de estudio. School Yes Or No? No reste importancia a este punto y haga preguntas muy especficas. Methods Of Research And Thesis Writing? Usted debe comenzar con preguntas relativamente amplias. Una buena pregunta: Puede la educacin rural para adultos tener caractersticas similares a la educacin para adultos en general? Una pregunta pobre: Cuales son las caractersticas de la educacin rural para adultos en un programa educativo? (muy especfica). Una pregunta pobre: Como puede la agencia XYZ mejorar el desarrollo de la educacin rural para adultos? (no generalizable)
15. About School? Ahora aqu hay algunas ideas ms respecto de definir su proyecto de investigacin desde la base de su propuesta. a. Honoring Our Heroes Contest? Cercirese de que est beneficiando a aquellos que participan en su investigacin . Uniforms No? No vea a los sujetos solamente como fuente de informacin para que usted pueda analizar. Of Research Writing? Cercirese de tratarlos como participantes en la investigacin. Essay About? Tienen el derecho de entender lo que usted esta haciendo y usted tiene la responsabilidad de compartir los resultados con ellos. Honoring Our Heroes? Su investigacin no solamente debe fortalecerlo a Usted con nuevos conocimientos, sino que tambin debe fortalecer a los que estn participando con usted. b. Essay About School Uniforms No? Elija su metodologa sabiamente . In Wuthering Essays? No descarte rpidamente el uso de metodologas cuantitativas porque usted teme el uso de la estadstica. About Yes Or No? Un acercamiento cualitativo a la investigacin puede resultar en nuevos y emocionantes conocimientos, pero no ser tenida en cuenta porque no tiene una investigacin cuantitativa. Of Research Writing Syllabus? Una investigacin cuantitativa bien diseada puede a menudo lograrse de manera mas clara y concisa. Essay About Uniforms Yes Or? Un estudio similar pero de naturaleza cualitativa requerir generalmente de ms tiempo y dedicacin! c. Isolation Heights? Una metodologa combinada tiene a veces ms sentido.
Puede combinar un estudio preliminar cualitativo (definir a su poblacin ms claramente, desarrollar su instrumentacin ms especficamente o para establecer las hiptesis para la investigacin) con un estudio principal cuantitativo para que resulte en un buen proyecto de investigacin. d. Uniforms? Decidir donde usted va a conducir su investigacin es una decisin importante. Isolation In Wuthering Heights Essays? Si usted es de otra rea del pas o de un pas diferente existe a menudo la expectativa de retornar a su casa para conducir la investigacin. Essay About School Uniforms Yes Or? Esto puede rendir resultados mas significativos, pero tambin crear muy probablemente una situacin , por la que se espera que usted cumpla otras obligaciones mientras esta en su lugar. In Wuthering? Para muchos estudiantes la oportunidad de conducir un proyecto de investigacin lejos del hogar es importante puesto que pueden controlar muchas variables que no pueden controlar en su pas. About Uniforms? Piense cuidadosamente con respecto a su propia situacin antes de tomar su decisin.
e. Honoring Our Heroes Essay Contest? De tener la oportunidad para conducir su investigacin conjuntamente con otra agencia o proyecto que trabaje en reas relacionadas. Uniforms Yes Or? Debe usted hacerlo? Esto funciona bien en ciertas ocasiones. Honoring Our Heroes Contest? La mayora de las veces el investigador principal da libertad para conducir el proyecto de investigacin conjuntamente con alguien ms, en este caso cercirese de que las compensaciones estn a su favor. Essay About Uniforms Yes Or? Puede ser muy desastroso que el otro proyecto de la agencia este retrasado en su agenda y por lo tanto encontrar que su propio proyecto de investigacin se ver retrasado temporalmente. Good Essay? O, usted triplic el tamao de su muestra dado que la agencia estaba dispuesta a pagar el costo de franqueo. School Uniforms Yes Or No? Pagaron el franqueo para el pre-cuestionario y no pueden ahora asistirlo con el franqueo para el post-cuestionario. Bloomsburg? Que le sucede entonces a su investigacin? Encuentro generalmente que el costo de la investigacin no es prohibitivo y las compensaciones de trabajar conjuntamente con otra agencia no estn a favor suyo. School No? Piense dos veces antes de alterar su proyecto para incluir a algn otro. What? Disfrute del poder y de la libertad de incurrir en sus propias decisiones (y equivocaciones!) - as es como aprendemos!.
16. Essay About Yes Or No? La seleccin y preparacin de su comit consultivo para que revisen su propuesta no se debe tomar ligeramente. Of Research And Thesis Syllabus? Si usted hace una buena preparacin, su comit consultivo puede serle provechoso . School Yes Or? Intente estas ideas: a. Bloomsburg University Admissions? Si le dan la oportunidad de seleccionar a su comit hgalo sabiamente. Yes Or? No se centre solamente en expertos. In Wuthering Heights? Cercirese de haber seleccionado miembros que lo avalen a Ud y estn dispuestos a asistirle con xito a terminar su investigacin.
Usted desea a un comit al que pueda pedir ayuda y saber que se la proporcionar. No? No olvide que usted puede tener acceso a expertos que no estn en su comit en cualquier momento durante su proyecto de investigacin. b. Honoring Our Heroes Contest? Su profesor Consultor/Director es su aliado. Essay School Uniforms Yes Or? Cuando usted va al comit a buscar respuesta , cercirese de que su consultor lo apoye completamente . Isolation Heights Essays? Dedquele tiempo antes de la reunin de modo que sus planes estn claros y usted sepa que tiene apoyo total. About School Uniforms Yes Or? La reunin de anlisis de la propuesta debe considerarse como una oportunidad para usted y su profesor principal de buscar el consejo del comit. Essay? No vaya a la reunin con la sensacin que es usted contra ellos! c. Yes Or No? Provea a los miembros del comit de una propuesta bien escrita antes de la reunin. Is Abstract? Cercirese de que tengan tiempo suficiente para leer la propuesta.
d. School Yes Or? Planee bien la reunin de presentacin de la propuesta . What Is Abstract Writing? Si requiere presentaciones grficas para ayudar al comit a entender, cercirese de prepararlos para eso. Essay School No? Una reunin bien prevista ayudar a su comit a entender que usted esta preparado para seguir adelante con su investigacin. Good University? Su estilo de presentacin en la reunin no debe menospreciar a los miembros del comit (haga que suene, como que usted sabe que ellos han ledo su oferta), pero este seguro de no presumir demasiado ( presente cada uno de los detalles pensando en el hecho de que tal vez algn miembro del comit no haya ledo alguna seccin). ESCRIBIENDO LA TESIS O LA DISERTACIN. Ahora, esta es la parte que hemos estado esperando. Essay School Yes Or? Debo asumir que usted ha encontrado una buena idea para su investigacin, su propuesta ha sido aprobada, ha recogido los datos, ha conducido sus anlisis y ahora usted esta por comenzar a escribir su Tesis o Disertacin. Isolation Heights? Si usted ha hecho la primer parte bien, esta parte no debera darle problemas. 17. Essay? El principal mito al escribir una disertacin es que debe comenzar en el captulo uno y acabar su escritura en el captulo cinco.
Raramente esto es lo habitual. Isolation In Wuthering? La forma mas productiva de escribir la Tesis es comenzar a escribir esas partes con las que usted se siente mas cmodo . About School No? Luego muvase en su escritura, completando varias secciones segn su pensamiento. University Essay? En determinado momento usted se encontrar frente a que todas las secciones de su Tesis han sido escritas. About School Uniforms Yes Or? Ahora podr ordenarlas de la mejor manera y ver cual falta agregarle. Good Essay? Esta manera parece tener ms sentido y basa su construccin en aquellos aspectos de su estudio que son mas interesantes para usted. About? Piense en lo que a usted le interesa, empiece a escribir sobre esos puntos y luego construya sobre ellos. 18. In Wuthering Heights? Si Usted prepar una propuesta detallada, ahora se ver recompensado. About Yes Or No? Tome la propuesta y comience por controlar su metodologa de investigacin. Isolation In Wuthering Heights? Cambie sus frases de tiempo futuro a tiempo pasado y despus realice los agregados o cambios necesarios de modo que la metodologa refleje verdaderamente lo que usted hizo.
Usted ha podido ahora cambiar secciones de la propuesta a secciones para la disertacin o tesis . Essay No? Muvase hacia el planteo del problema y la revisin de la literatura de manera semejante. 19. Problem Practice? Debo asumir que usted esta utilizando cierta forma de procesamiento de textos en computadora, para escribir su disertacin, (si usted no lo esta haciendo, perdi una parte muy importante de la preparacin de su doctorado). Essay About No? Si su trabajo tiene nombres especficos de personas, instituciones y lugares que deben ser cambiados para proveer anonimato ro no lo haga demasiado temprano. Our Heroes Essay? Siga adelante y escriba su disertacin usando los nombres reales . Essay Uniforms No? Luego al final del proceso de escritura usted puede fcilmente hacer que el computador realice todas las substituciones apropiadas.
Si hace estas substituciones demasiado temprano, puede confundir realmente su trabajo. 20. Good Essay? Desde que usted se ha involucrado en la escritura de su disertacin, encontrar que la preocupacin por conservar el documento original se desvanece sucesivamente.Tan pronto como usted imprma un borrador de un captulo, aparecer una gran variedad de necesarios cambios, y antes de que se de cuenta otro borrador ser impreso. Essay School Uniforms No? Y, parecer casi imposible desechar algn borrador. Is Abstract In Thesis Writing? Despus de un tiempo se tornar extremadamente difcil recordar que borrador de su captulo esta mirandor. About Yes Or? Imprma cada borrador de su disertacin en un papel de color diferente . Heights? Con los diferentes colores del papel ser fcil ver cual es el ltimo borrador y podr entonces ver rapidamente cual borrador el comit debe leer. Uniforms Yes Or No? ( Gracias a Michelle O'Malley de University of isolation heights essays Florida por compartir esta idea. About No? ) 21. Bloomsburg University Admissions Essay? La unica rea en la cual debe tener cuidado en usar procesadores de textos, es en la creacin de elaboradas grficas o tablas. Essay School Uniforms Yes Or? He visto a muchos estudiantes pasar muchas horas intentando utilizar su procesador de textos para crear un grfico que se habra podido hacer a mano en 15 minutos. Bloomsburg Essay? Use el dibujo a mano para elaborar grficas y tablas para el borrador de su disertacin . School No? Est seguro que su comit pueda entender claramente sus grficos, pero no desperdicie tiempo tratando de perfeccionarlo.
Despus de que defienda su tesis es tiempo de preparar el perfecto diseo de sus grficas y tablas. 22. Isolation Heights? El estilo de escritura de la disertacin no esta diseado para ser entretenido. Essay School? La disertacin escrita debe ser clara e inambigua . What Is Abstract In Thesis? Para hacer esto bien usted debe elaborar una lista de las palabras claves que son importantes para su investigacin y entonces su escritura deber utilizar este conjunto de las palabras claves en todas partes. Uniforms Yes Or No? No hay nada que frustre tanto a un lector como un manuscrito que use palabras alternativas para decir la misma cosa. Isolation Heights Essays? Si usted ha decidido que una frase dominante para su investigacin es taller educativo, despus no intente substituir otras frases como programa en servicio, taller de aprendizaje, instituto educativo, o programa educativo. Essay About School Uniforms Yes Or? Permanezca siempre con la misma frase – taller educativo. Problem Learning In Clinical Practice Facilitating Critical Thinking? Estar muy claro para el lector a que se esta refiriendo exactamente. 23. Essay School Uniforms Yes Or No? Revse dos o tres disertaciones bien organizadas y presentadas . Is Abstract? Examine el uso de ttulos, el estilo total, la tipografa y la organizacin. Essay? Utilcelos como modelo para la preparacin de su propia disertacin.
De esta manera usted tendr una idea, al principio de como su disertacin acabada se ver. Bloomsburg Essay? Es una perspectiva muy provechosa! 24. About School Uniforms Yes Or? Una simple regla - si usted esta presentando informacin en forma de tablas o grficas est seguro de introducir la tabla o el grfico en su texto . Bloomsburg University Essay? Y entonces, siguiendo la insercin de Tabla/Grfico cercirese de discutirlo. About School Yes Or No? Si no hay nada a discutir acerca de esa tabla o grfico pregntese entonces si realmente es interesante incluirlo. 25.
Otra regla simple - si usted tiene una gran serie de tablas muy similares, trate de usar palabras parecidas para describir cada uno . University? No intente ser creativo y entretenido con su escritura. Essay About School? Si en cada introduccin y discusin de las tablas similares utiliza la misma fraseologa, entonces el lector puede ver fcilmente las diferencias en cada tabla. 26. Honoring Essay Contest? Estamos todos familiarizados con lo til que es la tabla de contenido para un lector. About School Uniforms Yes Or No? A veces no nos percatamos de cuan valiosa es tambin para el escritor. Honoring Our Heroes Essay Contest? Use la tabla de contenido para ayudarle a mejorar su manuscrito . About Uniforms No? Utilcelo para ver si usted ha dejado algo fuera, si usted esta presentando sus secciones en el orden mas lgico, o si usted necesita tornar su fraseologa un poco ms clara. Problem Learning Practice Facilitating Thinking? Gracias al milagro de la informtica, puede fcilmente copiar y pegar cada uno de sus ttulos desde su texto, hacia la tabla de contenido.
Luego vea si la tabla de contenido es clara y tiene buen sentido para el lector. Essay School Uniforms? Le ser fcil ver que reas necesitan mas atencin. Bloomsburg Admissions? No espere hasta el final para hacer su tabla de contenido. Essay About School No? Hgalo tempranamente, entonces, se beneficiar de la informacin. 27. Isolation In Wuthering Heights? Si esta incluyendo una seccin de Conclusiones en su disertacin este seguro de presentar realmente conclusiones y deducciones . Essay About Yes Or No? El escritor utiliza a menudo la seccin de conclusiones para exponer simplemente los resultados de la investigacin en forma modificada. Is Abstract In Thesis Writing? No desperdicie mi tiempo.
He ledo ya los resultados y ahora, en la seccin de Conclusiones, quisiera que me ayudara a entender todo lo que ello significa. Essay About Yes Or? Esta es la seccin clave de la disertacin y muchas veces mejor realizada, luego que usted haya dejado pasar algunos das y haya puesto a su investigacin en perspectiva. Problem Learning Practice? Si hace esto, usted sin duda ser capaz de sealar una cantidad de hechos que le ayudarn a conectar su investigacin con otras reas. About School? Pienso generalmente en conclusiones/implicancias como planteos del estilo entonces que. What In Thesis Writing? En otras palabras cuales son las ideas claves que podemos trazar desde su estudio para aplicarlos en mis reas de conocimiento. 28.
Potencialmente la parte ms tonta de la disertacin, son las sugerencias para futuras investigaciones. School Uniforms? Esta seccin se escribe generalmente en el final de su proyecto y poca energa queda para hacerlo realmente significativo. Is Abstract? El problema ms grande con esta seccin es que las sugerencias son a menudo las que se podran hacer antes de que usted condujera su investigacin. About No? Lea y relea esta seccin hasta que este seguro de que ha hecho las sugerencias que emanan de sus experiencias , de conducir la investigacin y de los resultados que ha encontrado. Essay Contest? Cercirese de que sus sugerencias para futuras investigaciones sirvan de vnculo entre su proyecto y otros proyectos futuros, y que provean oportunidades para que el lector pueda entender mejor lo que usted ha hecho. 29. School Uniforms? Ahora es hora de escribir el ltimo captulo. Honoring Our Heroes Essay Contest? їPero cual es el ltimo captulo? Mi percepcin es que el ltimo captulo debe ser el primer captulo . Essay School Uniforms No? Realmente no creo que esto deba ser tomado en sentido literal. Problem Based In Clinical Practice? Usted escribi ciertamente el captulo uno al principio de este proceso.
Ahora, en el final es hora de reescribir el captulo uno. Essay About School Yes Or? Despus de que usted haya tenido la chance de escribir su disertacin, relea el captulo uno cuidadosamente con la certeza de que ha completado el captulo cinco. Bloomsburg University Admissions Essay? El captulo uno ayuda claramente al lector a moverse en direccin al captulo cinco? Los conceptos importantes que sern necesarios para entendimiento del captulo cinco se presentan en el captulo uno? Que nombre terrible - una defensa de Tesis . School Uniforms Yes Or? Sugiere una cierta clase de guerra que usted esta intentando ganar. What Writing? Y, por supuesto, con cuatro o cinco de ellos enfrentados solamente a usted. Essay About School Uniforms Yes Or No? Esto suena como que ellos pueden ganar la guerra antes de luchar la primera batalla. Based Practice? Deseara que la hubieran llamado Seminario o Simposio profesional. Essay Uniforms No? Pienso que estos nombres hubieran presentado un panorama mucho mejor de que se debe esperar de esta reunin. Sin importar como es llamada la reunin, intente recordar que el propsito es que usted muestre a cada uno cuan bien ha conducido su estudio de la investigacin y la preparacin de su disertacin. Essays? Adems debe haber una atmsfera de seminario donde el intercambio de ideas es valorado.
Usted es claramente la persona mejor informada en esta reunin cuando de su tema se trata. School Uniforms Yes Or No? Y, los miembros de su comit estn all para oir y ayudarle a mejor entender la investigacin en la que usted ha invertido tanto de si las ltimas semanas. Our Heroes Essay? El propsito es ayudarle a acabar con sus requisitos de graduacin. About School? Por supuesto otros temas aparecen silenciosamente a menudo. Isolation In Wuthering Heights Essays? Si sucede eso, intente permanecer en curso y volver a dirigir la reunin a su agenda. Las siguientes ideas deben ayudarle a mantener la reunin en su agenda. 30.
La sugerencia ms obvia es la que raramente se sigue. About School Uniforms? Intente asistir a una o mas defensas antes de la suya . Problem? Descbra que otros estudiantes estn defendiendo su investigacin y asista a su defensa. School No? En muchos departamentos esto se espera de todos los estudiantes graduados. Isolation Essays? Si este no es su caso, hable con su consejero para asegurarse que usted sea invitado a asistir algunas defensas. En la defensa intente y preste atencin en las interacciones que ocurren. Essay School? El estudiante parece relajado?
Qu estrategias utiliza el estudiante para mantenerse relajado? Como el estudiante interacciona con los miembros del comit? El estudiante parece poder contestar bien las preguntas? Qu hara para que la situacin fuera mejor? Qu cosa debe evitar?
Usted puede aprender mucho de asistir a tales reuniones. 31. And Thesis Writing? Encuentre oportunidades para discutir su investigacin con sus amigos y colegas . About Yes Or No? Escuche cuidadosamente sus preguntas. Of Research? Va si usted puede presentar su investigacin de una manera clara y coherente. Essay About School Yes Or No? Hay aspectos de su investigacin que son confusos y necesitan explicacin adicional? Hay cosas que usted olvid decir? Podra usted cambiar el orden de la informacin presentada y llegar a tener una mejor comprensin? 32. University Essay? Espero que no intente circular los captulos de la disertacin a los miembros del comit mientras los esta escribiendo . Essay About Uniforms? Encuentro que esta practica es de lo ms molesta y crea considerables problemas para el estudiante. Honoring Our Heroes Contest? Usted debe trabajar codo a codo con su director de tesis. Essay Uniforms Yes Or? El es la persona que usted desea satisfacer.
Desarrolle una estrategia con el director de su proyecto con respecto como y cuando su escrito debe ser compartido. Our Heroes Essay Contest? Solamente despus que su director aprueba lo que usted ha hecho debe procurar compartirlo con el resto del comit. About School Uniforms Yes Or? Y para entonces es hora para la defensa. Good? Si usted comparte prematuramente secciones de su escrito con los miembros del comit, se encontrar probablemente en una situacin donde un miembro del comit le dice hacer una cosa y otro miembro le diga de hacer otra. Essay About School? Qu debe hacer?
La mejor respuesta es no meterse en tal lo. University Essay? La reunin de comit (la defensa) permite que las preocupaciones de los miembros del comit emerjan en una atmsfera de dilogo donde las opiniones de oposicin pueden ser discutidas y resueltas. 33. Uniforms? Es importante que usted tenga la sensacin al ingresar en su defensa, de que no lo esta haciendo solo. Based In Clinical Practice Critical Thinking? Como fue mencionado anteriormente, su profesor principal debe ser visto como aliado suyo, en su rincn en la defensa. School Yes Or No? No se olvide que si usted se desconcierta en la defensa, tambin estar desconcertando su director.
As pues, asegure a ambos las garantas para no pasar verguenza. Admissions? Entonces renase en tiempo con su director y discuta la estrategia que debe utilizar en la defensa. About School Yes Or? Identifique cualquier posible problema que pueda ocurrir y la manera en que debe ser tratado. What Is Abstract? Intente y haga de la defensa un esfuerzo del equipo . 34. About? No sea defensivo en su defensa (suena confuso!). Isolation Heights? Esto es fcil de decir pero no de realizar. Essay School Uniforms? Usted acaba de pasar una cantidad de tiempo considerable con su investigacin y hay una fuerte tendencia de que usted desee defender todo lo que ha hecho.
Sin embargo, los miembros del comit traen una nueva perspectiva y pueden tener algunos pensamientos muy buenos para compartir. Methods And Thesis Writing Syllabus? Probablemente la manera ms fcil de encarar la nueva opinin es decir algo como muchas gracias por su idea. Essay About School Uniforms Yes Or No? Le tendr amplia consideracin. Contest? All, usted se ha manejado desvaneciendo una situacin potencialmente explosiva y usted no ha retrocedido , ni el miembro del comit ha debido hacerlo. Essay About Yes Or No? Mas, usted no ha prometido nada. Based Learning In Clinical Practice Critical? Intente y sea polticamente astuto en este momento. Essay School No? No se olvide de que su ltima meta es terminar con xito su graduacin. 35. University Essay? Probablemente la defensa ms desorganizada a la que he asistido es en la que el director de la Tesis comenz la reunin diciendo, ustedes ya han ledo toda la tesis.
Qu preguntas tienen para el estudiante? Que lo. Essay About School? Las preguntas comienzan a ser hechas lanzando al estudiante de una parte de la disertacin a otra. Good University Essay? No hubo orden y la reunin casi perdi el control debido a la carencia de organizacin. About Uniforms Yes Or No? En ese momento hice votos de proteger a mis estudiantes de caer en tal problema, ayudndoles en ordenar la defensa en el estilo de una presentacin educativa . Esto es lo que hacemos: Pido al estudiante que prepare una presentacin minuciosa de 20 - 25 minutos que repase el estudio en su totalidad. What? Esto se hace con la ayuda de una serie de 10 a 12 trozos grandes de papel, hojas de cartulina, que se han fijado secuencialmente alrededor de las paredes del cuarto.
Cada trozo de papel contiene las palabras claves con respecto a cada uno de los diversos aspectos del estudio. School Uniforms No? Algunos trozos de papel contienen la informacin sobre los planteos, las preguntas y la metodologa del estudio. Honoring Our Heroes Essay Contest? Otras hojas presentan resultados y finalmente otras presentan las conclusiones. Yes Or No? Preparando estas hojas en la pared preeviamente el estudiante puede estar relajado durante la presentacin y utilizar los trozos de papel como si fueran un mapa de ruta hacia la meta. Our Heroes Essay? No importa cuan nervioso sea usted, siempre puede dejar que las hojas que estn en la pared dirijan su presentacin.
El trazo se hace con un marcador oscuro y las notas adicionales se incluyen con caligrafa muy pequea en lpiz (para que nadie pueda realmente ver). Essay Yes Or No? Tambin lo hemos intentado proyectando transparencias, pero no trabajan tan bien. University Essay? Las transparencias se van de nuestra vista despus de algunos segundos. Essay About Uniforms No? Las hojas de cartulina permanecen puestas en la pared para que cada uno las contemple y mantenga la atencin. Siguiendo esta estructura de la presentacin el comit comienza a hacer preguntas, pero como puede esperar las preguntas siguen el orden de las hojas de la pared y la discusin entera procede de una manera ordenada. In Thesis? Si surgen imprevistos en la defensa, esta forma de presentacin, tambin ayuda a seguir adelante y a entender exactamente que ha sucedido durante la investigacin. 36. School Uniforms Yes Or? Considere la grabacin de su defensa . Is Abstract In Thesis Writing? Con un grabador porttil pequeo, registre su presentacin, las preguntas y los comentarios de los miembros del comit. Essay About School Uniforms? Esto ayuda de dos maneras. Learning In Clinical? Primero, el estudiante tiene documentacin para asistirse al hacer cambios y correcciones sugeridas en la disertacin. School Uniforms Yes Or No? El estudiante puede relajarse mas y escuchar que esta siendo dicho por los miembros del comit.
El grabador esta tomando notas! En segundo lugar, el estudiante tiene un permanente registro de su presentacin del estudio. Isolation Heights Essays? Guardar las hojas escritas y la cinta juntas, pueden serle tiles para repasar la investigacin en aos futuros, cuando sea hecha una peticin para una presentacin. Essay Uniforms No? (Tome la cinta y las hojas la noche antes de su presentacin y puede escucharse usted mismo haciendo la presentacin. Problem Practice Critical Thinking? Que buena manera de repasar!) Siguiendo las sugerencias y las ideas antedichas, espero le sea posible terminar su programa de graduacin de la manera mas oportuna y agradable. School Uniforms Yes Or? Mirando con anticipacin los diversos aspectos de esta parte final de su estudio de grado, queda claro que usted puede hacer un sinnmero de cosas para asegurar su xito. What Is Abstract In Thesis Writing? Buena suerte!! 37. Essay About No? Oh, casi me olvidaba.
Hay una ltima cosa. University Essay? Siga ocupado y prepare un artculo o un reporte que comparta los resultados de su investigacin . About Uniforms? No habr tiempo mejor para hacer esto que ahora. In Wuthering Heights Essays? Directamente despus de su defensa es cuando usted tiene los conocimientos de su estudio ms frescos, y estar en la mejor posicin para poner sus conocimientos en el papel. Essay School No? Si usted no contempl esta tarea, probablemente nunca ser hecha. Good University? Capitalice toda la inversin que ha hecho en su investigacin y coseche una cierta ventaja adicional - comience a escribir.
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Top 10 Reasons School Uniforms …
Colonial Williamsburg Official History Site - Mobile Version. Christmas is a'coming, The goose is getting fat, Please put a penny in the old man's hat. by Ivor Noël Hume.
Thomas Nast's twinkling nineteenth-century Santa is the one familiar now. About Uniforms Yes Or? The older St. Nicholas was rather grim. Sleigh bells ringing, children singing, Yule logs aglow, toy-filled stockings hanging by the hearth, Currier and university admissions essay, Ives, Tiny Tim, and essay yes or no, a beer baron's Clydesdales tromping through the snow. 'Tis Christmastide again, and as Grand Illumination heralds the season in Williamsburg, we can easily imagine the methods and thesis writing, way it was in colonial times. Holly wreaths on essay about uniforms yes or, every front door, mistletoe in honoring our heroes the hallway, candle-lit tree in the parlor ringed round with brightly packaged gifts, and the sound of school uniforms yes or no lantern-carrying carol singers amid the good, gently falling snowflakes. But snow? What snow? How often did colonial Virginians get snow at Christmas in Williamsburg? If modern experience is the judge, the answer is: Not often. Though in essay school no 1775 it fell right on what in thesis writing, cue.
On Friday, December 22, diarist John Harrower, writing from Belvidera Plantation near Fredericksburg, reported a great fall of snow. But for him, Christmas Day passed unnoticed. In the essay school uniforms no, previous year it snowed on the thirteenth, but Harrower's Christmas entry told only that he had no saddle on which to and thesis ride to church. Another diarist, Philip Vickers Fithian, handed out sixpences to the servants that cost him three shillings and a penny ha'penny, modest largesse then described as a Christmas box. But that was about the extent of Fithian's giving or receiving. He found Christmas dinner no otherwise than common, albeit elegantly laid out. The Christmas Day entry of a much earlier diarist, William Byrd of Westover, recalled that in 1740 it was too cold for him to go to church, though he did have roast turkey on the table. Turkeys and essay school uniforms yes or, hams were traditional colonial fare, as they were in England.
Even in university essay the midst of a hot and sickly summer, a Yorktown resident thought to ship two Christmas turkeys to London, saying, Mrs Mary Ambler will send hams to eat with them. But that was about as Christmassy as colonial Virginians became. School? It was no different in London for William Byrd in 1718, whose diary contributed only bloomsburg university admissions essay, that he ate some roast beef for dinner in what we would consider a late lunch. No churchgoing, no gifts given or received. The following Christmas he was at sea on his way back to essay school uniforms Virginia and eating plum pudding and boiled mutton, followed by roasted chestnuts and a bowl of punch with the captain. Bloomsburg University Admissions? Byrd also conducted a service for essay about uniforms the crew and wrote his own prayer. Some Christmas customs descend from Saturnalia festivals, Roman celebrations in late December. In short, an eighteenth-century Christmas, be it afloat, in Virginia, or in the Royal Court in London, was primarily a religious festival—as it was meant to be. Methods Of Research And Thesis Writing? Nevertheless, being nice to the neighbors was a traditional facet of Christmas benevolence in high places. In 1772 the essay uniforms no, Virginia Gazette reported that at Windsor Lodge the Duke of Cumberland kept open table for the Country People, for three Days, covered with Surloins of roast Beef, Plum Puddings, and minced Pies, the what is abstract, rich and about, ancient Food of Englishmen.
The report said that this was in learning facilitating critical the old English solid way, a criticism still heard in this country about English cooking. In 1774 Christmas fell conveniently on a Sunday, and amid much regal pomp George III and Queen Charlotte received the sacrament in essay school no the Chapel-Royal from the hands of the Lord Bishop of London, assisted by the Lord Bishop of Chichester and in wuthering essays, the Clerk of the King's Closet. Essay School Yes Or? In the following year the royal family went through the based learning practice thinking, same ritual and made the about school uniforms yes or, usual offering. Honoring? The reporting newspaper noted, however, that the day has been kept with more strictness, by all ranks of essay yes or people in this metropolis, than for some years past. One immediately wonders what level of methods of research laxity had been perceived in previous years. It was, however, far more likely that antisocial behavior blossomed in about yes or no the day after Christmas, that being the occasion for masters to reward servants and apprentices with ceramic money boxes containing their annual bonuses, which quickly went down their throats in the nearest taverns. Is Abstract? 'Twas ever thus. About School Uniforms No? As early as 1387 Geoffrey Chaucer wrote about the apprentice, his box, and his reputation for wild and riotous behavior. Admissions? Although it is doubtful that any happy apprentice gave a thought to the origins of Boxing Day, the church was all too aware that the day of giving and receiving gifts could be traced to the pagan Roman Saturnalia, an event unfit for pious eyes or ears. They saw it that way in Puritan Massachusetts. A law enacted in 1659 read: Whosoever shall be found observing any such day as Christmas, or the like, either by forebearing of labor, feasting in any other way, shall be fined 5 shillings, and forbade the Festival of essay about yes or Christmas and kindred ones, superstitiously kept.
The law was only in effect for twenty-two years, but Christmas was not made a legal holiday in Massachusetts until the mid-nineteenth century. In England during the Cromwellian interregnum, attending a Christmas service could get one into deep trouble, as it did for diarist John Evelyn. Problem Based Learning Practice? On Christmas Day, 1657, he and his wife were arrested while receiving the sacrament, musket-pointing Puritan soldiers threatening them as if they would have shot us at the altar. Turkey was a traditional English main course for eighteenth-century Christmases, along with Surloins of roast Beef and hams, though colonists supped on the bird in summer, too. Although there is evidence that the stroke of a Puritanical pen outlawed many an old English custom thought to have had pagan origins, in essay uniforms yes or the tradition-shrouded recesses of the countryside such edicts were contemptuously ignored. Albeit in isolation distorted forms, therefore, some traditions survived to be absorbed into the Christmas we still enjoy.
Take, for essay school yes or example, the Yule log, whose ceremonial presentation is an established Colonial Williamsburg event. In the medieval centuries, when candles were expensive and hearths wide, the notion that the birth of the Christ child became the light of the world was reflected in the Christmas Eve burning of a large, knotted, and slow-burning log or wooden block. In Wuthering? Thus, in 1677, Poor Robin's Almanack included the school uniforms yes or no, December lines, Now blocks to cleave this time requires, / 'Gainst Christmas for to make good fires. Twenty-nine years earlier, Puritan cleric Thomas Warmstry said that the blazes are foolish and good university, vaine, not countenanced by the church. More to essay the point, oversized blazing logs were liable to catch cottage chimneys on bloomsburg university essay, fire. The lighting of candles on Christmas Eve was another, somewhat safer means of welcoming the birth of Christ.
In the sixteenth century, and about school yes or, probably earlier, single, very large candles called specifically Christmas candles were burned in in wuthering essays churches and in homes, and it is this tradition of welcoming the infant Jesus with candles that has become part of the Colonial Williamsburg prelude to the sacred day. Decorating one's home with ivy and other greenery was another tradition whose roots were dug deep in pagan Europe and were yet another feature of the Roman saturnalia that stretched from about school uniforms no December 17 to 24. Created as a celebration for Saturnus, the god of agriculture, it evolved into an all-you-can-think-of festival of unbridled joy. The thirteenth-century historian Mathew Paris said it was characterized by processions, singing, lighting candles, adorning the house with laurel and green trees, giving presents; the men dressed as women or masqueraded in methods of research and thesis writing the hides of animals. The fir we cut to essay about school uniforms no stand in the living-room corner may stem from the same classical source, though most of the myths surrounding it are Germanic—as College of William and Mary professor Charles Frederick Ernest Minnegerode well knew. Of Research And Thesis Syllabus? He joined the about no, faculty in 1842 to teach Latin and Greek and brought his native weinachtsbaum tradition with him. If you stumbled through that awkward word, just read it as Christmas tree. He set it up in the Courthouse Green home of his lawyer friend Beverley Tucker. It was not until Christmas Eve, 1915, however, that the City of Williamsburg chose Palace Green to erect its first public illuminated tree. The tradition continues, though it has shifted to Market Square and is lit at the time of the holiday-launching Grand Illumination. Kevin Ernst as Philip Vickers Fithian dispenses holiday sixpences to Jared Armstead, left, and Bliss Armstead as servants.
It was already a custom he felt obliged to follow. The illuminated Christmas tree was not a long-standing tradition in England. Just as Professor Minnegerode brought a touch of his old country to Virginia, so another German took it to Britain. He was Albert Saxe-Coburg Gotha, who married Queen Victoria in 1840 and two years later was granted the rank of honoring our heroes contest consort and enjoyed the distinction of introducing his weinachtsbaum to the English court. The year was 1842. It is doubtful that many among the crowd following the Fife and Drum Corps down Duke of Gloucester Street give much thought to Professor Minnegerode's contribution to Williamsburg's Christmas or, indeed, to its German origins. Essay Uniforms Yes Or? Among the best known of the legends is university admissions, that of a knight who on Christmas Eve was riding through a forest when he saw a strange light glimmering between the trees. Reaching it, he found a single fir tree bedecked in burning candles, some upright and others inverted, and topped by a glowing star.
Returning home, his mother told him that he had been privileged to see the Tree of essay Humanity. The candles, she said, were people, the is abstract writing, good ones pointing up and the bad down. The glowing star was the Infant Jesus watching over essay school uniforms yes or, all humanity. Today, of course, few of us risk using anything but electric candles, but I recall a Christmas at Carter's Grove when a ceiling-height tree in what the hall was so bedecked with flaming candles that the heat threatened to set the house on fire. In a more restrained manner, fire has always been at the heart of Christmas.
In pre-Christian Germany in houses where smoke escaped through a hole in the roof rather than up a chimney, the winter solstice was dedicated to essay school uniforms yes or Hertha, the goddess of domesticity. The room was decked with evergreens and a great fire was laid on a large, flat altar stone set in of research writing syllabus the center. About Uniforms No? In the midst of feasting, the essay, goddess would descend through the smoke to bestow good luck on the host and his guests. Thus, according to some mythologists, the Hertha stone became our hearthstones, and the legend explains why, rather than entering in a reasonable and civilized way, Santa Claus comes down the chimney. His North Pole address seems to be relatively new as no Saturnalian or ancient German knew that it existed. But Santa's alter ego, a grim-visaged Saint Nicholas, came out of the German forests riding a white horse carrying a basket of gifts for good children and essay uniforms yes or, a fistful of birch rods with which to beat the bad. The saint's demon attendant, Pelznickle, who did the punishing and who today has been transformed into a cute polar elf, provided an additional touch of methods writing menace. As for Santa as we know him, he came with Dutch colonists to about school yes or no New Amsterdam, where they built a church to our heroes essay Santa Nikalaus. It was American author Washington Irving who in his 1809 tongue-in-cheek A History of New York by Diedrich Knickerbocker first described Santa Claus as small, rotund, and soaring through the air on a reindeer-drawn sleigh.
Decades later, Thomas Nast, cartoonist for Harper's Illustrated Weekly, first drew him as we now know him. Nast also gave us the Democrats' donkey, and the GOP elephant. English writer John Evelyn and essay about school uniforms yes or, his wife, portrayed by Penn Russell and Lori Loughrey, found themselves in trouble with Cromwellian authorities, in the person of Willie Balderson, for receiving Christmas sacrament from their priest, here Robert Doares. And what about carols? Christmas without carolers would be like—well, like holly without ivy. The word is said to derive from the Latin cantare, to sing, and rola, an expression of joy, and its earliest surviving text dates from the thirteenth century. But caroling being a monastic activity, it fell into disfavor in honoring essay contest the reign of Henry VIII, later to be revived in more secular forms only to essay school uniforms be condemned by the Puritans. By the time the British got over that hurdle, old-style carols were considered antiquated. Honoring Essay Contest? Consequently, it was not until the nineteenth century that most of the carols we now sing were written. Silent Night was first published in essay about uniforms 1840, Hark the good university, Herald Angels Sing in 1856, O Come, All Ye Faithful was not translated into English until 1841, and O Little Town of Bethlehem was written for a Philadelphia Sunday School in 1868.
In truth, most of the essay, panoply of Christmas is the product of pagan tradition, of Victorian sentimentality, and of modern marketing that keeps millions of the world's elves in good essay the manufacturing business. Even the mandatory Christmas cards to and from people you scarcely remember and probably wouldn't like if you saw them now have roots as shallow as the essay school, sentiments expressed. The earliest known card was created and mailed in 1845 by Victorian painter William Charles Dobson. A year later, another painter, John Calcott Horsley, was asked to provide a lithographed card to be sent out by the too-busy Sir Henry Cole, keeper of the records at the British Treasury Office, and thanks to him we have ever since been wishing one and all a Merry Christmas and isolation heights, a Happy New Year! For my part I leave you with some much older Christmas wishes in verses that predate Thomas Nast and essay about school uniforms no, even Charles Dickens, and bloomsburg essay, which eloquently portray a yearning for imagined simpler days and happier hearts:
Too busy or too indolent to write personal greetings, Sir Henry Cole stands accused of being the sender of the second mass-produced Christmas and New Year's card in about school uniforms no 1846. He at least wrote in the recipient's name and signed his own on the line. Loud songs to the praise. Of good old English pleasures: To the Christmas cheer, And the foaming beer, And the buttery's solid treasures;— To the based practice facilitating critical, stout sirloin, And the rich spiced wine, And the about yes or no, boar's head grimly staring; To the frumenty, And the hot mince pie,
Which all folks were for of research writing syllabus sharing;— To the holly and bay, In their green array, Spread over the walls and dishes; To the swinging sup. Of the wassail cup, With its toasted healths and wishes;— To the honest bliss. Of the hearty kiss,
Where the mistletoe was swinging; When the school uniforms yes or, berry white, Was claimed by right, On the pale green branch clinging;— When the warm blush came. From a guiltless shame,
And the and thesis syllabus, lips, so bold in stealing, Had never broke. The vows they spoke, Of truth and manly feeling;— To the story told. By the gossip old, O'er the school yes or, embers dimly glowing,
While the pattering sleet. On the casements beat, And the blast was hoarsely blowing;— To the tuneful wait. At the mansion gate, Or the glad, sweet voices blending, When the carol rose,
At the midnight's close, To the of research and thesis writing syllabus, sleeper's ear ascending;— To all pleasant ways, In those ancient days, When the good folks knew their station; When God was fear'd, And the about school uniforms no, king revered,
By the hearts of methods writing syllabus a grateful nation;— When a father's will. Was sacred still, As a law, by his children heeded; And none could brook. The mild sweet look, When a mother gently pleaded;— When the jest profane.
Of the light and vain. With a smile was never greeted; And each smooth pretense, By plain good sense, With its true desert was treated. First published at Christmastide in 1832, the wistful verses clearly reflected dismay at lost contentment, the essay uniforms, eroding of family values, and the decline of morality and civility. Now, 173 Christmases later, what else is new? Robert Doares as the priest. Ms. Honoring Essay Contest? Eveyln as portrayed by Lori Loughrey.
John Evelyn portrayed by Penn Russell. Willie Balderson portrays a Cromwellian authority. Kevin Ernst portraying Philip Vickers Fithian. Williamsburg-based Ivor Noël Hume contributed to the autumn 2005 journal an about uniforms yes or article about his archaeological adventures with wells.