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art review essay This is an example of a first year essay which was given a distinction. Click on things, the highlights to read the comments. Certain words may be unfamiliar to you. Click on them to read their definitions in the glossary. In this essay, the Rococo and Romanticism periods have been selected to demonstrate how two art periods can have many similarities yet still hold true to their own beliefs, values and thesis babies principles to create a definitive style . Antoine Watteau#039;s painting, L#039;Indifferent , 1716, oil on canvas, 25cm x 18cm and Eugene Delacroix#039;s Paganini , 1831, oil on cardboard on wood panel, approx. 43cm x 28cm have been selected to represent the Rococo and Romanticism periods respectively . Rococo was a style of art that followed on from the Baroque period in the early 18th century. The artists of this style typically depicted themes of love, artfully and archly pursued through erotic frivolity and playful intrigue . 1 Both the art and interior design of the time displayed a sense of fall apart essay, rhythm in which [e]verything seemed organic, growing, and in motion, an ultimate refinement of illusion. 2 The artists of this period were also starting to express themselves and their feelings about their themes in their work. Some of the works seem to be edging toward the ideals of the Romanticism period, even though they were at opposite ends of the 18th century . Romanticism in the late 18th century was a revolt against the sober restraint of the Enlightenment period that had preceded it. 3 This was a period encompassing the desire for freedom - not only political freedom but also freedom of thought, of spondylothesis grades, feeling, of action, of worship, of apart essay, speech and of taste.
4 Artists wanted only to produce pure, truthful art that was based on the predominance of feeling and imagination. 5 Works in the Romantic period depict not only the Romantic ideal of love but also #039;Gothic#039; horror, as this too could be explored to discover the #039;sublime#039; . The works discussed in this essay share obvious similarities. They are both portraits of performers in full, in the context of their performing environment. In Watteau#039;s L#039;Indifferent , there is a sense of the subject posing for spondylothesis grades the portrait in a very festive manner which is characteristic of the things fall apart missionaries essay Rococo period. By contrast, in Delacroix#039;s Paganini the performer seems to carry himself with a much more intrinsic purpose, perhaps enacting a more truthful value that is typical of the essay writing rules Romantic ideal. There is, nevertheless, a similarity in things apart missionaries, the two poses that suggests motion, as both performers seem to be caught in mid movement. This dynamic quality was not typical of the other art movements prior to or during the 18th century, where portraits tended to depict people in staid, sober poses . Babies? Watteau#039;s painting of the dancer seems soft and flouncy, yet it is obvious that it is a well thought out work. The writer#039;s choice of things missionaries, language have indicated the conditional nature of the observations.
The colours are used to compliment and support the painting#039;s composition, with the guestimate coursework hue of the foliage seemingly reflected in the velvet of the dancer#039;s clothes . The colour used in the cape has also been added to things missionaries essay, the accessories on the shoe and refutation paragraph argumentative essay hat. Both of these examples of the use of colour show how the clever composition of the things fall missionaries painting successfully draws the viewer#039;s eye around it. When expressing the maths coursework difference between the Baroque and Rococo periods, one art critic noted that [Rococo] aimed no longer at astounding the spectator with the things fall apart marvellous, but rather at amusing him with the ingenious. 6 This statement demonstrates that the attention to compositional detail is both a necessary element of the Rococo period and spondylothesis also of fall missionaries, this work by designer, Watteau . Delacroix#039;s painting Paganini also displays a strong attention to colour . However , in this case, it is not just a compositional element, but also contributes to the highly emotive nature of the painting. The colours could be seen to suggest the missionaries essay way the artist felt about the scene before him. This portrayal of the dancer#039;s performance, using the poignant yet subtle blends of dark earthy background colours which contrast with the smooth deep black tones in the figure, enhances the feeling of balance and melody . This combination of art, music, theatre and dance was of high interest to the Romantic artists as it was a great source of the #039;true#039; or #039;pure#039; emotion which they sought to represent . The seemingly fast, fluent brushstrokes indicate and portray the motion and spirit within the performer.
The colour and form seem to be of utmost importance, above the need for line. Indeed, a stronger use of line would have contained and possibly even restricted the emotive values in the artwork . Titles? This style did not go unnoticed by critics. Things Apart Missionaries? Both Delacroix and Jean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres were referred to thesis, as Rubenistes and Poussinistes respectively, due to their use of the #039;academic#039; style of line or the #039;romantic#039; truth of colour as the main element in their works, although both are now recognised as Romantic artists. 7. The composition in things missionaries essay, Paganini is flowing and melodious and is greatly enhanced by the aforementioned use of colour and thesis designer the form of the performer. The posture has been exaggerated to enhance the Romantic principles within the composition by apart missionaries essay, expressing the emotion roused by the scene. Although there were evident stylistic differences between Rococo and Romanticism, artists in both periods were beginning to express what they wanted to see in the scenes before them. Guestimate Maths? Where Rococo was a time of idealising the frivolity of the upper classes, Romanticism idealised the world around the upper classes, depicting the good, the apart essay bad, and the ugly equally by looking for the sublime in everything. Essay? Both paintings discussed in this essay provide great insight into fall apart essay their own periods but also into the foundation of the Expressionist movement of the 20th century . Brookner, A. Romanticism and its discontents , London: Penguin, 2000. Honour, H. Romanticism , London: Penguin, 1979.
Kleiner, F., Mamiya C. and Tansey, R., Gardener#039;s art through the ages , 11th ed. Orlando: Harcourt College Publishers, 2001. Minor, V. Baroque and Rococo: Art and culture , New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1999. Peckham, M. The birth of Romanticism 1790-1815 , Florida: Penkevill Publishing Company, 1986. #039;Rococo#039;, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rococo accessed 7.8.2006. #039;Romanticism#039;, Wikipedia, the frank analysis essay free encyclopedia , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanticism, accessed 7.8.06. 1 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Fall Apart? Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the writing ages , 11th ed., (Orlando: Harcourt College Publishers, 2001), p. 785. Missionaries? 2 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Essay? Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , p. 783. 3 #039;Romanticism#039;, Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia , http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanticism, accessed 7.8.06. Fall Missionaries? 4 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , p. 863. 5 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , p. 863.
6 V. Minor, Baroque and Rococo: Art and culture, (New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1999), p 14. Guestimate? 7 F. Kleiner, C. Mamiya and R. Tansey, Gardener#039;s art through the ages , p. 870. Problems? Questions? Comments?
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Things Fall Apart - White Missionaries Caused Umofia to …
resume withdrawal Protracted Withdrawal Syndromes. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment. Vol. Things Fall Apart Missionaries Essay? 8 pp. 19-28 · 1991. Professor C Heather Ashton DM, FRCP. School of Neurosciences. Division of Psychiatry. The Royal Victoria Infirmary. Queen Victoria Road.
Newcastle upon essay Tyne NE1 4LP. Abstract: The benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome is a complex phenomenon which presents serious difficulties in definition and measurement. It is particularly difficult to set out precise limits on fall apart missionaries essay, its duration. Many withdrawal symptoms are a result of writing, pharmacodynamic tolerance to benzodiazepines, some mechanisms for which are discussed. Such tolerance develops unevenly in different brain systems and may be slow to reverse. Withdrawal symptoms occurring in the first weeks after cessation of things missionaries, drug use tend to maths, merge with more persistent symptoms that may last for many months.
These prolonged symptoms do not necessarily constitute true pharmacological withdrawal symptoms, but are nevertheless related to long-term benzodiazepine use. Such symptoms can include anxiety, which may partly result from missionaries, a learning deficit imposed by the drugs, and a variety of sensory and motor neurological symptoms. The protracted nature of frank analysis, some of these symptoms raises the possibility that benzodiazepines can give rise not only to slowly reversible functional changes in the central nervous system, but may also occasionally cause structural neuronal damage. Keywords: benzodiazepines; withdrawal syndrome; tolerance; protracted symptoms; tinnitus; brain mechanisms. Drug withdrawal syndromes, in apart essay, general, tend to consist of mirror images of the drugs' initial effects. Rules? Thus, abrupt withdrawal from things fall essay, chronic usage of beta adrenoceptor antagonists such as propranolol may give rise to tachycardia and palpitations; abrupt withdrawal from antihypertensive doses of clonidine may be followed by hypertension, anxiety, and other signs of increased sympathetic activity.
Benzodiazepines are no exception: On sudden cessation after chronic use, anticonvulsant effects may be replaced by epileptic seizures, muscle relaxation by thesis designer, increased muscle tension, hypnotic effects by increased anxiety. The same symptoms can occur in fall apart missionaries, attenuated form when the drugs are withdrawn slowly. However, all of these symptoms are not inevitable in any individual patient. The particular features of the withdrawal syndrome and their time of onset, duration, and spondylothesis grades, severity are greatly modified by many other factors. Such factors include pharmacokinetic variables, dosage and duration of drug use, rate of withdrawal, the presence or absence of the original disorder (such as anxiety) for which the drug was prescribed, personality characteristics, physical makeup and susceptibility, and the use of concomitant treatments. These variables alone make it difficult to characterise specific features of the withdrawal syndrome. This difficulty is compounded by the fact that, as long-term medication, benzodiazepines have mainly been prescribed for things fall missionaries essay anxiety and insomnia, disorders which themselves include most features of the drug withdrawal syndrome. When such patients undergo reduction of benzodiazepine dosage, especially slow reduction, how can one specify which emergent symptoms are true, drug-related withdrawal symptoms, which are pseudowithdrawal symptoms (Tyrer, Owen, Dawling, 1983), which represent a return of the original anxiety state, and which are the natural reactions of an anxious personality undergoing the stress of withdrawal? In circumstances such as these, the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome becomes largely a matter of definition.
Nevertheless, the existence of a benzodiazepine withdrawal reaction, from both high and low (therapeutic) doses of benzodiazepines, is no longer in dispute, and many attempts have been made to define and measure it and to estimate its incidence and duration. Definitions and Measurements. Symptoms occurring during benzodiazepine withdrawal have been described by many authors (Ashton, 1984, 1987; Busto, Sellers, Naranjo, Cappell, Sanchez, Sykora, 1986; Hallström Lader, 1981; Murphy, Owen Tyrer, 1983, 1984; Petursson Lader, 1981a, 1981b; Smith Wesson, 1983; Tyrer et al ., 1983; Tyrer, Rutherford, Higgett, 1981; Winokur, Rickels, Greenblatt, Snyder, Schatz, 1980; among others). Commonly described symptoms are shown in Figure 1. Frank? None of these symptoms are specific to benzodiazepine withdrawal: They include all of the psychological and somatic symptoms of fall apart missionaries essay, anxiety, although certain symptom clusters are characteristic. Owen and paragraph essay, Tyrer (1983) and Petursson and Lader (1981a b) emphasised the things fall apart missionaries, appearance of new symptoms, not experienced before withdrawal and uncommon in anxiety states. Anne Analysis Essay? These new symptoms include hypersensitivity to things missionaries essay, sensory stimuli (sound, light, touch, taste, and smell) and spondylothesis, perceptual distortions (e.g., sensation of the floor undulating, feeling of motion, impression of walls or floor tilting). There also appears to be a higher incidence than usually seen in anxiety of depersonalisation, derealisation, paraesthesiae, and things essay, extreme dysphoria, an titles, amalgam of anxiety, depression, nausea, malaise, and things fall apart essay, depersonalisation (Petursson Lader, 1981a, 1981b). Visual hallucinations, distortion of body image, psychotic reactions, formication, muscle fasciculation and twitching (occasionally resembling myoclonus), and considerable loss of weight are also described during benzodiazepine withdrawal and frank analysis, are unusual in anxiety states. Smith and Wesson (1983) and Ashton (1984) drew attention to fall, the characteristic fluctuation of symptoms, which may wax and wane without obvious psychological provocation.
Smith and and juliet essay titles, Wesson (1983) suggest that this wavelike symptomatology is an important marker for distinguishing the low-dose benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome from things apart missionaries essay, symptom re-emergence. However, since symptoms may fluctuate in the course of the day or over periods of days or weeks, accurate recording is difficult. Since no particular symptom is exclusive to benzodiazepine withdrawal, how can one define the syndrome? Tyrer et al . Designer? (1981, 1983) have attempted various methods in placebo controlled studies: The appearance of two or more new symptoms during the withdrawal period. New symptoms in one study included perceptual disturbances, sensory hypersensitivity, and fear of imminent death (1981), and in another study (1983), psychotic symptoms, depression and things fall apart essay, dysphoria, muscle twitching, and abnormal sensations of rules, movement. The choice of things apart missionaries essay, two new symptoms as the minimum number necessary to qualify as withdrawal is designer babies, clearly arbitrary. An increase in self-rated symptoms (Comprehensive Psychiatric Rating Scale) to greater than 50% of essay, baseline levels, followed by a return to lower values. Romeo And Juliet Essay Titles? Symptom resolution is things fall missionaries essay, clearly an essay, important feature in differentiating between symptoms due to things missionaries, withdrawal and symptom re-emergence, emergence, or overinterpretation. As Smith and Wesson (1983, p. 88) point out: Withdrawal symptoms subside with continued abstinence, whereas symptoms of other aetiology persist. However, a measure of symptom resolution is not applicable to patients who drop out of withdrawal studies, perhaps because of intolerable true withdrawal symptoms.
It is noteworthy that 45% of patients dropped out of one study (Tyrer et al ., 1981). A combination of methods (1) and (2) so that a withdrawal reaction is titles, defined as the appearance of new symptoms that resolved before the end of the study (20 and 14 weeks after the end of withdrawal [Tyrer et al ., 1983]). More recently Tyrer, Murphy, Riley (1989) have produced a questionnaire of symptoms that are relatively specific to benzodiazepine withdrawal in that they mainly occur during periods of things missionaries, drug withdrawal and return towards baseline levels after withdrawal. Pseudowithdrawal symptoms were defined as symptoms occurring when patients thought they were reducing but their drug consumption and blood concentrations of benzodiazepines were unchanged. Such definitions, derived from double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, have been extremely helpful in the recognition of benzodiazepine dependence, especially low-dose dependence. However, they are of thesis babies, necessity arbitrary and things essay, can only be approximate, since the appearance or severity of any particular symptom or symptom cluster may actually represent a variable combination of true withdrawal, pseudowithdrawal, and designer babies, re-emergence of anxiety, and things missionaries, the same patients liable to pseudowithdrawal reactions are also likely to be most vulnerable to true withdrawal effects. Furthermore, definitions based on differences from prewithdrawal symptoms do not take into account the possibility that, due to the development of tolerance, withdrawal symptoms may already be present while patients are still taking benzodiazepines. Such a situation is most clearly seen with relatively short-acting benzodiazepines.
For example, patients taking triazolam as a hypnotic commonly develop daytime anxiety (Oswald, 1989) and even hallucinations or psychotic reactions. These are almost certainly withdrawal effects since they are immediately relieved by taking the thesis babies, drug but eventually disappear after the drug is stopped (Ashton, 1987). Similarly, with lorazepam and things missionaries, alprazolam (Hermann, Brotman, Rosenbaum, 1987) patients often develop increasing anxiety and panic as well as craving between doses (Ashton, 1984). They appear to undergo a miniwithdrawal between each dose, which is coursework, temporarily relieved by the next tablet, but disappears after total cessation. An analagous condition is seen with alcohol: alcoholics commonly complain of tremor and insomnia, symptoms which are temporarily relieved by alcohol but which only disappear after a period of fall apart essay, abstinence. Refutation Paragraph Argumentative Essay? Even with long-acting benzodiazepines such as diazepam, there is usually a history in long-term users of things missionaries essay, steadily increasing anxiety, with the development over the years of new symptoms such as agoraphobia, often with perceptual distortions and writing rules, depersonalisation, despite continued usage of these supposedly anxiolytic drugs. These symptoms have often been temporarily alleviated by a moderate increase in dosage or the addition of another benzodiazepine, but eventually re-emerge during further chronic use and only disappear after the benzodiazepine is things fall apart missionaries, stopped (Ashton, 1984, 1987).
Mechanisms of tolerance and withdrawal symptoms are discussed below, but tolerance is thesis, difficult to apart missionaries essay, demonstrate in analysis, clinical practice. Because of missionaries essay, these many immeasurable factors, it is doubtful whether the boundaries of a true benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome can ever be clearly demarcated. The overall incidence of the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome is unknown. As with cigarette smokers (Ashton Stepney, 1982), there may be a large, uncounted population who quit regular benzodiazepine usage after months or years without ever coming to medical attention. Tyrer (1990) notes that it is surprising how many patients in ordinary practice have no difficulties whatsoever in reducing their benzodiazepines, and the incidence of a benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome in general practice appears to be around 30% (Tyrer et al ., 1981, 1983; Tyrer, 1989; Tyrer, Murphy, Riley, in essay rules, press; Tyrer, 1990). On the other hand, in selected patients referred for things fall missionaries essay specialist treatment, the incidence may be 100% (Ashton, 1987; Lader Olajide, 1987; Petursson Lader, 1981a). Guestimate? It is also worth noting that withdrawal syndromes in the form of rebound insomnia (Kales, Scharf, Kales, 1978) or more general symptoms can occur in experimental subjects and in things fall apart missionaries essay, nonanxious patients prescribed benzodiazepines for sports injuries (Lader, 1988). Romeo Essay? In addition, a benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome has been described in apart missionaries essay, neonates whose mothers took therapeutic doses of benzodiazepines during pregnancy (Rementeria Bhatt, 1977). Not surprisingly, the observed incidence of benzodiazepine withdrawal reactions depends not only on patient selection but also on the criteria used for measurement.
In the babies, study of Tyrer et al . Missionaries Essay? (1983), when definitions of withdrawal (1) and essay rules, (2) (see above) were used singly, the incidence of pseudowithdrawal reactions was around 20%. With the fall apart, combined definition (3) (see above) the incidence of anne, true withdrawal symptoms was 44% and there were no pseudowithdrawal reactions. This incidence of course only applies to those consenting to take part in the study and managing to finish it. It cannot account for dropouts during withdrawal or for individuals declining to undergo withdrawal (45.5% of eligible patients in fall apart, the study of Tyrer et al ., 1981). Thus the incidence of benzodiazepine withdrawal, like its diagnosis, becomes largely a matter of thesis, definition. The identification of the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome is apart missionaries essay, difficult enough; its duration is even more difficult to delineate. Most estimates suggest a duration of refutation paragraph essay, approximately 5-28 days, with a peak in severity around 2 weeks post withdrawal, after which most symptoms return to prewithdrawal levels (Busto et al ., 1986; Murphy et al ., 1984; Owen Tyrer, 1983; Petursson Lader, 1981a, 1981b; Tyrer et al ., 1981, 1983).
To a large extent the apparent duration depends upon things fall apart how long the writing rules, patients are followed up, and several authors have drawn attention to the prolonged nature of postwithdrawal symptoms in some cases. Fall Apart? For example, Smith and Wesson (1983) observed that symptoms after withdrawal from low-dose benzodiazepine typically take 6-12 months to subside completely. And Juliet Titles? Prolonged symptoms included anxiety, insomnia, paraesthesiae, altered sensation, muscle spasms, and psychosis. Ashton (1984, 1987) reported a similar protracted time-course. Tyrer (1990) refers to a post-withdrawal syndrome in the 6 months after withdrawal. Hallström and Lader (1981) found the Hamilton Anxiety Score still raised above baseline levels by follow-up several months later when successfully withdrawn patients had resumed their normal life (Hallström Lader, 1981 p. 237). Olajide and apart essay, Lader (1984) suggested that depression may be an integral part of the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome and may last several months after withdrawal in spondylothesis, susceptible individuals; this phenomenon was also observed by Ashton (1987). Busto, Fornazzari, and things apart essay, Naranjo (1988) described two cases in whom severe tinnitus first appeared during benzodiazepine withdrawal and persisted for coursework 6 and 12 months after discontinuation before finally diminishing or disappearing. In one of these cases the tinnitus was immediately alleviated by diazepam in a double-blind placebo-controlled trial conducted over missionaries essay 1 week, 6 months after withdrawal; after a further 6 months of abstinence the tinnitus had became tolerable. In a recent study of refutation paragraph argumentative essay, 68 patients who were withdrawn from benzodiazepines over things apart missionaries essay a 6-week period and followed for a further 4 weeks, Tyrer et al . Rules? (1989), using a self-report scale, found a wide variation in the time at which individual symptoms peaked.
Mean scores for some symptoms (depression, dizziness, paraesthesiae, feeling of unreality) peaked early, while mean scores for others (nausea, memory impairment, faintness, touch sensitivity, and motor impairment) were maximal 8 weeks after the start of fall apart missionaries, withdrawal. Although individual patient's scores were not reported, and 30% withdrew from the study, these findings suggest that symptoms can persist beyond the maths, 5-28 days usually regarded as the duration of the withdrawal syndrome. Ashton, Rawlins and Tyrer (1990) used the rating scale shown in Figure 1 to things apart, record the symptoms of anne frank essay, patients undergoing diazepam withdrawal under double-blind placebo controlled conditions. Withdrawal took place over things fall apart missionaries 4 weeks, and patients were followed for guestimate 8 weeks after the end of withdrawal. Half the patients received placebo and the other half withdrawal. Analysis of the time-course of fall apart missionaries essay, selected symptoms in the 11 out of 12 patients in the placebo group who successfully completed withdrawal is shown in Table 1. Eight weeks after the end of grades, withdrawal, mean scores for headache, dizziness, depression, tinnitus, paraesthesiae, and motor symptoms remained higher than prewithdrawal scores; other symptoms had declined although few had disappeared. These findings again show that duration of symptoms after benzodiazepine withdrawal is often a matter of months rather than weeks. Different symptoms persisted in missionaries, the Tyrer et al . (1989) and Ashton et al . (1990) studies, which differed also in size of sample, patient selection, and guestimate, rate of withdrawal.
To what extent such persistent symptoms are true withdrawal symptoms is things fall apart missionaries, unknown. A further problem in assessing the duration of the withdrawal syndrome is the interpretation of the baseline (prewithdrawal) symptoms and anxiety scores. Patients presenting for benzodiazepine withdrawal often have high levels of essay writing, anxiety and many psychological and fall missionaries essay, somatic symptoms. Essay Writing Rules? Figures 2 and 3 show Hospital Anxiety Depression (anxiety) (Zigmond Snaith, 1983) and symptom rating scores for 12 patients on benzodiazepines compared with the scores of 18 healthy university students approaching their exams. Both groups took placebo tablets and were followed for 20 weeks. The benzodiazepine group withdrew from the benzodiazepines between weeks 8 and 12. It is clear that the patients had considerably higher scores than the fall apart missionaries essay, normal subjects on both scales, even at the beginning of the study while they were still taking benzodiazepines. Certainly in these patients the benzodiazepines were not effectively controlling anxiety and, as argued above, it is possible that at least some of the presenting symptoms were due to withdrawal symptoms even in the presence of the guestimate maths, drug, as a result of the development of drug tolerance.
Such symptoms would be expected to apart essay, disappear after withdrawal, but they could be slow to resolve. There was no evidence of resolution below baseline levels 8 weeks after withdrawal, but unfortunately (as in most studies) formal assessment stopped at this point. However, continued clinical contact with most of these patients has shown that anxiety symptoms have declined over time. This slow improvement bears out the observations quoted above (Ashton, 1984, 1987; Busto et al ., 1988; Hallström Lader, 1981; Olajide and guestimate, Lader, 1984; Smith Wesson, 1983) that symptoms improve gradually for many months after withdrawal, and some patients are able to resume normal lives after years of fall apart missionaries essay, incapacity before withdrawal. Which of these long-lasting symptoms can one attribute to true drug withdrawal effects? Is it possible to pinpoint a time at which the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome ends and to say with certainty that any residual symptoms must be due to other factors? The problem is similar to that of guestimate, designating which effects of a bout of things fall, influenza or infectious mononucleosis can be attributed to the specific virus. Do such effects include only those of the viral toxaemia? Do they include secondary bacterial infection consequent upon the impact of the refutation essay, virus? Do they include the period of postviral lethargy and depression which, like benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms, tends to recur in wave-like fashion for several months? Once again, the benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome appears to slip through the fingers and one is led back to a question of definition.
Probably a clear definition of duration is impossible because drug-induced perturbations of central neurotransmission merge imperceptibly into the background of individual, genetically determined, and learned patterns of brain activity. Protracted Symptoms After Benzodiazepine Withdrawal. All the problems of definition discussed above are multiplied in any attempt to describe protracted benzodiazepine withdrawal syndromes. Yet anyone observing patients for long periods after withdrawal cannot fail to be struck by the persistence of certain symptoms in some patients. These may not be true benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms; nevertheless they are possibly related to fall apart, benzodiazepine use and grades, often present a clinical problem.
Listed below are examples of some protracted symptoms that from personal observations and other reports appear to missionaries, be relatively common after benzodiazepine withdrawal. Unfortunately, there are no data available on the incidence and duration of such symptoms in comparable patients not treated with benzodiazepines, nor of their relative incidence in patients undergoing benzodiazepine withdrawal. Nor are there any known predictive factors to indicate which patients might be especially vulnerable. Anxiety: As discussed above, anxiety may persist for many months after benzodiazepine withdrawal, yet slowly decline below prewithdrawal levels after 1-2 years (Ashton, 1987). One reason for the slow resolution may be that benzodiazepines inhibit the romeo and juliet titles, learning of missionaries, stress-coping strategies. Anne Frank? Such effects have been demonstrated in animals and man (Gray, 1987). Consequently there is a long period after benzodiazepine withdrawal when patients have a decreased ability to cope with stressful situations (Ashton, 1989; Murphy Tyrer, 1988; Owen Tyrer, 1983).
Recovery may require many months of learning new strategies of stress control to replace the years of coping with stress by means of exogenous drugs. Hence persisting anxiety after benzodiazepine withdrawal does not necessarily imply the things fall apart, re-emergence of an anxiety state existing before benzodiazepine treatment; it may represent the uncovering of a type of learning deficiency induced by long-term benzodiazepine use. People who take benzodiazepines tend to have high ratings for trait anxiety (Ashton and Golding, 1989; Golding Cornish, 1987; Golding, Harper, Brent-Smith, 1983) which may confer a particular vulnerability to the stress of withdrawal. Nevertheless, even without formal treatment, protracted anxiety symptoms, including agoraphobia and essay, panic, may gradually resolve after benzodiazepine withdrawal (Ashton, 1987) although the process may be hastened by behavioural treatments. Depression: Depression can be caused or aggravated by chronic benzodiazepine use (Lader Petursson, 1981), yet it also appears to fall apart missionaries essay, be a feature of the withdrawal syndrome (Olajide Lader, 1984). Romeo Titles? It may be severe enough to qualify as a major depressive disorder (Ashton, 1987) and may persist for some months. Olajide and Lader (1984) suggest that the mechanisms for postwithdrawal depression may be central serotonin depletion, but there is no direct evidence for this.
Clinically, the depression is missionaries, not different from depressive illness in general, and it responds to antidepressant drugs. It is not clear whether protracted depressive symptoms are more common in patients with a previous history of depression or whether it recurs in guestimate maths coursework, subsequent years after withdrawal. Tinnitus: Tinnitus is a common symptom of benzodiazepine withdrawal and may initially result from the characteristic general hypersensitivity to sensory stimuli. It usually resolves in fall, a few weeks, but occasionally qualifies as a protracted symptom. Busto et al . (1988) describe two cases in which tinnitus persisted for essay titles 6 and 12 months after withdrawal and mention a third patient who was unable to missionaries, withdraw from benzodiazepines because of severe tinnitus at maths, each attempt. Further cases of protracted tinnitus personally observed are described below. Case 1: Female, aged 54. Duration of benzodiazepine usage: 8 years. Withdrawal slowly from oxazepam 45mg daily in 1986. Right-sided tinnitus first noticed during previous attempts at withdrawal; became severe after final withdrawal and is still constantly present and apart essay, severe 2 years later, remaining mainly unilateral.
No abnormality detected on skull x-ray, CAT scan, EEG, or ENT examination, apart from slight bilateral (symmetrical) high-tone deafness. Not clinically anxious or depressed; all other withdrawal symptoms resolved quickly. Taking no medication. Case 2: Female, aged 62. Duration of benzodiazepine usage: 18 years. Withdrawn slowly from diazepam 15mg daily in 1988. Bilateral tinnitus first noticed during previous attempts at withdrawal, becoming severe after final withdrawal, and still present, severe, and continuous 1 year later.
ENT investigation: moderate bilateral high-tone deafness; wears hearing aid. No clinical anxiety or depression; no other withdrawal symptoms; no medication. Case 3: Female, aged 58. Duration of benzodiazepine usage: 20 years. Withdrew from diazepam 20mg daily over 4 weeks in 1988. Developed acute psychotic reaction, which resolved in guestimate coursework, one week. First noticed left-sided tinnitus 1 month after withdrawal. Apart Essay? Three months later restarted diazepam 20mg daily because of unremitting tinnitus, but experienced only slight improvement. Second withdrawal over one year 1988-9. Left-sided tinnitus severe throughout withdrawal and still persisting though becoming intermittent.
ENT examination negative except for slight bilateral (symmetrical) high-tone deafness. Refutation Essay? Medication: mianserin 30mg daily, started after onset of tinnitus; carbamazepine recently added with no effect on tinnitus. Case 4: Female, aged 70. Duration of benzodiazepine usage: 20 years. First noticed tinnitus, mainly right-sided, on fall essay, withdrawal from thesis babies, flurazepam 30mg daily in 1985. Tinnitus continuous ever since, not relieved by fall essay, a course of diazepam. ENT examination normal. Drugs: no psychotropics; inhalers for asthma. Tinnitus is fairly common in the general population and the apparent relation to benzodiazepine use may be incidental, but these cases raise the suspicion that benzodiazepines may occasionally cause permanent or only slowly reversible brain damage. Such damage may not be detectable on CAT scans; one study (Lader Petursson, 1984) suggested a mild degree of guestimate maths, cortical shrinkage in chronic benzodiazepine users, but this finding was not confirmed in fall apart missionaries essay, a later study (Perera, Powell, Jenner, 1987).
Two of the above patients also complained of unilateral headaches. Paraesthesiae: Paraesthesiae, in the form of tingling, pins and needles or numbness of the extremities or circumoral region, is another common symptom of benzodiazepine withdrawal. The symptom also occurs in anxiety and possibly results from hyperventilation. Paragraph? Benzodiazepines depress the sensitivity of the fall apart essay, respiratory centre to carbon dioxide (Gilmartin, Corris, Stone, Veale, Gibson, 1988) and it is possible that the respiratory centre becomes hypersensitive during withdrawal, triggering hyperventilation. Resolution of paraesthesiae usually occurs within a few weeks of withdrawal.
Occasionally, however, patients complain of numbness or of a burning sensation affecting the fingers, feet, and legs that may be protracted for months or years. The symptoms suggest a peripheral sensory neuropathy and there may be demonstrable sensory impairment to light touch. Two patients summarised below typify several similar cases personally observed at a benzodiazepine withdrawal clinic. Case 1: Female, aged 56. Anne Frank Essay? Duration of benzodiazepine usage: 15 years. Severe continuous burning pain of feet first noticed in 1984 during slow reduction of lorazepam 7.5mg to 1.5mg daily. Changed to diazepam and slowly withdrawn over 1 year 1987-8. Burning feet persisted for a further year, gradually decreasing in intensity and now almost disappeared.
No abnormal signs; good peripheral pulses. Medication; promethazine 50mg nocte since 1988. Case 2: Female, aged 67. Duration of benzodiazepine usage: 12 years. First noticed severe burning pain in feet and legs in 1981 during reduction of medazepam 15mg to 5mg daily. Pain persisted during diazepam substitution and slow withdrawal in 1985. Fall? 1986: still severe burning pain in anne frank, legs not relieved by chlordiazepoxide. 1989: pain still present. Neurological examination, nerve conduction studies, serum foliate and B 12 levels normal; peripheral pulses present and normal. Formication is also common during benzodiazepine withdrawal, and many patients temporarily complain of a feeling of insects crawling on the skin or of fall essay, lice or nits in anne analysis, the hair. Things Fall Apart Essay? Occasionally, more bizarre sensations are reported, such as a feeling of slime or water running over refutation paragraph the body, a sense of inner vibration, or a feeling of trembling inside, and these symptoms may be protracted.
Such symptoms may be variants of the things missionaries, burning sensations described above or may possibly be psychotic, but have a temporal relationship to benzodiazepine withdrawal. Motor Symptoms: Increased muscle tension, hyperreflexia, tremor, fasciculation, and romeo and juliet essay titles, muscle jerking are common features of benzodiazepine withdrawal but usually resolve within weeks. Occasionally muscle jerking persists for a year or more after withdrawal, and the clinical picture may suggest myoclonus, tics, or exaggerated startle reactions. Shoulder girdle and limb muscles are usually affected, but blepharospasm can occur. Some patients complain of violent jerking of the things fall missionaries essay, whole body at the onset of sleep, which may occur 20 or more times a night. Restless legs syndrome may also be protracted. Some of these symptoms may result from increased peripheral sympathetic tone since they are often improved by propranolol. Others may be centrally generated and at least partially respond to carbamazepine. Essay Writing? Blepharospasm can be controlled by local injection of botulinum toxin at 3 monthly intervals.
Protracted motor symptoms such as these raise the possibility that benzodiazepines are capable of causing long-term hyperexcitability of things missionaries essay, motoneurons or central motor pathways. Gastrointestinal Symptoms: Gastrointestinal symptoms are extremely common during chronic benzodiazepine use and in withdrawal. Many chronic benzodiazepine users have been investigated by and juliet essay titles, gastroenterologists and found to have irritable bowel syndrome (Ashton, 1987). Things Essay? Gastrointestinal symptoms may be aggravated by hyperventilation (Lum, 1987) and may disappear completely after benzodiazepine withdrawal, even in patients who have had irritable bowel syndrome for years. Nevertheless, there remains a sizeable core of patients who complain of food intolerance and gaseous abdominal distension which first appears during withdrawal and paragraph, is protracted for many months. Tests for specific food allergies almost always prove negative, and things fall missionaries essay, the condition is unresponsive to conventional treatment. Patients often turn to alternative or fringe medicine, undergo various forms of diet, and anne, become convinced that they have intestinal candidiasis or damage to things fall apart, the immune system. None of paragraph, these claims have scientific support, although Lum (1987) reports that hyperventilation provokes histamine release and that the incidence of food intolerance and things fall apart, pseudo-allergic reactions is high in refutation paragraph argumentative, chronic hyperventilators. The effect of benzodiazepine withdrawal on gastrointestinal function and on coriocosteroid and immune responses (known to be affected by stress) perhaps merits further attention. Brain Mechanisms of Benzodiazepine Withdrawal Symptoms. The primary effect of things apart missionaries, benzodiazepines is enhancement of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) activity on romeo and juliet essay, postsynaptic GABA-A receptors in the brain.
The effect results from an interaction with specific benzodiazepine binding sites on the GABA-receptor complex (Möhler Okada, 1977; Squires Braestrup, 1977), which increases the affinity of the things apart, receptors for essay rules GABA (Costa, 1981). GABA neurons consist of small interneurons forming local circuits which exert a powerful influence on the excitability of other neurons passing through their spatial domain (Bloom, 1985). Apart? Such local GABA circuits are widely distributed throughout the brain, including the reticular formation, limbic system structures, cerebral and cerebellar cortex (Young Kuhar, 1980). GABA is a universal inhibitor of rules, nervous activity and also inhibits the release of excitatory neurotransmitters (Benton Rick, 1976). Fall Apart Missionaries? Thus the actions of benzodiazepines include not only enhancement of GABA activity at many brain sites but also decreased release of paragraph essay, acetylcholine, noradrenaline, dopamine and serotonin (Faefely, Pieri, Pole, Schaffer, 1981). The clinical effects of benzodiazepines probably result from a combination of these primary and secondary effects at critical sites. Things Fall Apart Missionaries? For example, the maths, anxiolytic effects may be due to decreased serotonergic and noradrenergic activity in things fall missionaries essay, septo-hippocampal pathways (Gray, 1981).
Thus benzodiazepine actions are by no means confined to a particular neurotransmitter or brain pathway. Any chronically used drug gradually engenders a series of homeostatic responses which tend to restore normal function despite the romeo and juliet titles, presence of the drug. With chronic benzodiazepine use, compensatory changes occur in GABA receptors. Such changes consist of decreased sensitivity of these receptors to GABA, probably as a result of alterations in affinity state and decreased density (Cowan Nutt, 1982; Nutt, 1986). In addition, there are changes in the secondary systems controlled by GABA, so that the output of excitatory neurotransmitters tends to be restored, and/or the sensitivity of their receptors increases.
The whole complex of things fall apart missionaries, primary and secondary changes eventually results in benzodiazepine tolerance. This pharmacodynamic tolerance develops unevenly to different benzodiazepine effects. For example, tolerance appears more rapidly to hypnotic and anticonvulsant than to anxiolytic effects (Sepinwall Cook, 1979). Tolerance to different effects may also vary between individuals, possibly due to variations in intrinsic GABA activity in different parts of the brain, which are in turn reflected in personality characteristics and susceptibility to stress. Tolerance is never complete and probably never reaches a perfect equilibrium in all brain systems, which may be one reason for the high morbidity amongst chronic benzodiazepine users (Ashton, 1987).
Acute tolerance, especially to hypnotic effects, can be manifested rapidly, but chronic tolerance develops over a time-course of several weeks. Once established, chronic tolerance can last for months or even years after cessation of some central nervous system depressants such as alcohol (Cicero, 1979) and probably also benzodiazepines. The development of pharmacodynamic tolerance sets the scene for the withdrawal syndrome. Cessation of the rules, drug exposes all the adaptations which have accrued to counteract its presence, releasing a rebound of things apart essay, unopposed activity involving many neurotransmitters and their receptors and many brain systems. Clinically this state is manifested as the withdrawal syndrome, consisting of effects that are largely the opposite of those originally induced by the drug. The distribution, duration, and severity of writing rules, symptoms depend on the particular systems that have undergone adaptive modulations and the degree of the adaptive changes induced, as well as on the rate of drug withdrawal.
Some authors distinguish between rebound and withdrawal effects, but the mechanism is the same for things essay both (Lader, 1988) Acute withdrawal effects are reversed by an appropriate dose of the drug, which restores the status quo . As the homeostatic changes slowly reverse, withdrawal symptoms decline. Babies? The process of things fall apart missionaries, reversal, like that of tolerance acquisition, does not necessarily proceed evenly in grades, all systems. The variable time of emergence and duration of individual symptoms during benzodiazepine withdrawal noted by Tyrer (1989) and things apart missionaries, Ashton et al . (1990) (Table 1) may reflect this uneven course. Paragraph? The perturbations of brain function induced by benzodiazepines are exceedingly complex, and it is not surprising that withdrawal symptoms are many and things apart, variable. Romeo? Different symptoms may reflect disturbance of the balance between different neurotransmitter systems as suggested by Ashton (1984) and are likely to show large interindividual differences depending on personal characteristics and susceptibilities. Things Apart Missionaries Essay? As discussed above, it is romeo and juliet titles, difficult to set a definite time limit on the reversal of things fall apart missionaries, tolerance and, therefore, the end of the withdrawal syndrome.
In general, tolerance declines over guestimate maths a matter of weeks, but in some cases it may endure for a year or more (Cicero, 1979). Fall? Delayed or slow reversal of rules, tolerance may account for some protracted withdrawal symptoms. However, some changes induced by benzodiazepines may be permanent or only very slowly reversible. Since benzodiazepines apparently inhibit learning, especially for coping with stress strategies (Gray, 1987), cessation after many years of things apart essay, use may expose a learning deficit, especially in the ability to cope with stress. Spondylothesis? This may persist as protracted anxiety, and may possibly be related to protracted depression. Things Fall? Anxiety symptoms are likely to endure until new learning has induced the refutation paragraph essay, appropriate synaptic changes, which probably involve modification of endogenous GABA activity. Finally, there remains the question of whether benzodiazepines can cause structural neurological damage.
Like alcohol, benzodiazepines are lipid soluble, are highly concentrated in the brain, and impair cerebral cortical, cerebellar, and limbic system function. It is possible that use over many years could cause physical changes such as cortical shrinkage, which may be only fall missionaries essay, partially reversible. Such changes have been demonstrated by CAT-scan studies in young alcoholics (Lee, Möller, Hardt, Haubek, Jenson, 1979; staff, British Medical Journal, 1981) although not conclusively in chronic benzodiazepine users (Lader Petursson, 1984; Perera, Powell, Jenner, 1987). However, such techniques may not be sensitive enough to detect subtle changes. Nor are standard tests of intellectual function sensitive enough to frank, detect minor degrees of cognitive impairment that may persist after withdrawal in some long-term users. It remains possible that some protracted benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms (including tinnitus and other neurological and psychological symptoms) could result from physicochemical neuronal damage. These symptoms would not be fully relieved by restarting benzodiazepines. There are still many puzzling features of apart essay, benzodiazepine withdrawal, and the benzodiazepine story remains unfinished (Ashton, 1984). Ashton, H. (1989). Romeo Essay? Risks of dependence on benzodiazepine drugs: A major problem of long-term treatment.
British Medical Journal , 298, 103-104. Ashton, H., Golding. J.F. (1989). Tranquillisers: Prevalence, predictors and possible consequences. Things? Data from a large United Kingdom Survey. British Journal of Addiction , 84,541-546. Ashton, H., Rawlins, M.D. Tyrer, S.P. (1990). A double blind placebo controlled study of buspirone in diazepam withdrawal in chronic benzodiazepine users.
British Journal of Addiction, 157, 232-238. Ashton, H., Stepney, R. (1982) Smoking: Psychology and pharmacology , London: Tavistock Publications. Benton, D., Rick, J.T. Romeo And Juliet Titles? (1976). The effect of increased brain GABA produced by apart essay, amino-oxyacetic acid on arousal in rats. Thesis Designer Babies? Psychopharmacology , 49, 85-89. Bloom, F.E. (1985). Neurohumoral transmission in things fall apart, the central nervous system. In A.G.
Gilman, L.S. Goodman, T.W. Rall, F. Muland (Eds.), The pharmacological basis of therapeutics (pp. 236-259). Romeo And Juliet Essay? New York: Macmillan. Busto, U., Fornazzari, L., Naranjo, C.A. (1988). Protracted tinnitus after discontinuation of missionaries essay, long-term therapeutic use of benzodiazepines. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology , 8, 359-362.
Busto, U., Sellers, E.M., Naranjo, C.A. Cappell, H.P., Sanchez, C.M., Sykora, K. (1986). Essay Writing Rules? Withdrawal reaction after long-term therapeutic use of things fall missionaries, benzodiazepines. Spondylothesis Grades? New England Journal of Medicine , 315, 654-659. Cicero, T.J. (1979). Tolerance to fall apart essay, and physical dependence on alcohol: Behavioural and neurobiological mechanisms. in Brain and pituitary peptides (pp.1603-1617). Munich: Ferring Symposium 1979.
Costa, E. And Juliet? (1981). The role of gamma-aminobutyric acid in the action of things apart missionaries essay, 1,4 benzodiazepines. In J.W. Lamble (Ed), Towards understanding receptors (pp. 176-183). Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland. Cowen, P.J., Nutt, D.J. (1982).
Abstinence symptoms after withdrawal from tranquillising drugs: Is there a common neurochemical mechanism? Lancet ,2,360-362. Gilmartin, J.J., Corris, P.A., Stone, T.N., Veale, D., Gibson, G.J. (1988). Effects of diazepam and chlormethiazole on ventilatory control in refutation essay, normal subject. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology , 25, 766-770. Golding, J.F., Cornish, A.M. (1987).
Personality and life-style in medical students: Psychopharmacological aspects. Psychology and Health , 1, 287-301. Golding, J.F., Harper, T., Brent-Smith, H. (1983). Personality, drinking and drug-taking correlates of cigarette smoking. Personality and Individual Differences , 4, 703-706. Gray, J.A. (1981). Anxiety as a paradigm case of emotion.
British Medical Bulletin , 37, 193-197. Gray, J. Things Fall Missionaries? A. (1987). Refutation Paragraph Essay? The neuropsychology of emotion and personality. In S.M. Stahl, S.D. Iverson, E.C. Goodman (Eds.), Cognitive neurochemistry (pp.171-190). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Haefley, W., Pieri, L., Pole, P., Schaffer, R. Things Essay? (1981). Essay Writing Rules? General pharmacology and neuropharmacology of benzodiazepine derivatives. In H. Hoffmeister, and G. Stille (Eds.), Handbook of experimental pharmacology (Vol.
55, 11, pp. 13-262). Berlin: Springer-Verlag. Hallström, C., Lader, M. (1981). Benzodiazepine withdrawal phenomena. International Pharmacopsychiatry , 16, 235-244. Hermann, J.B., Brotman, A.W., Rosenbaum, J.F. (1987). Rebound anxiety in panic disorder patients treated with shorter-acting benzodiazepines.
Journal of Clinical Psychiatry , 48 (suppl. 10), 22-28. Kales, A., Scharf, M.B., Kales, J.D. Things Fall Essay? (1978). Rules? Rebound insomnia: A new clinical syndrome. Science , 201, 1039-1041. Lader, M. (1988). The psychopharmacology of addiction - Benzodiazepine tolerance and dependence.
In M. Essay? Lader (Ed.), T he psychopharmacology of addiction (pp. 1-14). Oxford: Oxford University Press. Lader, M.H., Olajide, D. (1987). A comparison of buspirone and refutation paragraph argumentative essay, placebo in relieving benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms. Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology , 7, 11-15. Lader, M.H., Petursson, H. Things Missionaries? (1981). Thesis Designer Babies? Benzodiazepine derivatives - Side effects and dangers. Biological Psychiatry , 16, 1195-1212.
Lader, M.H., Ron, M., Petursson, R.H. (1984). Computed axial brain tomography in long-term benzodiazepine users. Psychological Medicine , 14, 203-206. Lee, K., Moller, L., Hardt, F., Haubek, A., Jenson, E. Fall Apart Missionaries? (1979). Alcohol-injured brain damage and writing, liver damage in fall, young males. Lancet 2, 759-761.
Lum, L.C., (1987). Hyperventilation syndromes in medicine and designer, psychiatry: A review. Journal of the Royal Society of fall apart essay, Medicine , 80, 229-231. Möhler, H., Okada, T. Spondylothesis Grades? (1977). Benzodiazepine receptors: Demonstration in the central nervous system. Science 198, 849-851.
Murphy, S.M., Owen, R.T., Tyrer, P.J., (1984). Things Fall Missionaries? Withdrawal symptoms after six week’s treatment with diazepam. Lancet , 1389. Murphy, S.M., Tyrer, P. (1988). Guestimate Maths Coursework? The essence of benzodiazepine dependence. (pp. 157-167). Things Essay? Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Nutt, D. (1986). Benzodiazepine dependence in the clinic: Reason for anxiety? Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 7, 457-460. Olijade, D., Lader, M. (1984). Romeo Essay? Depression following withdrawal from things apart, long-term benzodiazepine use: A report of four cases.
Psychological Medicine , 14, 937-940. Oswald, I. (1989) Triazolam syndrome 10 years on. Lancet 1, 451-452. Owen, R.T., Tyrer, P. (1983) Benzodiazepine dependence: A review of the evidence. Drugs , 25, 385-398. Perera, K.M.H., Powell, T., Jenner, F.A. (1987). Computerised axial tomographic studies following long-term use of benzodiazepines. Paragraph Argumentative? Psychological Medicine , 17, 775-777.
Petursson, H., Lader, M.H. Fall Apart Essay? (1981a) Withdrawal from long-term benzodiazepine treatment. British Medical Journal , 283, 634-635. Petursson, H., Lader, M.H. (1981b). Benzodiazepine dependence. British Journal of Addiction , 76, 133-145. Rementeria, J.L., Bhatt, K. Frank? (1977).
Withdrawal symptoms in neonates from intrauterine exposure to apart missionaries, diazepam. Journal of Paediatrics , 90, 123-125. Sepinwall, J., Cook, L. (1979). Mechanisms of action of the benzodiazepines: Behavioural aspects. Federation Proceedings 39, 3024-3031. Smith, D.E., Wesson, D.R. (1983). Benzodiazepine dependency syndromes.
Journal of Psychoactive Drugs , 15, 85-95. Squires, R.F., Braestrup, C. (1977). Rules? Benzodiazepine receptors in missionaries essay, the rat brain. Nature , 266,732-734. Staff. (1981). Minor brain damage and alcoholism. Coursework? British Medical Journal , 2, 455-456. Tyrer, P. (1990) Diagnosis of benzodiazepine dependence . Unpublished manuscript. Tyrer, P., Murphy, S., Riley, P. (1989). The benzodiazepine withdrawal symptom questionnaire.
Journal of Affective Disorders , 19, 53-61. Tyrer, P., Owen, R., Dawling, S. (1983). Gradual withdrawal of fall apart, diazepam after long-term therapy. Rules? Lancet 1, 1402-1406. Tyrer, P., Rutherford, D., Higgett, T. (1981). Benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms and propranolol. Lancet , 1, 520-522. Winokur, A., Rickels, K., Greenblatt, D.J., Schatz, N.J. (1980). Withdrawal reaction from long-term low dosage administration of things missionaries, diazepam.
Archives of General Psychiatry , 37, 101-105. Young, W.S., Kuhar, M.J. (1980). Refutation Paragraph Argumentative? Radiohistochemical localisation of benzodiazepine receptors in things fall apart essay, rat brain. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics , 212, 337-346. Zigmond, A.S., Snaith, R.P. Refutation Paragraph Essay? (1983). The hospital anxiety and depression (HAD) scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica , 67, 361-370. FIGURE 1. WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS RATING SCALE. Ratings: 0=none 1=mild 2=moderate 3=severe.
FIGURE 1. Withdrawal Symptoms Rating Scale. FIGURE 2. Hospital Anxiety Depression (HAD) Scale scores for anxiety over 20 weeks in 18 healthy students and 12 patients taking diazepam (7.5 SD 4.6 daily). Patients and students took placebo tablets until week 20. Patients withdrew from diazepam during weeks 8-12. One patient dropped out after 12 weeks for domestic reasons. Circles represent placebo group; triangles represent students. FIGURE 3. Withdrawal symptoms scores over 20 weeks in 18 healthy students and 12 patients taking diazepam (7.5mg SD 4.6 daily).
Patients and fall apart essay, procedures as in Figure 2. Symptom rating shown in essay, Figure 1. Circles represent placebo group; triangles represent students. TABLE 1. Scores for selected symptoms before, during, and after diazepam withdrawal. ( n = 11; mean total scores on things missionaries essay, withdrawal symptoms scale shown in Figure 1. (postwithdrawal score equal. to or less than prewithdrawal. greater than prewithdrawal. Sensory hypersensitivity: to light, sound, taste, smell. Anxiety: Hospital Anxiety Depression (HAD) Scale (anxiety) scores. Paraesthesiae: tingling, numbness, altered sensitivity in designer, limbs, face, trunk.
Motor symptoms: total score for things apart missionaries stiffness, weakness, tremor, muscle twitches, ataxia.
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Treating a College Admissions Essay Like a First Date. This week, The Choice is in the room, panning for tips, at the annual College Board Conference. High school counselors and admissions officers are always reaching for things fall essay analogies to convey to students (and parents) the purpose of anne frank a college admissions essay. But it was a revelation to things apart, me, at least, when Chad Hemmelgarn, an analysis, English teacher at Bexley High School in Columbus, Ohio, put it this way: “It’s kind of like a first date. You’re telling us the stuff that makes you special.”
Mr. Hemmelgarn was speaking this afternoon as part of a panel on the junior-year experience at “Forum 2009 New York,” the annual convention of the College Board in New York City. Things Apart Missionaries. Over the next two and a half days, hundreds of counselors and admissions officers will attend dozens of sessions on maths all aspects of the high school and college-admissions experience. In a series of posts on The Choice, several Times colleagues and I will attempt to missionaries essay, pass on tips and writing perspectives from those meetings that we think will be useful to applicants and apart essay parents, as well as counselors and coursework admissions officers. For example, at the panel on the junior year, Mr. Hemmelgarn and Stephanie Krosnosky, a college counselor at Bexley, suggested that juniors begin their college quest with several seemingly simple steps.
These included using a single sheet of paper to collect the dates of fall apart all the refutation essay standardized tests they intended to take, which they would then post on the family refrigerator so that “mom and things apart missionaries essay dad” would make sure they didn’t oversleep that day. But it was on the subject of the college essay that I thought the two gave particularly strong guidance. For example, Mr. Paragraph Essay. Hemmelgarn requires his juniors to apart missionaries essay, write 25 sample college essays — using actual questions from the guestimate University of Chicago and Ohio State, among others — in 25 weeks, at home. Things Fall. His mantra? “Practice makes better.” Mr. Hemmelgarn then reviews with each student the four or five essays that he or she believes might best be developed into their actual college essays in their senior year. For readers of The Choice who are juniors (or their parents), I see no reason why the same exercise couldn’t be repeated by any junior on essay one’s own — with a counselor or favorite teacher then enlisted as a sounding board. Mr. Hemmelgarn said he divides the things fall apart missionaries essay essay questions into several categories, including “Why you?” and “Why us?” As an thesis designer babies, example of apart missionaries essay “Why you?” — or why might a particular college want you — he referred to an actual prompt on the Common Application that directs an essay writing rules, applicant to “evaluate a significant experience, achievement, risk you have taken or ethical dilemma you have faced and its impact on you.”
Part of the advice he gives his students, he said, is that they not write a hackneyed paragraph about a family trip “that changed my life.” Unless, of missionaries essay course, it did. One counselor in romeo and juliet essay titles, the audience immediately raised her hand to things fall apart, say that one of thesis designer babies her high school students was in the process of writing just such an essay — about fall learning Flamenco in Spain — that promised to be unique and memorable. The boy’s theme (and yes, it was a boy)? “When am I ever going to do that again?” Mr. Hemmelgarn said he approved — because the anne frank essay sounded like it would meet another of his criteria: “What can you write that’s going to set you apart from fall apart, everyone else?” As an example of the question of “Why us?” Mr. And Juliet Essay. Hemmelgarn pointed to the following question from an fall missionaries essay, actual application: “Why are you considering The Ohio State University?” In counseling his students on designer babies how to approach their answer, Mr. Hemmelgarn said he tells them that colleges “want to hear a little about themselves.” And that, he said, usually requires some research. One other tip from Mr. Hemmelgarn: When an applicant is asked a question like, “Indicate a person who has had a significant influence on you,” as appears on the Common Application, what the college is really seeking is something about you (as in how you are similar to the person, or different.)
“The college is not accepting grandpa,” Mr. Hemmelgarn said. Essay. “They want to thesis designer babies, know what qualities of grandpa do you have.” Do readers of things fall apart missionaries essay The Choice have similar advice to anne analysis, pass along? Please use the comment box below to let us know. Comments are no longer being accepted. My advice to all is to be yourself. Things Fall Apart Missionaries. Let your writing reflect who you are and how you approach problems in your life.
Write that, and the college that recognizes individuality (something I highly prize) will come calling with financial aid. I don’t care what the colleges are looking for, YOU know what YOU are looking for, and you know what type of person you are. If the college wants you for you, they’ll admit you. My younger brother is a high school junior, and he has Asperger’s. While my parents are focusing on helping him find schools that will accommodate his condition, I want to encourage him to make his applications to those schools as good as they can be.
I anticipate that he will find the college essay especially difficult, since he’s never been good at “selling himself” in the way that colleges ask you to. Does anyone know of resources to spondylothesis, help students on the autistic spectrum navigate the college admissions process? 25 admissions essays over the course of 25 weeks is ridiculous overkill. As those of fall you who read my recent article (http://www.satsuccesssecrets.com/5-lies-about-sat-prep/) know, I’m not a big fan of the College Board. However, this is some really good information about how to make the most of anne analysis your college admissions essay. By the time you write your essay, there are only 3 parts of your college application that you have control over: your senior mid term exams, your last chance at the SAT, and your college essay. Everything else is already in the books. I’ve been working with kid applying to college for a long time, and fall apart I strongly recommend taking this advice to heart and spondylothesis really putting your mind to missionaries, answering the guestimate coursework questions, “Why you?” and “Why us?”. It can really make a difference.
Yeah, I agree. That is completely ridiculous. Nice idea–but if your kid was like my kid, he was already doing homework on most Saturday nights. So were the other highly competitive kids in his class. (Believe me, this was not my idea–he was just incredibly driven. And he did get into the top college he wanted, so I guess it was worthwhile–at least he thinks so!). Apart. Yes, it’s good to write a good college essay, but not if it comes at the expense of the grades that are going to get you into rules, that great college you want to go to! My daughter has written eight different essays so far for scholarships and applications, and fall essay she is only half-way through the process. I wish she had generated more ideas when she was a junior. A possible resource is Realizing the College Dream with Asperger Syndrome by Anne Palmer and/or Succeeding in Colleg with Asperger Syndrome by John Harpur, Maria Lawlor and Michael Fitzgerald.
My wife and I had suggested a topic to our daughter but her essay came out forced. A few days later, she surprised us us with an designer babies, essay on another topic that was literate and flowed naturally. This took place over the summer when the pressure was much less. She is seeking admission to schools where she has a good chance of being accepted, anyway, based on apart missionaries essay her high school record and interests. The world does not start with Yale and end with Harvard.
Her essay is clearly in the ballpark and it is writing done. Things Apart. Let’s not hype these kids into more stress than they already have. Aim for maths appropriate and things essay well-written and avoid the hackneyed. (Bravo to Nicola for Comment No. 1.) As aparent who just completed the college application with my daughter, I have two peices of anne frank essay advice. One, have students start drafting their essays during the summer before senior year. Things Fall Apart. It is a time where they have little pressure. Second and most important, have someone other than a parent review the essay. No matter how hard we try, parents are jaded when it comes to their kids. Spondylothesis. Have someone who does not know your child review the essays.
The feedback can be valuable. I agree with Sam (#3). And I’m also a writer and things fall missionaries essay writing teacher (as well as a college counselor). Sure, students should be honing their essay writing (and reading) skills, but it seems myopic to repeat this exercise that many times, especially since students would also be well served by working on critical writing and reading, as well as the personal essay. For those applying to Harvard or Yale: the essay is the first date, the interview is the second date and thesis babies the third date is things essay when your parents make a huge donation to the school. I’m so glad I went to college 40 years ago. I’m also glad I went to college a while ago (only 10 years ago), but I never felt the pressure these kids feel. I love your tips here. Such good advice. One of grades our student bloggers over at myUsearch wrote a great article about the college essay she wrote to get into Yale. Things Apart Essay. Hope this helps: http://myusearchblog.com/the-college-essay-you-in-500-words-or-less.
Also, beware the over-edited-overworked-by-five-critics essay result where the fresh original voice of the 17-18 year old applicant has been lost. As a parent, I make it a point to go back to the very first draft quite often, and ask (out loud) “what was catchy about this essay idea to essay rules, being with?” and “is it still there in this current draft?”. This also means that one should not actually write anything for the applicant (you know who you are, parents!) — not only is it unethical, it also puts the idea in your voice, not theirs. Fall Missionaries. Discussing ideas around the dining table (on cell phone, more realistically?), is fair and good I think, much as they would do with a teacher in school. I remember writing my college essays. Paragraph Argumentative Essay. My high school class started with 269 members. We graduated 180. Only about half went to college. I remember seeking advice from a guidance counselor about liberal arts colleges, and he told me not to get my hopes up because I likely wouldn’t get a good enough scholarship to things apart, attend.
I ended up getting nearly full rides to spondylothesis, everywhere I applied, and a full ride to school that I did attend. Things Fall Apart Missionaries Essay. I never showed my guidance counselor my essays, because if he was so stupid as to suggest that I would not get scholarships as an Appalachian student from a poor school district with an ACT composite of 32 who had qualified for guestimate maths coursework one of the national forensic competitions 3 out of 4 years, then he was probably too stupid to offer valid critique. I suppose that what I’m saying is that I’m jealous of missionaries essay high school students who come from a world where their parents and teachers are supportive of their college application efforts. Instead, coming from a poor rural school district, I got teachers who accused me of plagiarism when I showed them my writing and spondylothesis grades guidance counselors who told me I’d never get into fall apart essay, Bryn Mawr. I’m wondering which is more common for American high school students. Sam, 25 admissions essays over the course of 25 weeks is refutation argumentative essay so not ridiculous overkill. Fall Missionaries Essay. It’s a lot like a real job, innit?
An intro to the world of and juliet essay work, you might say. My daughter began her college essay, “All my life there have been bugs.” She had fun with it. Things. She is now a junior at Swarthmore College. Wow – my essay was nothing like that. I think it was about a favorite book I read, and why I liked it. Thesis Designer. Geez, like a first date? I’m not marrying my college. And really, I can write an essay (or a cover letter) gushing about U of Fill-in-the-blank, or XYZ, Inc. but I’m just gonna copy and apart essay paste five other names into that space, and everyone knows it. This whole process is becoming too overwhelming and too emotionally charged. I took the SAT once, sent my scores and transcript, got two teachers to write recommendations, wrote my essay (ONE essay was written ONCE), and grades sent my app in. End of story.
The best advice my daughter received was to have confidence in her essay and things missionaries not worry about WHAT SHE SHOULD do! A first date?? Are you kidding? Robert Frost once said that people who don’t understand comparisons aren’t safe to cross the street. I’d say that people who pick up a silly comparison and grades consider it seriously are in things, even more danger. How absolutely ridiculous to have junior write that many college essays. When it’s time for kids to romeo and juliet essay titles, write the fall essay college essay, it’s time for kids to consider the topics. The summer before senior year is the time to start thinking–at the very earliest. On another note, you might want to anne, investigate the things apart missionaries merit of this practice at Bexley by asking the students who were subjected to that regimen of college essay writing. Thesis. You might be surprised at their answers. 25 essays over 25 weeks is “like a real job”?
Try a second job. If you’re talking about a job, how about the job of being a high school student? — that’s what I wish students were focused on, instead of the fetishized industry of college admissions. In a way, I like that idea, but I’m not convinced that 5 essays over 5 weeks won’t accomplish a good chunk of the same idea. 25 over 25 weeks extends from the spring of junior year, when kids should really be focused on their schoolwork, into the beginning of apart senior year, when kids should be focused on the most college-like tasks they’ll have to anne frank essay, take on during high school (assuming, that is, that their school is giving them enough of things fall missionaries essay a challenge). I’m also a teacher of writing, but mainly I’m a teacher of teenagers. I’m sickened when I hear such overwhelming tasks and pressures put on students who are busy with being students and kids. And Juliet Titles. As suggested by #1, 5, 17, 18, and 19, you will end up in a college that is suitable for things fall missionaries you, and grades you will be fine. As a high school drop-out, I had no school counselors advising me about things missionaries essay my college essays; I was oblivious re: need to tell a story that set me apart from my peers. etc. Babies. etc. etc.I applied to only one university, a US News #038; World Report top 20. I got in, and graduated in apart essay, May ’09. My first semester, I audaciously asked an admissions officer, why me, and not someone more worthy, she stated that my essays were forthright and maths free of the usual highly edited and coached quote unquote drivel.
My advice re: writing good admissions essays: do not under any circumstances show your parents, or any present or former teachers your essays until after you get accepted, be humble, don’t show off. (Sorry: didn’t make my disagreement clear enough [#21]. Things Fall. The teacher who did 25 in 25 weeks did it during the school year, for his English course. Romeo And Juliet Essay Titles. My concern was with people trying to fall apart missionaries essay, replicate that without it being a teacher assignment — in essay rules, other words, on top of the existing schoolwork. Things Essay. I quibble with the effort required even within a class, and wonder what else those students were working on during those 25 weeks, but I respect the teacher’s inclination to have his class write extensively and reflectively.)
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40+ Most Common Mobile Testing Interview Questions and Answers with Sample Mobile Testing Resume. Fall Missionaries Essay. Welcome once again to grades, Part 2 of the mobile testing career guide. Part 1 dealt with what is required to acquire the necessary skills certifications to missionaries essay, qualify as a mobile tester and we also passed on some time-tested tips and tricks that are sure to be helpful. In today’s article, we will focus more on the logistics of mobile testing resumes and the top frequently asked mobile testing interview questions . Refutation. Let’s get right to it. What You Will Learn: How to prepare a good resume to apply for fall missionaries essay, mobile testing jobs or positions? A mobile application testing resume sample is attached to give an idea on how to prioritize skills in a resume. Key points and essay rules the rules of essay writing a cohesive resume are similar to that of a normal QA resume. = Download sample resume for mobile testing jobs.
It should include contact info, a summary of your work, skills, educational background and details of the project you worked on frank essay, so far also roles and things apart essay responsibilities. Check out the below articles for more info and the above sample to essay writing, bring this concept home. When transitioning to be a Mobile tester it is things fall a great help if you have some prior QA testing experience If not, it is at least a good idea to learn the romeo titles basics of software testing concepts- such as SDLC, STLC, how to fall apart missionaries essay, write test cases, status reports, etc. An educational background in frank analysis essay computer science can be helpful, although it’s not a must. A programming language experience can also be very helpful. Things Fall Missionaries Essay. Now, let’s look at another artifact that is critical for job seekers- The cover letter. Below is a sample: Mobile Testing Job Application Cover Letter Sample.
Mobile Test Engineer Cover Letter Sample: Sub: Cover Letter – Mobile Testing Engineer. I am writing in response to your job notification for. the position of a Mobile Testing Engineer on XYZ site. I am working as a Mobile Testing Engineer for XYZ Co. Ltd for the last 5 years and happy to paragraph essay, mention some. of things missionaries essay my achievements in this role: Expertise in Manual Testing/mobile application testing, iOS, Symbian, Blackberry, Android Mobile applications. Validation using simulators and emulators and essay writing also. with real time devices. Writing and executing of Test Cases. Function and regression testing. Please find my attached CV for the same. Request you to let me know if any more details are required. Thank you for your time and looking forward to hearing from you.
Thanks and Regards, Now the things missionaries interviews and some help on how to romeo and juliet essay, prepare for them. We open up this section with the following: Most frequently asked Mobile Testing Interview Questions and Answers: These are some top basic and advanced mobile testing and mobile application testing interview questions and answers for freshers and experienced candidates. Q #1) What is the difference between Mobile device testing and mobile application testing? Ans. Mobile device testing means testing the mobile device and mobile application testing means testing of the mobile application on a mobile device. Things Fall Apart. Q #2) What are the types of mobile applications? Ans. Mobile applications are of spondylothesis grades three types: Native Application Native app installed from application store like Android’s google play and apart missionaries apple’ app store. The application which can be installed into your devices and run is known as a native application for E.G. whats App, Angry birds etc. Web Application Web applications run from mobile web browsers like Chrome, Firefox, Opera, Safari etc using mobile network or WIFI.
E.G. of web browser applications are m.facebook.com, m.gmail.com, m.yahoo.com, m.rediffmail.com etc. Spondylothesis. Hybrid Application- Hybrid apps are combinations of native app and web app. Fall Apart. They can run on devices or offline and are written using web technologies like HTML5 and maths CSS. For E.G. eBay, Flipkart etc. Q #3) How to test CPU usage on mobile devices? Ans.
There are various tools available in the market like google play or app store from where you can install apps like CPU Monitor, Usemon, CPU Stats, CPU-Z etc these are an advanced tool which records historical information about processes running on your device. Q #4) What are the defects tracking tools used for mobile testing? Ans. You can use same testing tool which you use for web application testing like QC, Jira, Rally, and Bugzilla etc. Q #5) What all major networks to be considered while performing application testing? Ans. You should test the application on things essay, 4G, 3G, 2G, and WIFI. 2G is a slower network, it#8217;s good if you verify your application on a slower network also to track your application performance. Q #6) When performing sanity test on the mobile application what all criteria should be taken into consideration?
Installation and uninstallation of the essay writing application Verify the device in different available networks like 2G, 3G, 4G or WIFI. Functional testing Interrupt testing- Able to receive the calls while running the things apart essay application. Compatibility testing able to analysis, attach the photo in message from gallery Test application performance on a different handset. Make some negative testing by apart missionaries entering the invalid credentials and test the behavior of the application. Q #7) Which things to consider testing a mobile application through black box technique? By testing your application on multiple devices.
By changing the guestimate maths port and things missionaries IP addresses to make sure the frank analysis essay device is getting connected and disconnected properly. Things Apart Missionaries. By making calls and sending messages to other devices. By testing your web application on different mobile browsers like Chrome, Firefox, opera, dolphin etc. Q #8) What is the latest version of iOS? Ans. iOS 8. (This changes quite often, so please check the apple site for most recent info) Q #9) What is the latest version of Android? Ans. Lollipop 5.0–5.0.2 (also changes often). See all here. Q #10) What is the extension of Android files? .apk (Android application package) Q#11) What is the extension of iOS files? Q #12) What is the full form of MMS?
Ans. Multimedia Messaging Services. Q #13) What are MT and MO in maths coursework SMS? Ans. Sending message is known as MO (Message originate) and receiving the message is known as MT(Message Terminate) Ans. WAP is Wireless Application Protocol used in network apps. Q #15) What is GPRS and how it works?
Ans. GPRS is General Packet Radio Service which works on a mobile network with the help of things apart missionaries essay IP transmissions. GPRS provides the transmission of IP packets over existing cellular networks. It provides you internet services on spondylothesis grades, mobile. Q #16) What is the latest version of Windows? Q #17) What do you mean by fall Streaming media? Ans. Streaming is a process of downloading the spondylothesis data from the server. Streaming media is the multimedia that is transferred from server or provider to the receiver.
Q #18) What are the automation tools available for fall, mobile application testing? Ans. There are many automation tools available in the market for guestimate, mobile application testing but iPhone Tester is one of the things apart essay best tools to test the application on guestimate, iPhones and screenfly for fall apart missionaries, android devices. Q #19) What is the best way to test different screen sizes of the devices? Q #20) What is the basic difference between Emulator and Simulator? Ans. The emulator is guestimate coursework based on hardware and software wherein simulator is fall based on software. Simulation is a system that behaves similar to something else while emulation is a system that exactly behaves like something else. Q #21) What are the common challenges in mobile application testing? Ans. Working on analysis essay, different operating systems, a variety of handsets, different networks, a variety of apart screen size.
Read more here = 5 Mobile testing challenges and solutions. Q #22) What are the tools based on cloud-based mobile testing? Ans. Seetest, Perfecto Mobile, BlazeMeter, AppThwack, Manymo, DeviceAnywhere etc. Q #23) What web services are used by spondylothesis a mobile app? Ans. They are many depend upon the application. Things Apart Missionaries Essay. SOAP and REST web services are used but RESRful is more common now.
Q #24) What all devices have you worked till now? Ans. Android, Symbian, Windows, iPhone etc. Essay. Q #25) How to create Emulator on Android? Ans. Give a name in name field - select target API from the list - enter the size - select the things required skin section - click on create AVD - select the required AVD - click on start button - launch it. Q #26) Does Selenium support mobile internet testing?
Ans. Yes, it does, Opera browser is used for Mobile internet testing. Q #27) Does Selenium support Google Android Operating System? Ans. Yes, Selenium 2.0 supports Android Operating System.
Q #28) Name debugging tools for mobile? Ans. Errors can be verified by the generated logs. We can use configuration utility on iOS and android monitor.bat on thesis designer, android. Here are few to name Android DDMS, Remote Debugging on Android with Chrome, Debugging from fall missionaries Eclipse with ADT, Android Debug Bridge, iOS simulator etc. Q #29) Name mobile automation testing tools you know? Ranorex, Silk Mobile, SeeTest. Appium, Robotium, KIF, Calabash. Analysis. Q #30) What is the things strategy used to test new mobile app?
System integration testing Functional testing Installation and uninstallation of the app Test HTML control Performance Check in multiple mobile OS Cross browser and cross-device testing Gateway testing Network and Battery testing. Q #31) What does a test plan for Mobile App contain? Ans. Test plan for mobile app is essay very similar to software app. Objective Automation tools required required features to be tested: network security performance size battery memory features not to be tested display size resolution Test cases Test Strategy Tested by Time required No. of things fall resources required. Q #32) Why mobile phone has 10 digit numbers? Ans.
The number of digits in a mobile phone number decide the thesis babies maximum mobile phones we can have without dialing the country code. Q #33) Explain critical bugs that you come across while testing in mobile devices or application? Ans. Apart Missionaries. Explain the example as per spondylothesis, your experience. Here are top 10 mobile app risks. Q #34) Name mobile application testing tools. Things Fall Apart Missionaries. Android Android Lint Find Bugs iPhone Clang Static Analyzer Analyze code from XCode. Q #35) Full form of the various extensions. apk – Android Application Package File exe – Executable Files iPA –iOS App Store Package prc – Palm Resource Compiler jad – Java Application Descriptor adb – Android Debug Bridge Aapt – Android Asset Packing Tool. Guestimate Maths. Q #36) How to test different screen sizes of the devices. Ans.
It is a component used in software to perform the task. It is like an interface between one program to another. Apart Missionaries. Q #38) What are the roles and coursework responsibilities on a current mobile application you are testing? Ans. Answer based on your experience on things essay, the current project you are working on. Also, read mobile testing career guide. Q #39) How to create the log file? Q #40) How can we install the build on iPhones and iPads?
Q #41) Can we use QTP/UFT for mobile automation testing? Ans. Yes, with the help of Seetest add-in. Q #42) Is cloud base mobile testing possible? Name any? Ans. Yes, Perfecto Mobile and Seetest. Essay. Ans. This can be done with new versions of the mobile application. Those are some of the best mobile app testing interview questions that will help you understand the trends and things fall apart missionaries the kinds of questions that you could expect in a mobile testing job interview.
However, this list is neither exhaustive nor will always question be as direct- this is spondylothesis grades just to set the stage to get you in the groove. With this, we have reached the end of the Mobile Testing career guide and things fall apart essay as always, we wish this series has been helpful. Please let us know how we did and enrich this series with your participation. hello thanks for the resume and cover letter samples. cool. please share more interview questions for mobile device testing. nice. thanks for interview questions its really helpful. Amazing for beginners#8230;. #8220;Mobile device testing means testing the mobile device and mobile application testing means testing of mobile application on a mobile device.#8221; Yes, and designer babies blue means blue#8230; some example should be helpful in case you use the very same expressions for the explanation as the apart missionaries question itself. yes agree with your answers, one question that what is the reason behind lagy speed of the mobile phone. Thesis Designer Babies. Thanks for things fall missionaries, you great work.
Please share question relating to mobile installation for different devices and in different types of writing installation. Thanks for things essay, great info. Keep up the great work. Guestimate Coursework. Thanks alot for helping me by this concept:). It helped me very much. Things Fall Missionaries. i want to babies, know one thing when i restart my mobile time get change 9.00 am whats the reason of time 9.00 am. Plz can you suggest to me.
Mobile repairing interview quations. How to get and which site. Send me link and site my id. Q #20) What is the basic difference between Emulator and Simulator? Need more Clarification answered is not satisfied. Thank u for tat good info..itz very useful to beginners. Thanks Great Info#8230; Q #20) Please provide clear proper explanation. plz tell me the difference between Mobile app based testing and Wed based testing. bcoz it was asked me in an interview. please clear me.
Q #20) What is the basic difference between Emulator and Simulator? Need more Clarification with example. Excellent blog on Mobile Testing. Thanks a Lot. what are the techniques of things fall essay mobile app testing?list of them.plz explain any of three techniques of mobile app testing thanks. Superb#8230;Plz Share more interview Web Application Testing questions#8230; Who offers these training? Its simply brilliant move. Superb..this questions help a lot to who make career as Mobile tester.
Its really helpfull#8230;thank you. Very useful tips for maths, those people who are going to give their first interview. Fall Apart. I have also read nice blog on babies, interview which let you know that is your interview can you get the fall apart missionaries Job and very insightful. Keep Sharing. Guestimate Maths. Can you please explain Question No.25. I did not understand it. How do you create Emulator in Android device? what does it mean? Can you elaborate more on Simulator Emulators? Sorry, i did not undertstand from missionaries essay above definition.
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The role of the missionaries in Achebe's Things Fall …
English and Comparative Literary Studies. EN123: RECENT ESSAY TOPICS/EXAM QUESTIONS. LITERATURE IN THE MODERN WORLD (EN123), 2008-09. 2 nd assessed essay. Deadline Monday 11 May 2009 (summer term, beginning of week 4). Length: 2,000 words (Year 1 students); 3,000 words (Honours level students) The following topics are suggestions.
You are free to come up with a title of your own so long as it is discussed with, and specifically approved by, your seminar tutor by the end of Week 1 of the fall essay, Summer Term. Whatever the topic, your essay should focus on writing some aspect of work covered in the Spring Term. The mark will count towards your final mark for this module (in the case of year 1 students as 25%; for other students, assessment patterns vary). Material used in the essay should not be substantially repeated in any other assessed coursework or examination. ‘What I have most wanted to do is to make political writing into an art.’ (George Orwell, ‘Why I Write’.) How far did Orwell and/or another writer you have read during the second half of the module succeed in this? ‘War worked as a thinning of the apart missionaries, membrane between the this and the that.’ (Elizabeth Bowen, The Heat of the Day .) Discuss how the process Elizabeth Bowen refers to is communicated either in The Heat of the Day and/or in another work or works you have read during the second half of the module. It has been said that although Samuel Beckett wrote for performance, he increasingly restricted the freedom of his actors and directors. Discuss this view in relation to a comparison between Waiting for Godot and one or more of Beckett’s subsequent plays, such as Happy Days or Not I . ‘ write it!’ Is it true to say that problems of romeo and juliet titles representation are the central theme of Elizabeth Bishop and/or any other author you studied in the spring term?
Critics of Heart of Darkness have argued about how adequate it is as a critique of imperialism. Either give your own verdict on this question or consider whether there are other ways of approaching the novel, or both. A Grain of things fall missionaries Wheat was published in 1967. Is it the same novel today? 1 st assessed essay. Deadline 16 February 2009 (beginning of week 7).
Length: 2,000 words (Year 1 students); 3,000 words (Honours level students) The following topics are suggestions. You are free to come up with a title of your own so long as it is discussed with, and specifically approved by, your seminar tutor by essay rules, the end of Week 2 of the Spring Term. Whatever the things fall apart missionaries essay, topic, your essay should focus on some aspect of work covered in romeo essay the Autumn Term and things missionaries, / or the first fourteen weeks of the Spring Term. The mark will count towards your final mark for thesis designer, this module (in the case of things missionaries year 1 students as 25%; for other students, assessment patterns vary). Material used in the essay should not be substantially repeated in and juliet essay any other assessed coursework or examination. Discuss any work studied in the first fourteen weeks of the module in close relation to a relevant aspect or aspects of the social / political / historical context in which it was written. 2 ‘The whole of literature [is now] the missionaries essay, problematics of language.’ Roland Barthes. Discuss this notion with reference to romeo essay two or three texts you have studied on this module.
3 ‘He is a great hater of democracy, of the modern world, science, machinery, the concept of progress above all the idea of human equality. Much of the things apart essay, imagery of his work is feudal. He is romeo and juliet titles best studied by someone who can approach a poet primarily as a poet, but who knows that a writer’s political and religious beliefs are not excrescences to be laughed away, but something that will leave their mark on even the essay, smallest detail of his work.’ (George Orwell, in Horizon , January 1943, reprinted in William H. Rules. Pritchard, ed., W.B.Yeats , Penguin Critical Anthologies, 1972, 187-93.) Discuss this view of Yeats, or apply it to any other writer studied on the module to apart whom you think it relevant. 4 Consider the view that in the concern of paragraph Eliot’s poetry with ‘different voices’, the voices of otherwise silenced women are particularly significant. 5 Discuss the treatment of things fall one of the following in the work of and juliet essay titles any writer(s) you have studied in essay the first fourteen weeks of the module: urban life; work; technological change; families; nostalgia for anne analysis, the past.
‘Things fall apart; the centre cannot hold.’ Is modern literature complicit in the process of disintegration referred to by Yeats, or does it merely reflect this aspect of the society in fall apart essay which it exists? Discuss the ways in refutation paragraph which novels by Joyce, Kafka, Virginia Woolf or Henry Green substitute psychological drama for external event. ‘If we ask what it is [Orwell] stands for, what he is the figure of, the answer is: the virtue of not being a genius, of fronting the things fall apart missionaries, world with nothing more than one’s simple, direct, undeceived intelligence, and a respect for the powers one does have what a relief! What an encouragement. For he communicates to argumentative essay us the sense that what he has done, any one of things fall apart us could do.’ (Lionel Trilling) Discuss. Consider Wallace Stevens’s claim that that ‘In the presence of the violent reality of war, consciousness takes the place of the imagination.’ Is Tom Stoppard’s Travesties more than a clever work of criticism? LITERATURE IN THE MODERN WORLD (EN123), 2007-08. 1 st assessed essay.
Deadline 18 February 2008 (Spring Term, beginning of week 7). ‘blood shaking my heart / The awful daring of a moment’s surrender’ (T.S.Eliot, The Waste Land , ll 402-03). Discuss the view that, even at its most erudite, experimental and / or politically engaged, most modernist writing is at bottom about traditional themes like love and death. Discuss the use of narrative structure or narrative point of designer view in any two works of this period. Evelyn Waugh wrote that in Living , Henry Green created a literary language out of ordinary speech. Discuss this claim and its implications, whether in relation to Green or to another writer. What do imaginative writers tell us about the modern world which historians don’t? ‘Examine an ordinary mind on an ordinary day’ (Virginia Woolf, in ‘Mr Bennett and Mrs Brown’, 1924.) Which writer(s) of this period seem(s) to things missionaries you to come closest to carrying out Virginia Woolf’s advice, and how is it done?
Make a case for comparing any work of this time with work in another form, medium or language (a novel with a play, a literary work with a musical or visual one, a text in babies translation with its original). Discuss any work of this period in the light of the ideas put into play by Tom Stoppard in missionaries Travesties . 1. Analyse the guestimate maths, effects of either the Cold War or the Vietnam War on work of this period. 2. The use of literary texts to represent social, political and other cultural movements involves a risk that more ‘purely’ literary aspects or standards are neglected. Discuss any work of the period in the light of this issue. 3. At what point and in what ways do you see Modernism as having been superseded by things apart missionaries essay, Postmodernism in literature you have read for spondylothesis, this module? 4. Michael Robinson has suggested that Beckett’s turn to theatre from prose fiction allowed him the ‘ability to fall missionaries essay provide visual evidence for guestimate maths, language’s untrustworthiness’. Discuss how the untrustworthiness of language is treated in any work of missionaries this period. 5. Make a claim for describing any works of grades this period as one of the things, following, while also considering any problems the paragraph, label involves: philosophical; surrealist; nationalist; absurdist; religious.
6. The module covers a wide range of literatures and genres. With close reference to examples, argue the case for things apart missionaries essay, including some work written in this period in refutation a form or from a national/linguistic culture not illustrated by fall apart essay, the set texts. 7. Many texts of this period caused offence, often designedly, by transgressing current codes of sexual morality or religious belief, or artistic or political conventions. Either a) discuss the merits of particular works in these terms, while also showing in what ways their immediate impact has and/or has not survived; or b) consider in detail today’s arguments about cultural / religious respect vs. freedom of expression in anne analysis comparison with a mid twentieth century equivalent or equivalents. 1st assessed essay. 1. Write on the relationship between individuals and their physical context for things missionaries, example, home, neighbourhood, workplace in work you read for the first half of this module. 2. ‘When the designer, soul of a man is born in this country, there are nets flung at it to things missionaries essay hold it back from flight.
You talk to essay writing me of nationality, language, religion. I shall try to fly by fall apart missionaries essay, those nets [ie, fly past them, escape them].’ James Joyce, A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man (1916). Discuss attitudes to any one or two of these ‘nets’ (nationality, language, religion) in work by a writer or writers studied during the first half of this module. 3. Many writers of this period have been embattled, whether literally or metaphorically. Discuss how their work has used this condition. 4. Grades. From the reader’s point of view, what are the essential differences between poetry and fall apart essay, prose or fiction and non-fiction?
Your answer should focus on specific examples. 5. Discuss in detail the connections between any written text of this period and work in spondylothesis grades another art form of the things apart missionaries essay, same period (for example, film, music, painting, sculpture). 6. D.H.Lawrence said that ‘in 1915 the old world ended’. Romeo Essay. Show how a work or works you studied in the first part of this module represents a world conceived of as new, or continues an older tradition, or both. 7. Fall Essay. Discuss in detail the use of verse form by any poet studied in the first half of the module. 8. ‘My characters are conglomerations of past and present stages of civilization, bits from and juliet essay, books and newspapers, scraps of humanity, rags and tatters patched together as is the human soul.’ (August Strindberg.) Discuss fragmentariness in work of things fall missionaries this period. 9. ‘the ordinary town proletariat, the people who make the world go round, have always been ignored by novelists’ (George Orwell, ‘Charles Dickens’). Guestimate Maths Coursework. Are Orwell’s words true of novelists in the period covered by things fall missionaries essay, this module?
10. Discuss the narrative handling of time in any work of this period. 11. ‘War, if you come to and juliet think of fall apart missionaries essay it, hasn’t started anything that wasn’t there already.’ (Harrison, in Elizabeth Bowen’s The Heat of the Day .) Discuss the view that war literature exposes some of the babies, underlying realities of apart missionaries ‘peace’. 12. ‘Committed art in the proper sense is not intended to generate ameliorative measures, legislative acts or practical institutions but to romeo titles work at the level of fundamental attitudes.’ (Theodor Adorno, in Aesthetics and Politics .) Make a case for describing any work you have read on the module as ‘committed’, in these terms. Preliminary essay (unassessed) 04/05 : roughly 2000 words. Deadline: week 7 seminar.
Answers to things fall apart missionaries essay questions 1-3 should mainly focus on either two poems or one long poem. 1. ‘there’s more enterprise / In walking naked’ (Yeats, ‘A Coat’) Discuss the interplay between, on essay writing rules the one hand, mythology, metaphor, allusion and other ‘poetic’ kinds of writing, and, on the other, a more ‘naked’ approach, with reference to work by Yeats, Eliot or William Carlos Williams. 2. Which of the poets studied in the first half of this term seems to you to respond most interestingly to the challenges of innovation? 3. Discuss the question whether the subject of The Waste Land is less the things fall apart missionaries essay, breakdown of Europe than a process of breakdown and reintegration as it occurs in romeo essay the individual psyche. 4. Yeats’s ‘Lapis Lazuli’ and Brecht’s ‘To Those Born Later’ were written in, and about, the mid to fall apart essay late 1930s. Explore the similarities and differences between the paragraph essay, two poems, particularly in terms of what they have to say about literature’s relation to its political context. 5. Compare an English translation (or translations) of any poem of the 1920s or 30s with the things essay, original, both in detail and in such a way as to make a more general point about the processes involved. Length: 2,000 words (Year 1 students); 3,000 words (Honours level students) The following topics are suggestions.
You are free to come up with a title of your own so long as it is discussed with, and anne essay, specifically approved by, your seminar tutor by the end of Week 2 of the things apart, Spring Term. Whatever the topic, your essay should focus on spondylothesis grades some aspect of things fall missionaries work covered in the first half of the module. Before starting work, remind yourself of the guidance on assessed work given in the English Department’s Student Handbook, pp 9-12. The mark will count towards your final mark for this module (in the case of year 1 students as 25%; for other students, assessment patterns vary). Material used in the essay should not be substantially repeated in any other assessed coursework or examination. 1. Discuss in detail up to three poems which for you characterise the best qualities of the work of Yeats or another poet.
2. ‘we know that Eliot’s methods were prepared for him not by Freud but by other poets’ (Lionel Trilling). Consider Eliot’s work, or the work of designer another poet or poets studied on things essay the module, either as being about the modern psyche or as reworking earlier texts, or both. 3. ‘The jump between fact and thesis, imaginative reality’ (William Carlos Williams, ‘Spring and All’). Discuss any poetry you have read on the course to which you think these words can be applied. 4. Joyce said he sought to write Dubliners in a style of ‘scrupulous meanness’. What do you take this to mean, and fall apart essay, how does it work? 5. The word ‘Kafkaesque’ is often used of paranoid psychological states and sinister political situations. What do you see as the most striking elements of Kafka’s vision for a reader today? 6. Toni Morrison wrote as a young woman that what she found in the work of Virginia Woolf and another modernist fiction writer, William Faulkner, was ‘an effort to discover what pattern of existence is most conducive to refutation paragraph honesty and apart missionaries, self-knowledge, the prime requisites for living a significant life.’ Make a case for reading any work of the essay writing rules, period in this light. 7. Missionaries. The subject of war confronts the writer, perhaps more acutely than most other subjects, with problems of style and tone. Essay. Discuss any writer’s efforts to find an appropriate register for the unspeakable.
8. Readers have ‘the licence and injunction to read [any] work of apart essay literature with a sense of its latent and ambiguous meanings.’ Discuss how this idea works in practice in relation to any one work or group of works, considering any dangers in the approach, as well as its advantages. 9. Fiction, fact, poetry, prose, essay, literature, argument, propaganda, myth, fantasy: discuss the boundary lines between any two or three of these, and how they have been crossed in writing of the period. 10. Discuss any translation you have read on this course, comparing it closely with the original. Designer Babies. (You may, if you wish, compare two rival translations of the same text, but, again, with close reference to the original version.) Length: 2,000 words (Year 1 students); 3,000 words (Honours level students) The following topics are suggestions. You are free to come up with a title of your own so long as it is discussed with, and things, specifically approved by, your seminar tutor by the end of the Spring Term. Frank. Whatever the topic, your essay should mainly focus on some aspect of work covered in the Spring Term. Before starting work, you should have read the English Department’s guide to Essay Writing Scholarly Practice and also the notes on assessed work in the Student Handbook, pp 9-12. The mark will count towards your final mark for this module (in the case of year 1 students as 25%; for other students, assessment patterns vary). Material used in the essay should not be substantially repeated in any other assessed coursework or examination.
1. ‘The relation of people to one another is things fall missionaries essay subject to the relation of each to time’ (The Heat of the Day, ch. 10). Babies. Explore The Heat of the Day and/or any other work you have studied on the module during the Spring Term in the light of these words. 2. What is the role of literature, storytelling and/or any other art form in If This is a Man and/or any other work you have studied on things missionaries the module during the romeo, Spring Term? 3. ‘You see, my memory is defective’ (Pozzo in Waiting for Godot ). Discuss the missionaries essay, theme of memory in Beckett's play and/or any other text studied in the second half of the module. 4. A quality sometimes praised in Elizabeth Bishop’s work is its avoidance of ‘autobiographical self-excavation’. Either: If this is guestimate a negative way of things missionaries praising her poetry, what would the positive ones be? Or: Discuss the essay titles, ways in which autobiographical self-excavation is in apart essay fact used in Bishop’s work, and/or in that of any other of this term’s writers. 5. Discuss the connections between form and meaning in work by any of this term’s authors. 6. The 1940s term ‘containment’ refers most immediately to the US policy of halting the expansion of Soviet power during the Cold War. It can also, though, refer to repression of dissidence or nonconformity closer to home.
How does containment, in whatever ense, figure in the work of an author or authors of this period? 7. ‘Literature, so far from manifesting any trend towards uniformity or standardisation, is evolving in babies the most disparate ways . . . Apart. it is a pity that English Literature is maintaining a narrow ascendancy tradition instead of broadbasing itself on all the diverse cultural elements and the splendid variety of languages and dialects, in the British Isles and coursework, beyond’ (Hugh MacDiarmid, ‘English Ascendancy in British Literature’). Apply this argument to any of the texts you have studied on the module during the Spring Term. 8. Write on the relationships - political and cultural, literary and formal - between Europe and Africa as presented by Ngugi Wa Thiong’o in A Grain of Wheat . 9. The Age of Anxiety; Theatre of the Absurd; the Empire Writes Back; the Other . What are the uses and things missionaries essay, limitations of one of these slogans or another label you have encountered - in relation to work you have read this term? 10. In most of the works studied this term, the Second Word War and its immediate aftermath are crucial presences.
At the guestimate maths coursework, same time, however, the physical world of war is missionaries often distant or marginal within those works. And Juliet. Explore the impact of war in any two works. 11. ‘Holy the groaning saxophone! Holy the bop apocalypse! Holy the jazz bands marijuana hipsters peace and junk and drums!’ (Ginsberg, Footnote to fall apart essay Howl ). Refutation Essay. The evolving forms of jazz music provided a vital cultural lexicon for the Beat poets, but jazz was also important to British writers, notably for Philip Larkin and other Movement poets. Explore and things fall missionaries, contrast the different ways in which any two writers you have read this term approach jazz or any other cultural practice / art form. Answer 2 questions. You are encouraged to show the range of your reading, and essay rules, may include relevant works which are not set texts. Things Apart Essay. In each of your essays, though, you should at some point focus on at least one work, or group of works, which you have read for the module. Do not substantially repeat material from assessed essays.
1. ‘All serious students of texts from the past texts of any genre are historians’ (E.D.Hirsch, Validity and Interpretation .) With close reference to work(s) studied on the module, consider how far they require historical contextualization and, by contrast, what it is about them that enables them to refutation paragraph essay be read ‘for themselves’. 2. ‘How shall I be a mirror to this modernity?’ (William Carlos Williams, ‘The Wanderer.’) Discuss the ways in which the work of any writer or writer studied on the module responds to this question. 3. It’s often said that one of the characteristics of modern literature and drama is the substitution of psychology for external event. Show how any works of this period do, or don’t, bear out apart missionaries, this idea. 4. Discuss the writing, concept of belonging (ethnic, racial, cultural, material, physical, psychological, etc.) in some of the works you have read for this module.
5. ‘Woman must write herself: must write about women and bring women to things writing, from which they have been driven away as violently as from their bodies for the same reasons, by the same law, with the same fatal goal.’ (Hélène Cixous, ‘The Laugh of the Medusa’.) Consider the work of babies any writer studied on the module in the light of this statement. 6. ‘For perennialists, the nation is “rooted” in place and time; it is embedded in a historic homeland. For modernists, the nation is a creation. It is consciously and deliberately “built” by things apart missionaries essay, its members, or segments thereof.’ (Anthony D. Smith, Nationalism and Modernism.) Discuss how either or both of these visions of nationalism is/are qualified in the texts studied. 7. Discuss the concept of ‘literature of fact’ in refutation argumentative essay relation to things essay any work studied on this module.
8. ‘We are at the end of our enquiry, but as often happens in essay the search after truth, if we have answered one question, we have raised many more.’ (J.G.Frazer, The Golden Bough .) Examine themes of certainty and/or ambiguity and/or relativity in literature of missionaries this period. 9. Romeo Essay. How would you justify distinguishing between poetry and prose in this era of things fall apart missionaries free verse and poetic prose? 10. Discuss one of the following concepts / modes in relation to work studied on this module: polemic; religion; hybridity; formalism. 11.
Which of the works studied on essay the module seem to you to have most to say to our own historical moment, and why? 12. Make a case for including an author or genre not at present studied on the module, but belonging to the same period (roughly the 1910s to the 1960s). Things Fall Apart Missionaries Essay. In doing so, you should say what you would exclude to make the necessary room on the curriculum, and why. Department of English and argumentative essay, Comparative Literary Studies, Humanities Building, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL.
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Lady Macbeth - From Head Conspirator to Wimp. Length: 2958 words (8.5 double-spaced pages) From Head Conspirator to Wimp. The story of Macbeth by Shakespeare is fall missionaries essay, one of his most read and most loved plays. It was not unlikely that out of all of his plays that Macbeth would be one of the few successful plays that would be turned into an opera. Verdi wrote the grades opera with librettists Francesco Maria Piave and Andrea Maffei. The opera was written around 1846 and premiered on March 14, 1847 at the Teatro dell Pergola in Florence, Italy.
A few years later the Verdi revised the opera adding a ballet into it and taking out some things and was performed at apart essay, the Teatre Lyrique in Paris on spondylothesis, April 21, 1865. This opera in comparison to the play begins with the third scene of the missionaries essay play. Unlike some of Verdi and other composer’s other operas the dialogue of Macbeth closely follows Shakespeare’s dialogue throughout the entire opera. It has been said that the words throughout the opera are ore often than not a literal translation of Shakespeare’s work. All of romeo essay, this information is fine and gives us a general understanding of who wrote the opera and when, but what I want to focus on in this paper is the Prima Donna of the opera by Verdi: Lady Macbeth. Although she is an integral part to things apart essay both the play also and since the opera is so closely related to the play, I will focus on the opera by Verdi.
Through a character analysis, evidence on how Verdi saw his Lady Macbeth, and a discussion of her development through her arias, I will discuss how Lady Macbeth began as a woman thirsty to coursework become Queen and ends as a woman that was willing to and did take her own life. One of the missionaries lines of the romeo and juliet titles play the Lady Macbeth said was very interesting that gives you the character of Lady Macbeth in one statement and Verdi’s opera shows this. She says “…look like the essay innocent flower, But be the serpent under’t. (I. v. 67-68)” This is the thesis statement of Lady Macbeth’s life until the bitter end. Lady Macbeth is Macbeth’s wife, a deeply ambitious woman who lusts for power and position. Early on refutation paragraph argumentative essay, she is the stronger and more ruthless of the two, as she urges her husband to kill the King, Duncan, and seize the thrown.
Lady Macbeth exploits her sexual hold over Macbeth as a means to persuade him to fall apart essay commit murder after murder. Lady Macbeth - From Head Conspirator to Wimp. 123HelpMe.com . 05 Oct 2017. Through letters that were found that Verdi wrote to his librettist and to the actual singer of the role of refutation paragraph, Lady Macbeth we can see what he had in mind for her role. We can also see how important it was for Lady Macbeth in the opera to be as close as possible to missionaries the original role of Lady Macbeth in the play.
He states on many occasions how great the English tragic poet is. In one of the letters that Verdi wrote it states, “I know that you are rehearsing Macbeth and as it is an opera in which I take more interest than in the others, permit me to designer say a few words about it. The part of Lady Macbeth has been given to Madame Tadolini and fall, I am and anne analysis essay, I am surprised that she has consented to play this role. You know how much I admire Madame Tadolini and she knows it herself, but in essay all our interests I believe it necessary to remark that she has qualities too great for rules, this part. That will perhaps seem absurd to fall apart missionaries essay you. But Madame Tadolini looks beautiful and good, and I should like Lady Macbeth to look ugly and evil. Madame Tadolini sings to essay perfection and I should like Lady Macbeth not to things fall apart sing at all. Madame Tadolini’s had a stupendous voice, clear, limpid, powerful; I should like in Lady Macbeth a voice rough, hoarse, and gloomy. Madame Tadolini’s voice has angelic qualities; I should like the voice of Lady Macbeth to have something diabolical about it.
She should moreover have a talent for declamation rather than for beauty of frank essay, tone or elegance of vocal line….” Singing during the time that Verdi wrote this opera was normally sung in a specific way. Singing in a way that was more spoken than sung was not something that was done often. Singing was more lyrical and it was focused more on fall apart essay, the smooth vocal line. Anne Frank Analysis. Italian prided themselves on their singers singing for beauty and the legato. Things. This is evident in the request of one of the women who apparently was to babies sing the things missionaries essay role of Lady Macbeth. She must have found the role difficult to interpret vocally and anne analysis essay, dramatically the things apart way that Verdi wanted so she took it upon herself to write to him and ask if the role could be sung more like a cantabile. She also asked to omit the reading of the letter in the “letter scene”. During that time also it was more of comic opera that had spoken dialogue or monologue in it, which made this a little awkward for a opera of anne frank, this caliber to have spoken words in it. In a letter that Verdi wrote back to her he explained, “From your letter I see that you would much like a cantabile of the type of that in Fausta (Donizetti’s operas). But if you will examine well the nature of this opera you will see that it could not be done without doing violence to the character and things fall essay, making nonsense of it.
Besides it would be profanation to alter a character to great, so energetic, so original, as this created by romeo essay the great English tragic poet. As I believe I told you before, this is a drama that has nothing in common with the others and we must all make every effort to render it in the most original manner possible. Things Fall Apart Missionaries Essay. I believe that it is time to abandon the customary formulas and the usual methods… As for the letter, it’s impossible to cut it out because it is fundamental to the drams, but if you don’t like to recite it we will set it to spondylothesis music. I recommend to you these 2 pieces; the notes are easy and apart essay, are written above all for their effect on stage; the sleepwalking scene is, for spondylothesis grades, dramatic affect, one of the most sublime theatrical creations. Observe that every word has meaning and it is absolutely necessary to things fall missionaries essay express it, both by voice and action… ” Verdi was very adamant about designer, how he wanted Lady Macbeth portrayed and things essay, he played a very active role in spondylothesis grades getting what he wanted and things apart, what he thought would do the best justice to the writings of Shakespeare. Lady Macbeth’s character in coursework the opera has an absence of intimacy. Things Missionaries. She is seen more as the head conspirator instead of thesis designer, Macbeth’s wife. She is apart essay, crude and one can’t help but notice her lack of virtue, lack of sweetness, and spondylothesis, spiritual disarray. There is a very little that is free or quiet in Lady Macbeth’s actions, words, or vocal line. She is not the type of character that any moral person could identify with, but it is possible that someone could identify with her intensions. In some readings it was said that Lady Macbeth’s character was too masculine for Italian tastes.
In the instance when she sings her famous phrase, “Unsex me here,” when she calls on the spirits. This figuratively means that she would like to be the man so that she can do all the things a man can do and that literally the witches will help her. Fall. Lady Macbeth surpasses Macbeth in energy and Macbeth rarely did anything independent of Lady Macbeth until the end. In the opera she is more ambitious. Her outlook is anne frank essay, not that she is just ambitious, but she feels as if she is things fall apart missionaries, entitled to be queen. Historically is was that Macbeth was supposed to be king and not Duncan, so she feels as if the writing crown was originally supposed to be hers by right. The crown was stolen from her and fall, now it is her turn to steal it back. Writing Rules. The only problem is that the only way she can get what she feels is rightfully hers is through a man that she will definitely have to persuade to even fight for fall apart missionaries, the crown. As I look at writing, the arias that Lady Macbeth sang they each had their on fall missionaries, interpretive quality. All of the refutation paragraph argumentative essay arias had to be sung with different intent as they express the digression of the strongest conspirator in things apart missionaries essay the beginning of the anne opera to the weakest link in missionaries the chain. Some singers suggest that each aria must be sung in a 4 very different styles of voices embodied in one person in order to give each aria the full intent of the character as well as the words.
The first aria begins with the guestimate maths reading of the letter. Fall Apart Missionaries Essay. This is also when we see Lady Macbeth on stage for the very first time. This aria corresponds with the monologue in guestimate maths coursework the beginning of Act 1, Scene 5 of the things fall apart essay play. She is reading a letter that Macbeth has written and he is writing about prophesies of the witches that he will be King of Scotland. In this aria Lady Macbeth shows her lusts for the crown.
She also shows what she thinks of her husband in this aria. Anne Frank Essay. She begins by saying that she thinks Macbeth is ambitious, but is he ambitious enough to resort to evil to get what he wants. She says, “Alla grandezza aneli ma sarai tu malvagio? Pien di misfatti e il calle dell potenza, e mal per lui che il piede dubitoso vi pone, e retrocede!” which translates to you want to be great, but will you be wicked? The way to fall missionaries the power is full of crimes, and anne frank essay, plague on him that begins that way doubting and then goes back. She here is saying that she doesn’t think that Macbeth is capable of being wicked enough to get what he wants. Apart Missionaries. Then maybe he is capable to start the process but not be able to see it through to the end. This is ironic, because the very thoughts that she had of Macbeth is refutation paragraph argumentative, how she ended up in fall apart the opera. She was able to start the job and get the ball rolling, but in the end she could not handle her own conscience of her wrong doings. The aria continues as she vows to get the crown for Macbeth by any means necessary. She says that she will sets his cold heart afire and make him able to complete the bold undertaking of the throne.
Her servant interrupts the aria to give Lady Macbeth some wonderful news for her. He tells her that King Duncan will be visiting their home tonight and that Macbeth is refutation paragraph, escorting him. Fall Apart Essay. Lady Macbeth’s mind begins to refutation working here and she says, “Or tutti sorgete, ministri, infernali, che al sangue incorate, spingete I mortali.” This translates to you furies of fall apart essay, satan, assist me in my duty! Unsex me, hellish demons, and fill my veins with gall! Drown what’s human in poison and gall, ah! This is where the famous line “Unsex me…” comes from and grades, she desires to become a man to carry out the duties that only a man can handle. It is after this aria that Lady Macbeth in a duet with Macbeth convinces him to carry out her plot to kill King Duncan. The next aria that is sung by Lady Macbeth is La Luce langue. She is even more ferocious in this aria. She is somewhat gloating in this aria because she has now gotten the taste of things fall essay, blood on essay, her brain, but then realizes that although they have the crown now, they will have to kill again to keep the crown.
This aria is her finally getting what she wanted, the crown saying, “O scettro, alfin sei mio!” meaning, oh scepter, finally you are mine! She goes on to say that every mortal passion is stilled and satisfied by you. She is satisfied, but has to fall murder again to essay stay satisfied. The “drinking” song is her next aria and here is where we see her false, double-faced, hypocritical side, acting like the gracious hostess when she knows what she has done. She is also here trying to cover up her husband’s weakness. He has seen the ghost of Banquo and is seemingly loosing his mind. This aria is sung twice.
The first time she sings it light-heartedly, but the second time around is more anguished and emphatic. Fall. At this point she is trying to and juliet impose gaiety and make the guest forget the spectacle the Macbeth has made of himself. She begins by saying, “Let our cups be filled with choicest wine! Let pleasure be born, let pain pass! Let hate and despising of other disappear, let love alone enjoy herself and rule here. Let us enjoy this ointment for all wounds which fills our heart with new life. Let us drive away troubled thoughts from our breast, let pleasure be born, let pain pass.” It is here also that Lady Macbeth is starting to feel the consequences of things missionaries, her actions, because after she sings this aria and she has tried to calm down Macbeth, she looks at her own hands and sees the blood. This leads us to the sleepwalking scene. Lady Macbeth’s state of mind has now been deteriorating for quite some time now and she is also seeing things.
She begins to sleepwalk and in her last aria, Una macchia e qui tuttora!, she is being tormented by the blood on her hands that she cannot get rid of. She says,” Una macchia e qui tuttora! Via, ti dico, o maledetta!” This means, “Still a spot and I knew it! Go, I tell you accursed spatter!” She is at anne frank analysis essay, the point where nothing she does can wash this spot of blood off of things missionaries essay, her hands. She cries out, “E mai pulire queste mani io non sapro?” “I can not wipe off this evil stain.” She is definitely being tormented but the things that she had done. It is essay rules, as if she now realizes that the crown was not worth the shedding of innocent blood and the torment that shedding innocent blood would bring with it. Not only does she see the blood, but she also smells the blood and fall apart, nothing, no perfume or fragrance, can wipe the smell of paragraph, blood out of her nostrils. Apart. She is so tormented at writing, this time that she takes her life. It was suggested by my fellow student that the actual play of Macbeth by Shakespeare could have been a warning for women that this is fall missionaries essay, what happens when a woman tries taking the lead in the family. There is a lot of evidence of this throughout the opera and the play, but I don’t think that as women look at the opera or even the play that it would be evident enough to draw that conclusion.
I believe that what you would definitely see is the fact that a woman’s ambition can be a dangerous thing. Also that the consequences of their actions will eventually come back to haunt you if not now, then later. Lady Macbeth in the beginning was the woman who had all of the answers. She thought that she knew how to romeo and juliet titles handle every situation to where she would come out on top, but in the end she could not handle her own decisions. If you had to compare Macbeth’s character to Lady Macbeth’s you could say that he lives through her until there is a point of fall apart, separation mentally and physically. His role begins as a wimp, but ends with him fighting for everything even to the bitter end of death in battle, while Lady Macbeth begins fighting for everything that she wants wholeheartedly and anne frank analysis, she ends in a whimper by things apart essay killing herself.
Moral of this story is that the key to getting what you want is to work hard and go about getting it in the right way so you won’t have to kill or fight to keep it. Carr, Stephen Leo. “Seeing Through Macbeth.” PMLA 96 (1981): 837-847.