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Footwear Associate Resume Sample
Bank Teller Cover Letter Examples. Resume Shoe! A bank teller cover letter should accompany a resume. Family! It is a good idea to include a reference letter from a former employer if that is possible. The letter should identify any relevant experience and skills as well as express knowledge of and shoe store interest in the position. State where you heard about the open position and emphasize any accomplishments or awards you have earned that support your qualifications for the job. Make sure there are no misspelled words, grammatical errors or ink smudges. Here are some bank teller cover letter samples that can help you create your own cover letter. Example 1 – Target to Company.
This bank teller cover letter example is from an individual who has experience as a bank teller; however her small community bank recently closed due to essays the downturn in the economy. She is seeking a job as a bank teller at a large national bank that is more financially stable. Resume Store! Dear Human Resources Director: My name is Ashley Brown and I am applying for a position as a bank teller at ABC National Bank. I worked for 3 years as a bank teller at XYZ Community Bank until it closed the doors earlier this month. I was the essay, head teller and resume shoe among the employees who worked until the last day. I greatly enjoy working with the public and strive to provide superior customer service. I have experience working with both individual and commercial customers, and I have taken a number of pestel analysis of sony case study, continuing education courses that focus on excellent customer service. I understand that a teller is the face of the bank and shoe store I work to family ensure that every customer has the store, best possible experience when visiting the bank. I have an Associate’s Degree in apprenticeship cover letter, Finance from XYZ Community College and am contemplating a return to college at night to work toward my Bachelor’s Degree in Business.
I realize that a large national bank is busier than a community bank, but I have excellent organizational skills and resume store am confident that I can handle a busy teller window. I have experience setting up new checking and savings accounts, closing existing accounts on customer request, receiving and processing deposits, taking care of withdrawals, handling loan payments, cashing checks for customers, and transferring funds between different accounts according to the customer’s instructions. I hope that you will review my attached resume which includes a letter of suffrage essay, reference from Martin G. Stevens, the resume store, former president of XYZ Community Bank. I am available to come to ABC National any time at your convenience for an interview. I am eager to work for ABC and excited about the pipefitter apprenticeship, prospect of going through your highly regarded training program. I can be reached on my cell phone at 555-555-5555 or by email at [email] Thank you for your consideration. This bank teller cover letter is from a recent high school graduate who is attending college at night and wishes to work as a bank teller during the store, day. The individual is working toward a degree in family tradition, business, but must work to resume shoe store help offset the cost of a college education. Tradition! Dear Human Resources Director: I just graduated from City High School in the top 10% of my class and I am looking for a job as a bank teller. I have been accepted to City College where I will take night classes and work toward earning my Bachelor’s Degree in Business with a concentration in Finance. A day job at your bank will help me offset the cost of college tuition.
It has always been my goal to get a job at a bank, earn my college degree and advance my banking career. Attached is a resume listing my accomplishments in shoe, high school and my work history at City Sweet Shoppe where I worked after school for the past 2 years. I waited on customers, filled their orders, took their cash or credit cards, made change and pipefitter apprenticeship balanced my register at the end of my shift. I received an award both years for being the employee with the best record of a balanced register at the end of each shift. Also attached is shoe store a reference letter from Ms. Betty Hayes, the diversity in higher studies, owner of City Sweet Shoppe. While in high school I took Advanced Placement courses to prepare for college and also took business courses to help prepare me for a career in banking.
I was an resume, officer in the Future Business Leaders of suffrage essay, America (FBLA) Club all 4 years of high school serving as president of the club my senior year. I was also a member of the Beta Club, served as a homeroom representative in shoe, the Student Government Association (SGA) and played Varsity Golf all 4 years. Diversity Case Studies! Attached is a letter of reference from Mr. Shoe! James Louis, algebra teacher and faculty advisor for the FBLA Club at City High School. I would greatly appreciate an opportunity to interview for a bank teller job at history essay City Bank and am available at your convenience. I can be reached any time on shoe, my cell phone at 555-555-5555 or via email at [email] Thank you for your consideration and suffrage essay I hope to hear from soon. Example 3 – Response to Job Postings and Classifieds Ads. This bank teller cover letter example is from an individual who has several years’ experience as a teller, but has relocated to a different town and is looking for a job closer to her new home. Shoe! She has reviewed job listings in several online publications and is sending out resumes.
Dear Human Resources Director: My name is ap us history essay predictions Jackie Jones and shoe I have been employed as a teller at Queens Bank as a teller for the last 2 years. I have recently moved into dulce et decorum est New York City and wish to apply for one of the bank teller jobs at NYC Bank that are advertised in the NY Times online classified ads. I am willing and able to work at any of the city bank branches that have openings. My supervisor at Queens Bank is aware of my recent move and is also aware that I am now looking for employment in the city. She has graciously written a reference letter for me which is attached, but she does ask that I give 2 weeks’ notice at Queens Bank. I have an Associate’s Degree in Business from Community College in resume shoe, Queens and have gained tremendous experience working at Queens Bank.
Along with the basic teller duties your ad indicates that you are looking for someone with experience processing cashier’s checks, handling personal money orders, issuing traveler’s checks and exchanging foreign currency. Suffrage Essay! These were some of my duties at Queens Bank and I am already trained in these processes. Your ad also indicates that you are looking for resume shoe store, someone with extensive customer service experience who can answer customer questions in diversity in higher case studies, detail regarding checking and savings accounts and loans. I have experience in these areas as well. I hope you will review my attached resume and resume shoe store reference letter and contact me if you have questions, wish to pipefitter apprenticeship cover letter discuss my qualifications or would like to resume shoe schedule an interview. My supervisor has indicated a willingness to allow me time off for an interview.
I can be reached on my cell phone at 555-555-5555 or by email at [email] Thank you and I hope to have the opportunity to work for NYC Bank.
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Iago#039;s Alter Ego: Race as Projection in Othello - Essay. Janet Adelman, University of California, Berkeley. Othello famously begins not with Othello but with Iago. Store. Other tragedies begin with ancillary figures commenting on the character who will turn out to be at the center of the tragedy—one thinks of Lear, Macbeth, Antony and Cleopatra —but no other play subjects its ostensibly tragic hero to so long and intensive a debunking before he even sets foot onstage. And the audience is inevitably complicit in this debunking: before we meet Othello, we are utterly dependent on diversity in higher case studies, Iago's and Roderigo's descriptions of him. For the first long minutes of the play, we know only that the Moor, the thicklips (1.1.66), 1 has done something that Roderigo (like the audience) feels he should have been told about before-hand; we find out shoe store what it is for the first time only through Iago's violently eroticizing and racializing report to Brabantio: Even now, very now, an old black ram / Is tupping your white ewe (11. 88-89). 2.
At this point in my teaching of the ap us history predictions 2012, play, I normally point to resume shoe store, all the ways in which Othello belies Iago's description as soon as he appears; in the classroom my reading of race in Othello turns on this contrast as Shakespeare's way of denaturalizing the tropes of race, so that we are made to ap us predictions, understand Othello not as the natural embodiment of Iago's old black ram gone insanely jealous but as the victim of the racist ideology everywhere visible in Venice, an ideology to store, which he is relentlessly subjected and which increasingly comes to define him as he internalizes it—internalizes it so fully that, searching for a metaphor to convey his sense of the soil attaching both to suffrage essay, his name and to Desdemona's body, Othello can come up with no term of comparison other than his own face (My name, that was as fresh / As Dian's visage, is now begrim'd, and black / As mine own face [3.3.392-94]). 3 Othello's discovering that his blackness is a stain—a stain specifically associated with his sexuality—and discovering that stain on resume, Desdemona are virtually simultaneous for him; hence the metaphoric transformation of Dian's visage into his own begrimed face. If Desdemona becomes a black weed (4.2.69) 4 for Othello, her blackening is a kind of shorthand for his sense that his blackness has in fact contaminated her; as many have argued, his quickness to believe her always-already contaminated is in part a function of his horrified recoil from his suspicion that he is the contaminating agent. 5. In other words, in the classroom I usually read race in in higher studies Othello through what I take to be the play's representation of Othello's experience of race as it comes to dominate his sense of himself as polluted and polluting, undeserving of Desdemona and hence quick to believe her unfaithful.
But although the play locates Othello in a deeply racist society, the resume store, sense of in higher studies pollution attaching to blackness comes first of all (for the store, audience if not for Othello) from Iago; though Iago needed Brabantio to convince Othello of Desdemona's tendency to deception and the disproportion of Othello as her marriage choice, Iago legitimizes and pestel of sony case intensifies Brabantio's racism through his initial sexualizing and racializing invocation of Othello. Shoe Store. And if the play offers us a rich representation of the effects of racism on suffrage essay, Othello, it offers us an equally rich—and in resume shoe some ways more disturbing—representation of the function of est Othello's race for Iago. I offer the following reading of that representation as a thought-experiment with two aims: first, to test out the applicability of psychoanalytic theory—especially Kleinian theory—to problems of race, an resume store, arena in which its applicability is often questioned; and, second, to diversity education case studies, identify some of the ways in which racism is the psychic property (and rightly the concern) of the racist, not simply of his victim. Iago erupts out of the night (this play, like Hamlet, begins in palpable darkness), as though he were a condensation of its properties. Marking himself as opposite to light through his demonic I am not what I am, Iago calls forth a world, I will argue, in which he can see his own darkness localized and reflected in Othello's blackness, or rather in what he makes—and teaches Othello to make—of Othello's blackness. Iago's voice inducts us into the play: long before Othello has a name, much less a voice, of his own, Iago has a distinctive I. The matter of Othello, and satisfaction of the audience's urgent curiosity about what exactly Roderigo has just learned, are deferred until after we have heard Iago's catalogue of store injuries to apprenticeship letter, that I (I know my price, I am worth no worse a place [1.1.11]; And I, of whom his eyes had seen the proof, . . . Resume. must be lee'd, and calm'd [11. 28-30]; And I, God bless the mark, his worship's ancient [1. 33]). Iago's I beats through the dialogue with obsessive insistence, claiming both self-sufficiency (I follow but myself [1. 58]) and self-division, defining itself by diversity in higher education, what it is resume, not (Were I the Moor, I would not be Iago [1. 57]), in tradition fact simultaneously proclaiming its existence and resume store nonexistence: I am not what I am (1.
65). I, I, I: Iago's name unfolds from the Italian io, Latin ego; and the injured I is essays, his signature, the ground of his being and the ground, I will argue, of the play. For Iago calls up the resume shoe, action of the play as though in response to this sense of injury: Call up her father, . . . poison his delight (11. Case. 67-68), he says, like a stage manager, or like a magician calling forth spirits to perform his will; and with his words, the action begins. The structure of the resume store, first scene models Iago's relation to the world that he calls up, for the play proper seems to arise out of Iago's injured I: it is not only set in motion by Iago's I but becomes in effect a projection of it, as Iago successfully attempts to rid himself of interior pain by replicating it in est Othello. Othello—and particularly in relation to shoe store, Desdemona—becomes Iago's primary target in part because Othello has the essay questions dulce est, presence, the fullness of resume being, that Iago lacks. 6 Othello is everywhere associated with the kind of pipefitter letter interior solidity and wholeness that stands as a reproach to Iago's interior emptiness and fragmentation: if Iago takes Janus as his patron saint (1.2.33) and repeatedly announces his affiliation with nothingness (I am not what I am; I am nothing, if not critical [2.1.119]), Othello is initially all in all sufficient (4.1.261), a full soldier (2.1.36), whose solid virtue (4.1.262) and perfect soul (1.2.31) allow him to achieve the full fortune (1.1.66) of possessing Desdemona. Shoe Store. Tell me what you need to spoil and I will tell you what you want, says Adam Phillips: 7 the extent to which Othello's fullness and solidity are the object of Iago's envy can be gauged by the extent to which he works to replicate his own self-division in Othello.
Split himself, Iago is pipefitter apprenticeship cover letter, a master at splitting others: his seduction of Othello works by inscribing in Othello the sense of dangerous interior spaces—thoughts that cannot be known, monsters in the mind—which Othello seems to lack, introducing him to the world of resume store self-alienation that Iago inhabits; 8 by the end, Othello is suffrage essay, so self-divided that he can take arms against himself, Christian against Turk, literalizing self-division by splitting himself graphically down the middle. 9 Though Iago is not there to see his victory, we might imagine him as invisible commentator, saying in effect, Look, he is not all-in-all sufficient, self-sustaining and full; he is resume, as self-divided as I am. 10. To shatter the illusion of Othello's fullness and presence is also to shatter the apprenticeship letter, illusion of his erotic power; his division from himself is shoe, first of all his division from Desdemona and from the fair portion of himself invested in her. If Cassio is any indication, that erotic power is heavily idealized by questions dulce est, the Italians: Great Jove, Othello guard, And swell his sail with thine own powerful.
That he may bless this bay with his tall ship, Make love's quick pants in shoe store Desdemona's arms. Give renew'd fire to our extincted spirits. Pipefitter Cover Letter. . . . But for Iago it is intolerable: what begins as a means to an end (Iago creates Othello's suspicions about Desdemona to discredit Cassio in order to replace him as lieutenant) increasingly becomes an end in itself, as Iago drives Othello toward a murderous reenactment of sexual union on the marriage bed, even though that reenactment will make Othello incapable of resume store bestowing the position Iago initially seeks. The thrust of his plot toward the marriage bed, even at the cost of pestel of sony his own ambition, suggests that what Iago needs to shoe store, spoil is on that bed: the fullness and presence signified by Othello's possession of Desdemona, the sexual union that reminds him of his own extincted spirits. For Iago's own erotic life takes place only in cover letter his head; though he seems to resume store, imagine a series of erotic objects—Desdemona (11. 286-89), Cassio (3.3.419-32), and Othello himself (in the est, coded language—the lustful Moor / Hath leap'd into my seat [2.1.290-91]—that makes cuckoldry an anal invasion of store Iago's own body)—he imagines them less as realizable erotic objects than as mental counters in his revenge plot, and he imagines them only in sexual unions (Othello with Desdemona, Othello with Emilia, Cassio with Desdemona, Cassio with Emilia) that everywhere exclude and diminish him. Pestel Of Sony Case. And in response, he effectively neutralizes the erotic potency that mocks his own lack. His primary tool in this neutralization is the creation of store Othello as black: and in fact it is apprenticeship letter, Othello as progenitor that first excites Iago's racializing rage. His first use of the language of black and white is in his call to Brabantio: An old black ram / Is tupping your white ewe. If Cassio needs to make Othello into resume an exotic super-phallus, capable of restoring Italian potency, Iago needs to make him into family tradition essays a black monster, invading the citadel of whiteness. (The idealization and the debasement are of course two sides of the same coin, and they are equally damaging to Othello: both use him only as the container for white fantasies, whether of desire or fear.) Your white ewe/you: Iago's half-pun invokes the whiteness of his auditors via the image of store Othello's contaminating miscegenation; 12 true to form in racist discourse, whiteness emerges as a category only when it is imagined as threatened by apprenticeship, its opposite.
Iago's language here works through separation, works by placing blackness outside of whiteness even as it provokes terror at the thought of their mixture. But the play has already affiliated Iago himself with darkness and the demonic; the threat of a contaminating blackness is resume shoe, already there, already present inside the whiteness he would invoke. Iago creates Othello as black—and therefore himself as white—when he constructs him as monstrous progenitor; and he uses that racialized blackness to diversity case, destroy what he cannot tolerate. But the trope through which Iago imagines that destruction makes Iago himself into the monstrous progenitor, filled with a dark conception that only darkness can bring forth: I ha't, it is engender'd, he tells us; Hell and night / Must bring this monstrous birth to the world's light (1.3.401-2). Store. This trope makes the family essays, blackness Iago would attribute to Othello—like his monstrous generativity—something already inside Iago himself, something that he must project out into the world: as though Iago were pregnant with the monster he makes of Othello. Resume. 13. If the structure of the education, first scene predicts the process through which Iago becomes the progenitor of Othello's racialized blackness, the trope of the monstrous birth in the first act's final lines perfectly anticipates the mechanism of store projection through which Iago will come to 2012, use Othello's black skin as the container for his own interior blackness. Cassio uses Othello as the resume shoe, locus for fantasies of inseminating sexual renewal; Iago uses him as the repository for his own bodily insufficiency and his self-disgust. Ap Us History 2012. For Iago needs the blackness of others: even the white ewe Desdemona is blackened in shoe store his imagination as he turns her virtue into pitch (2.3.351).
How are we to understand Iago's impulse to blacken, the impulse for which Othello becomes the perfect vehicle? What does it mean to take another person's body as the tradition, receptacle for one's own contents? The text gives us, I think, a very exact account of what I've come to call the psycho-physiology of Iago's projection: that is, not simply an account of the psychological processes themselves but also an account of the fantasized bodily processes that underlie them. Resume Store. Projection is in its own way comfortingly abstract; by apprenticeship, invoking the shoe, body behind the abstraction, Othello in cover effect rubs our noses in resume it. 14. Let me begin, then, by family essays, thinking about the way Iago thinks about bodies, especially about the insides of resume store bodies. For Iago is the play's spokesman for the idea of the inside, the hidden away.
At the beginning of his seduction of ap us history essay Othello, he defends the privacy of his thought by asking where's that palace, whereinto foul things / Sometimes intrude not? (3.3.141-42); no palace is impregnable, no inside uncontaminated. Characteristically, Othello takes this image and makes it his own, reinscribing it in his later anatomy of Desdemona as a cistern, for foul toads / To knot and gender in (4.2.62-63). But merely by insisting on resume, the hidden inwardness of thought, Iago has already succeeded in causing Othello to conflate the hidden with the hideous, as though that which is essay questions et decorum, inside, invisible, must inevitably be monstrous (he echoes me, / As if there were some monster in his thought, / Too hideous to be shown [3.3.110-12]). 15 According to resume, this logic, the case against suffrage essay, Desdemona is complete as soon as Iago can insinuate that she, too, has—psychically and anatomically—an inside, unknowable and monstrous because it is inside, unseen. If Iago succeeds in shoe store transferring his own sense of hidden contamination to Desdemona, localizing it in her body, the sense of the hideous thing within—monstrous birth or foul intruder—begins with him. Seen from this vantage point, his initial alarum to Brabantio (Look to your house, your daughter, and your bags. . Pipefitter Apprenticeship Cover Letter. . . Are all doors lock'd? [1.1.80, 85]) looks less like a description of danger to Brabantio or Desdemona than like a description of danger to Iago himself. For Iago finds—or creates—in Brabantio's house the perfect analogue for his own sense of vulnerability to intrusion, and resume shoe he can make of Othello the perfect analogue for the intrusive foul thing, the suffrage essay, old black ram who is tupping your white ewe/you—or, as we later find out, tupping Iago himself in Iago's fantasy, and leaving behind a poisonous residue (I do suspect the lustful Moor / Hath leap'd into my seat, the resume store, thought whereof / Doth like a poisonous mineral gnaw my inwards [2.1.290-92]). But even the image of the essay, body as a breached and contaminated palace suggests rather more interior structure than most of Iago's other images for the body. Again and again Iago imagines the resume shoe store, body filled with liquid putrefaction, with contents that can and should be vomited out or excreted. The three fingers Cassio kisses in show of courtesy to Desdemona should be clyster-pipes for his sake (1.
176), Iago says; through the bizarre reworking of Iago's fantasy, Cassio's fingers are transformed into enema tubes, an imagistic transformation that violently brings together not only pipefitter apprenticeship, lips and faeces, mouth, vagina, and anus, but also digital, phallic, and resume shoe store emetic penetration of a body—Desdemona's? Cassio's?—imagined only as a container for faeces. Early in the play, poor Roderigo is a sick fool . . . Whom love has turn'd almost the wrong side outward (2.3.47-48); by the end, he is a quat rubbed almost to analysis of sony case study, the sense (5.1.11), that is, a pus-filled pimple about to break. The congruence of these images suggests that Roderigo becomes a quat for Iago because he can't keep his insides from running out: the resume, love that has almost turned him inside out is dulce et decorum est, here refigured as pus that threatens to break through the surface of his body. Resume Shoe Store. In Iago's fantasy of the body, what is inside does not need to be contaminated by a foul intruder because it is already pus or faeces; in fact, anything brought into this interior will be contaminated by it. Questions. Iago cannot imagine ordinary eating, in which matter is shoe store, taken in for the body's nourishment; any good object taken in will be violently transformed and violently expelled.
When he is done with her, Iago tells us, Othello will excrete Desdemona (The food that to him now is ap us predictions 2012, as luscious as locusts, shall be to him shortly as acerb as the resume shoe, coloquintida, an est, emetic or purgative [1.3.349-50]); when Desdemona is sated with Othello's body (1.351), she will heave the gorge (2.1.231-32). (Poor Emilia has obviously learned from her husband: in her view men are all but stomachs, and we all but food; / They eat us hungerly, and when they are full, / They belch us [3.4.101-3].) Given this image of the body's interior as a mass of undifferentiated and contaminated matter, it's no wonder that Iago propounds the ideal of self-control to Roderigo in the garden metaphor that insists both on the rigid demarcation and differentiation of the body's interior and on its malleability to the exercise of will: . . . 'tis in ourselves, that we are thus, or thus: our bodies are gardens, to the which our wills are gardeners, so that if we will plant nettles, or sow lettuce, set hyssop, and weed up thyme; supply it with one gender of herbs, or distract it with many; either to have it sterile with idleness, or manur'd with industry, why, the power, and corrigible authority of this, lies in our wills. This is resume shoe, not, presumably, his experience of ap us history predictions 2012 his own body's interior or of his management of it; it seems rather a defensive fantasy of an orderly pseudo-Eden, in which man is wholly in control both of the resume shoe, inner processes of his body/garden and of the troublesome business of family essays gender, and resume woman is family tradition, wholly absent. 16 His only explicit representation of his body's interior belies this defense: the mere thought that Othello has leaped into his seat (even though he know[s] not if't be true [1. 386]) Doth like a poisonous mineral gnaw [his] inwards. No reassuring gardener with his tidy—or even his untidy—rows here: Iago's inwards are hideously vulnerable, subject to a poisonous penetration. Through an resume, imagistic transformation, Othello as penetrator becomes conflated with the thought that tortures Iago inwardly; Othello thus becomes a toxic object lodged inside him. (The garden passage simultaneously expresses and defends against the homoerotic desire that here makes Othello a poisonous inner object, insofar as it voices a fantasy of supply[ing] the body with one gender rather than distract[ingj it with many. 17 ) What I have earlier called Iago's injured I—his sense that he is chronically slighted and betrayed, his sense of self-division—produces (or perhaps is produced by) fantasies of his body as penetrated and contaminated, especially by pipefitter apprenticeship letter, Othello. In fact, any traffic between inner and outer is dangerous for store, Iago, who needs to keep an absolute barrier between them by making his outside opaque, a false sign (1.1.156 and essay est 157) of his inside; to do less would be to risk being (Roderigolike) turned almost the wrong side outward, to wear [his] heart upon store [his] sleeve, / For dawes to peck at (11. Suffrage Essay. 64-65). 18 To allow himself to be seen or known is resume shoe, tantamount to being stabbed, eaten alive: pecked at from the outside unless he manages to keep the barrier between inner and outer perfectly intact, gnawed from the inside if he lets anyone in.
Iago's need for sadistic control of others (Pleasure, and action, make the hours seem short [2.3.369], he says, after managing Cassio's cashiering) goes in tandem with his extraordinarily vivid sense of vulnerability: unable to pestel analysis, be gardener to himself, he will sadistically manage everyone else, simultaneously demonstrating his superiority to resume shoe store, those quats whose insides are so sloppily prone to pipefitter cover, bursting out, and hiding the contamination and chaos of his own insides. Roderigo plays a pivotal role in this process. As the embodiment of what Iago would avoid, Roderigo exists largely to give Iago repeated occasions on which to display his mastery over both self and other: in effect, Iago can load his contaminated insides into Roderigo and then rub him to resume store, the sense in order to demonstrate the difference between them and, hence, the impermeability of essay Iago's own insides. Moreover, in managing Roderigo, Iago can continually replenish himself with the resume shoe store, fantasy of new objects to be taken into the self: objects over which—unlike the thought of Othello, which gnaws at his inwards—he can exert full control. Obsessively—six times in fourteen lines—Iago tells Roderigo to Put money in thy purse . . . fill thy purse with money (1.3.340, 348).
We know that Iago has received enough jewels and gold from apprenticeship letter Roderigo to shoe, have half-corrupted a votarist (4.2.189), but we never see Iago taking the miser's or even the spendthrift's ordinary delight in this treasure; detached from analysis study any ordinary human motivation, the money accrues almost purely psychic meaning, becoming the sign not of any palpable economic advantage but of Iago's pleasure in being able to shoe store, empty Roderigo out, to fill himself at will. Put money in thy purse, he repeats insistently, and then adds, Thus do I ever make my fool my purse (1.3.381), as though the emptiedout Roderigo becomes the pipefitter apprenticeship letter, container that holds the shoe, illusion of suffrage essay Iago's fullness. For his repetition signals a compulsive need to fill himself with objects in order to compensate for the contamination and chaos inside: hard shiny objects that might be kept safe and might keep the self safe, objects that could magically repair the sense of what the self is made of and store filled with. Iago's hoarding, his sadism, his references to pipefitter cover letter, purgatives and clyster-pipes can be read through the language of store classical psychoanalysis as evidence of an anal fixation; in that language the equation of money with faeces is familiar enough, as is the suffrage essay, association of sadistic control with the shoe store, anal phase. 19 Iago's obsessive suspicion that Othello has leaped into his seat, along with his heavily eroticized account of pestel study Cassio's dream, similarly lend themselves to a classically psychoanalytic reading of Iago as repressed homosexual. 20 While these readings are not wrong within their own terms, they nonetheless seem to me limited, and not only store, insofar as they can be said to assume a historically inaccurate concept of the subject or of the homosexual: 21 limited even within the terms of psychoanalysis insofar as they do not get at either the quality of Iago's emotional relationships (his inability to form any kind of libidinal bond, his tendency to treat others as poisonous inner objects) or the terrifying theatrical seductiveness of the family, processes of projection that we witness through him. I want consequently to move from the consideration of libidinal zones and shoe store conflicted object choices characteristic of classical psychoanalysis to the areas opened up by the work of Melanie Klein; a Kleinian reading of Iago will, I think, help us to pestel case, understand the resume shoe store, ways in pipefitter apprenticeship letter which Iago's imagination of his own interior shapes his object relations as he projects this interior onto the landscape of the play. In Klein's account the primitive self is composed in part of remnants of internalized objects (people, or bits and pieces of resume shoe store people, taken into the self as part of the self's continual negotiation with what an outside observer would call the world) and the world is composed in part of projected bits and pieces of the self.
Ideally, the good breast is taken in and becomes part of the pipefitter apprenticeship cover, ego, and the infant who was first inside the mother now has the mother inside himself. 22 Internalization of the good object is the basis for trust in one's own goodness; 23 full identification with a good object goes with a feeling of the self possessing goodness of store its own and hence enables the return of case study goodness to shoe store, the world: Through processes of projection and introjection, through inner wealth given out and re-introjected, an enrichment and deepening of the pestel case study, ego comes about. . . . Inner wealth derives from having assimilated the good object so that the shoe store, individual becomes able to share its gifts with others. 24 And the pestel analysis study, corollary is store, clear: if the infant cannot take in the experience of the pipefitter apprenticeship cover, good breast (either because of resume his/her own constitutional conditions or because the experience is not there to be had in a consistent way), the suffrage essay, bad breast may be introjected, with accompanying feelings of one's own internal badness, poverty, poisonousness, one's own inability to give back anything good to resume store, the world. But, in the words of Harold Boris, a contemporary post-Kleinian analyst of envy, the infant who cannot, sooner or later, feed the hand from which it feeds . . . is the child who will then attempt to pipefitter cover letter, bite it. 25 The infant stuck with a depleted or contaminated inner world will, Klein suggests, exist in a peculiar relation to the good breast: even if it is there and apparently available, the infant may not be able to use it. Store. For if the infant cannot tolerate either the essay questions dulce et decorum est, discrepancy between its own badness and the goodness outside itself or the sense of dependency on this external source of goodness, the resume store, good breast will not be available for the infant's use: its goodness will in effect be spoiled by the infant's own envious rage. The prototype for Kleinian envy is the hungry baby, experiencing itself as helplessly dependent, empty, or filled only questions et decorum est, with badness, confronted with the imagined fullness of resume a source of goodness outside itself: the letter, first object to be envied is the resume, feeding breast, for the infant feels that it possesses everything he desires and that it has an unlimited flow of pestel analysis case study milk, and love which the breast keeps for shoe store, its own gratification. 26 Klein's insistence on the priority of the breast as the first object of envy effectively reverses Freud's concept of et decorum penis envy; in Klein's account even penis envy becomes secondary, derivative from shoe store this earlier prototype.
27 But Klein's concept of envy turns on diversity in higher studies, an even more startling innovation: for most analysts of infantile destructiveness and rage, the source and target is the frustrating bad object—a maternal object that doesn't provide enough, is not at the infant's beck and call, provides milk that in some way is felt to be spoiled; but in Klein's reading of envy, the source and target of rage is not the frustrating or poisonous bad breast but the good breast, and it is exactly its goodness that provokes the rage. Hence the peculiar sensitivity of the resume, envious to the good—and the consequent need not to possess but to destroy it, or, in Klein's terms, to put badness, primarily bad excrement and bad parts of the self, into the mother, and first of all into her breast, in order to spoil and destroy her. 28 But the breast so destroyed is of course no longer available to the child as a source of good: The breast attacked in this way has lost its value, it has become bad by being bitten up and poisoned by urine and faeces. 29 Insofar as the infant has succeeded in destroying the good object, he has confirmed its destruction as a source of goodness within himself; hence the peculiarly vicious circle of envy, which destroys all good both in the world and in the self, and hence also its peculiar despair. We do not, of course, need the help of a Kleinian perspective to identify Iago as envious. His willingness to kill Cassio simply because He has a daily beauty in his life, / That makes me ugly (5.1.19-20) marks the extent to which he is driven by envy; in an older theatrical tradition he might well have been named Envy. Ap Us History Essay 2012. Here, for example, is Envy from Impatient Poverty: A syr is not thys a ioly game . . . Enuy in fayth I am the same . . . I hate conscience, peace loue and reste. Debate and stryfe that loue I beste.
Accordynge to my properte. When a man louethe well hys wyfe. I brynge theym at debate and stryfe. 30. This genealogy does not, however, make Iago a Coleridgean motiveless malignity. For in Iago, Shakespeare gives motiveless malignity a body: incorporating this element of the morality tradition, he releases through Iago the range of bodily fantasies associated with a specifically Kleinian envy. Klein describes an envy so primal—and so despairing—that it cannot tolerate the store, existence of goodness in the world: its whole delight lies not in possessing what is good but in spoiling it. And that spoiling takes place in fantasy through a special form of in higher education studies object-relating: through the violent projection of resume shoe bits of the diversity education case studies, self and its contaminated objects—often localized as contaminated bodily products—into the good object. By means of this projection, the self succeeds in replicating its own inner world out resume shoe there and thus in destroying the pestel study, goodness it cannot tolerate; at the end of the process, in the words of one Kleinian analyst, There is nothing left to envy. 31 Through the resume shoe, lens of a Kleinian perspective, we can see traces of this process as Iago fills Othello with the education, poison that fills him.
In Iago's fantasy, as I have suggested, there is no uncontaminated interior space: he can allow no one access to his interior and shoe store has to keep it hidden away because it is more a cesspool than a palace or a garden. And there are no uncontaminated inner objects: every intruder is foul; everything taken in diversity in higher turns to store, pus or faeces or poison; everything swallowed must be vomited out. Diversity Case. This sense of inner contamination leaves him—as Klein would predict—particularly subject to resume, the sense of goodness in others and history particularly ambivalent toward that goodness. His goal is to make those around him as ugly as he is; but that goal depends on his unusual sensitivity to their beauty. Even after he has managed to bring out the quarrelsome drunkard and class-conscious snob in Cassio, transforming him into a man who clearly enjoys sneaking around to see his general's wife, Iago remains struck by the daily beauty in Cassio's life—at a point when that beauty has become largely invisible to the audience. To Roderigo, Iago always contemptuously denies the goodness of Othello and Desdemona (he is an erring barbarian and she a supersubtle Venetian); but in soliloquy he specifically affirms their goodness—and affirms it in order to imagine spoiling it. Resume. Othello's free and open nature he will remake as the stupidity of an ass who can be led by the nose (1.3.397-400).
He will not only use Desdemona's virtue; he will turn it into pitch, in a near-perfect replication of the projection of faeces into the good breast that Klein posits. For Iago the desire to spoil always takes precedence over the desire to possess; one need only diversity studies, contrast him with Othello to shoe store, see the difference in their relation to essay est, good objects. 32 Othello's anguish over the loss of the good object gives the resume store, play much of its emotional resonance. He imagines himself as safely enclosed in essay dulce et decorum its garnery, nourished and shoe protected by it, and then cast out: But there, where I have garner'd up my heart, / Where either I must live, or bear no life, / The fountain, from the which my current runs, / Or else dries up, to be discarded thence (4.2.58-61). When he is made to imagine that object as spoiled—a cistern, for foul toads / To knot and gender in—its loss is wholly intolerable to him; even at the end, as he kills Desdemona, he is working very hard to restore some remnant of the suffrage essay, good object in her. Resume Shoe Store. Although he approaches Desdemona's bed planning to bloody it (Thy bed, lust-stain'd, shall with lust's blood be spotted [5.1.36]), his deepest desire is not to predictions 2012, stain but to restore the purity of the good object, rescuing it from contamination, even the contamination he himself has visited upon it. Store. By the time he reaches her bed, he has decided not to shed her blood (5.2.3). Instead he attempts to recreate her unviolated wholeness (that whiter skin of hers than snow, / And smooth, as monumental alabaster [11. 4-5]) in a death that he imagines as a revirgination; 33 in fantasy he cleanses the slime / That sticks on filthy deeds, remaking her unmarred and unpenetrated, one entire and perfect chrysolite (11. History 2012. 149-50, 146).
But Iago's only joy comes in spoiling good objects: Othello mourns being cast out from the garnery/fountain that has nourished him; Iago mocks the meat he feeds on resume, (3.3.170-71). His description of the green-eyed monster he cautions Othello against marks the workings of essays a very Kleinian envy in him: 34 like the empty infant who cannot tolerate the fullness of the breast, he will mock the objects that might nourish and sustain him, spoiling them by means of his corrosive wit. 35 (Or perhaps—in good Kleinian fashion—by tearing at them with his teeth: especially in conjunction with the image of feeding on meat, mock may carry traces of shoe store mammock, 36 to tear into pieces, suggesting the oral aggression behind Iago's biting mockery and hence the talion logic in his fantasy of being pecked at.) Mockery—especially of the meat he might feed on—is Iago's signature: different as they are, Othello, Cassio, and Roderigo share an almost religious awe toward Desdemona; Iago insists that the history essay predictions, wine she drinks is made of grapes (2.1.249-50), that even the best woman is only good enough To suckle fools, and chronicle small beer (1. 160). If the first object to resume shoe store, be envied is the feeding breast, Iago's devaluation of maternal nurturance here is just what we might expect. But envy does not stop there. As Klein suggests, Excessive envy of the breast is likely to extend to all feminine attributes, in particular to the woman's capacity to bear children. . . . The capacity to give and to preserve life is felt as the greatest gift and therefore creativeness becomes the deepest cause for envy. 37 If Othello's potency and fullness make him the immediate target of Iago's envious rage, the destruction of tradition essays Desdemona's generativity has been Iago's ultimate goal from the beginning: poison his delight, he says; And though he in a fertile climate dwell, / Plague him with flies (1.1.70-71). The image half-echoes Hamlet's linking of conception and resume breeding with the stirring of maggots in dead flesh, 38 for the fertile climate that Iago will transform into a breeding ground for family, plague is resume store, Desdemona's generative body. Hence, I think, the essay et decorum est, urgency with which Iago propels the resume shoe store, plot toward the marriage bed (Do it not with poison, strangle her in family tradition essays her bed, even the bed she hath contaminated [4.1.203-4]): the ultimate game is to resume, make father destroy mother on suffrage essay, that bed in resume shoe store a parody of the life-giving insemination that might have taken place there. Cover Letter. 39.
And hence the subterranean logic of Iago's favorite metaphor for that destruction, his monstrous birth. Resume Shoe Store. For if Iago enviously devalues Desdemona's generativity (she can only suckle, and only suckle fools; her body will breed only flies), he also appropriates it, and appropriates it specifically through imitation. Here both senses of mock —as devaluation and derisive imitation—come together, as Boris's work on envy predicts: The urge to take charge of the envied object has several components to it. First, of course, is the denuding (an idea) and disparagement (an emotion) of the inherent value of the ap us history essay predictions, original. This makes possible what follows, namely the idea that the 'knock-off (the 'as-if' ) is in every way the equal of the real thing. 40 In conceiving of his monstrous birth, that is, Iago not only mocks but also displaces Desdemona's generativity by resume shoe store, taking on its powers for himself, denying the ap us history essay predictions 2012, difference—between her fruitfulness and his barrenness, between her fullness and his emptiness—that he cannot tolerate. Iago's substitution in fact proceeds by shoe, stages. When he first invokes the family essays, metaphor of pregnancy, he is merely the midwife/observer: There are many events in resume the womb of time, which will be delivered (1.3.369-70). But his triumphant I ha't only thirty lines later—I ha't, it is engender'd; Hell and night / Must bring this monstrous birth to the world's light—replaces time's womb with his own: as I have already argued, his is the body in which the cover letter, monstrous birth is engendered, and hell and night have become the midwives. Through this metaphor, Iago's mental production becomes his substitute birth, in which he replaces the resume, world outside himself 41 —the world of time's womb, or of essay questions dulce et decorum Desdemona's—with the projection of his own interior monstrosity; thus conceived, his plot manages simultaneously to destroy the generativity that he cannot tolerate and to proclaim the superior efficacy of his own product.
Emilia's description of the jealousy Iago creates in Othello—it is shoe, a monster, / Begot upon itself, born on itself (3.4.159-60)—is not accurate about family essays Othello, but it suggestively tracks Iago's own envy to its psychic sources. Resume Shoe Store. If Iago imagines himself enacting a substitute birth, making the world conform to the shape of his envy by undoing the contours of the already-existing generative world, Emilia expresses the wish behind his metaphor: the wish to be begot upon ap us history essay predictions 2012 oneself, born on oneself, no longer subject to—dependent on, vulnerable to—the generative fullness outside the self and the unendurable envy it provokes. 42 Unable to achieve that end, he will empty himself out on the wedding bed, substituting his own monstrous conception for the generative fullness that torments him, and destroying in resume the process the envied good object in Desdemona. And it is just here, in this fantasy, that Othello's blackness becomes such a powerful vehicle for Iago. Family Tradition Essays. I have already suggested that Iago's capacity to spoil good objects rests on his capacity to blacken them, and to blacken them through a bodily process of projection.
His monstrous birth is from the first associated with the darkness of hell and night; and when, in shoe his conversation with Desdemona, he imagines his invention as his baby, that baby is pestel case study, associated specifically with the extrusion of a dark and sticky substance: Comes from my pate as birdlime does from. It plucks out brain and all: but my Muse. And thus she is deliver'd. . . . Presumably Iago means that his invention is as slow—as laborious—-as the process of removing birdlime from rough cloth (frieze), in store which the nap of the cloth is questions est, removed along with the soiling agent (hence plucks out brain and all). But the route to this relatively rational meaning is treacherous: the syntax first presents us with birdlime oozing from his head (invention / Comes from resume shoe store my pate as birdlime does), takes us on family, an apparent detour through the soiling of cloth (the birdlime stuck to the frieze), and ends with the image of his head emptied out altogether (plucks out brain and resume all), as though in a dangerous evacuation. Then, through a buried pun on conception, the in higher studies, concealed intermediary term, the resume shoe, evacuation becomes a pregnancy and delivery, displaced from his own body to that of the Muse, who labors and is delivered.
Invention, in other words, becomes the male equivalent of pregnancy, the production of a sticky dark baby. What we have here, I suggest, is the vindictive fantasy of a faecal pregnancy and delivery that can project Iago's inner monstrosity and tradition essays darkness into shoe the world: 44 initially displaced upward to the evacuated pate, this faecal baby is then returned to its source as his monstrous birth, the baby he has conceived in response to Desdemona's request for praise (2.1.124) and family essays the easy generativity (his own is a difficult labor) that he envies in her. This baby's emergence here marks, I think, both the source of his envy and the exchange that envy will demand: he will attempt in store effect to replicate his dark sticky baby in her, soiling her generative body by turning her virtue into diversity in higher education case studies pitch, 45 spoiling the shoe, object whose fullness and goodness he cannot tolerate by making it the receptacle for his own bodily contents. And he counts on the contagion of this contaminated object: he will turn Desdemona into pitch not only suffrage essay, because pitch is black and sticky—hence entrapping—but because it is shoe store, notoriously defiling; 46 his scheme depends on using Desdemona as a kind of tar baby, counting on her defilement—her blackening—to make Othello black. In fantasy, that is, Iago uses Desdemona and Othello to contaminate each other; they become for him one defiled object as he imagines them on that wedding bed. Of Sony Study. But at the same time, Othello plays a special role for Iago: in resume shoe Othello's black skin Iago can find a fortuitous external sign for the entire process, or, more accurately, a container for history essay predictions, the internal blackness that he would project outward, the dark baby that hell and night must bring to the world's light; emptying himself out, Iago can project his faecal baby into Othello, blackening him with his own inner waste. Iago plainly needs an Othello who can carry the burden of resume his own contamination; and to some extent the play makes us complicit in the process, as it makes Othello in effect into Iago's monstrous creation, carrying out Iago's conception as he murders Desdemona on her wedding bed, enacting a perverse version of the childbirth that might have taken place there. Othello himself seems to recognize that a birth of sorts is history essay predictions 2012, taking place, though he does not recognize it as Iago's: preparing to kill Desdemona on resume store, that bed, he says that her denials Cannot remove, nor choke the strong conception, / That I do groan withal (5.2.56-57), 47 as though he has been impregnated through Iago's monstrous birth. And in fact he has: part of the peculiar horror of this play is questions, that Othello becomes so effective a receptacle for—and enactor of—Iago's fantasies. If Iago imagines himself filled with a gnawing poisonous mineral through what amounts to Othello's anal insemination of him (2.1.290-92), he turns that poison back on Othello: I'll pour this pestilence into his ear (2.3.347). This retaliatory aural/anal insemination fills Othello with Iago's own contents, allowing Iago to serve his turn on Othello by doing to Othello what he imagines Othello has done to him. Shoe Store. (I follow him to pipefitter apprenticeship, serve my turn upon him is resume, sexualized in ways not likely to be audible to a modern audience [1.1.42].
For turn, see Othello's later she can turn, and diversity in higher studies turn, and resume yet go on, / And turn again [4.1.249-50]; 48 characteristically, Othello replicates in Desdemona the turn Iago has replicated in him.) And The Moor already changes with my poison, Iago says, adding for our benefit—in case we have not noticed the links between his poisonous conceit and Othello's—Dangerous conceits are in their natures poisons, / Which . . Pipefitter Cover Letter. . Burn like the mines of sulphur (3.3.330-34). The Moor already changes with my poison: the line marks what is distinctive about projection in this play—and distinctively Kleinian. Before Klein, projection was usually understood as a relatively uncomplicated process in shoe which disowned ideas and pipefitter apprenticeship letter emotions were displaced onto resume shoe store an external figure. Klein insisted both on the fantasies of bodily function accompanying this process and on the extent to which it is specifically pieces of the self and its inner objects that are thus relocated, with the consequence that pieces of the self are now felt to be out of sony study there, both controlling the object into which they have been projected and subject to dangers from it; Klein renamed this process projective identification. Store. And her followers have expanded on the concept, stressing the in higher education case studies, effects of these projected contents on the recipient of the projection, the ways in which the shoe store, projector can in fact control the recipient. In this version of projective identification, the recipient will not only experience the bits of self projected into him but also enact the projector's fantasy scenarios, hence relieving the projector of all responsibility for them. 49 When Iago imagines Roderigo turned inside out, his body filled with pus, he seems to me to analysis of sony study, be engaging in something close to garden-variety projection: he is attributing to Roderigo portions of himself, or ideas about himself, that he would like to disown; and, as far as we know, Roderigo does not come to experience himself as pus-filled or inside out. But when Iago imagines filling Othello with his poison, when he imagines (in Klein's formulation) the forceful entry into store the object and 2012 control of the object by parts of the self, 50 he is much closer to a specifically Kleinian projective identification; and, as Klein's followers would predict, Othello really does change with Iago's poison, as he begins to experience himself as contaminated and hence to act out Iago's scenarios. And the play depends on precisely this specialized kind of projective identification, in which Iago's fantasies are replicated in Othello's actions. When we first meet Othello, he is confident enough about his status and his color that he wishes to be found; he can confidently wish the goodness of the night (1.2.35) on Cassio and the duke's servants because blackness has not yet been poisoned for him. But as Iago projects his faecal baby into him, Othello comes more and more to imagine himself as the foul thing—the old black ram—intruding into the palace of Venetian civilization or the palace of Desdemona's body; as Iago succeeds in making Othello the container for his own interior waste, Othello himself increasingly affiliates his blackness with soiling (he becomes collied or blackened by passion [2.3.197]; 51 his name is resume shoe, begrim'd, and black as his face) and suffrage essay with bad interior objects. (In Arise, black vengeance, from thy hollow cell [3.3.454], he calls on black vengeance to arise as though from within the resume shoe, hollow of himself.) 52 His experience of predictions 2012 himself, that is, comes increasingly to resemble what Iago has projected into him; and he begins to shoe store, act in accordance with that projection, replicating in tradition essays Desdemona the contagion of projection itself.
The Othello who feels himself begrimed because he has internalized Iago's foul intruder will necessarily see Desdemona as foul (5.2.201), as a begrim'd Diana or a black weed, and shoe will evacuate his good object as Iago had predicted (1.3.350); by the end of the diversity in higher education, play, Emilia can call Othello the blacker devil, Desdemona's most filthy bargain, As ignorant as dirt (5.2.132, 158, 165) because he has so perfectly introjected Iago's sense of inner filth. Insofar as Iago can make Othello experience his own blackness as a contamination that contaminates Desdemona, he succeeds in emptying himself out into Othello; and insofar as Othello becomes in effect Iago's faecal baby, Othello—rather than Iago—becomes the shoe, bearer of the fantasy of inner filth. Through projective identification, that is, Iago invents blackness as a contaminated category before our eyes, enacting his monstrous birth through Othello, and then allowing the Venetians (and most members of the audience) to pipefitter apprenticeship letter, congratulate themselves—as he does—on their distance from the resume store, now-racialized Othello. Through this process, Othello becomes assimilated to, and motivated by, his racial type—becomes the monstrous Moor easily made jealous—and Iago escapes our human categories altogether, becoming unknowable, a motiveless malignity. But this emptying out of Iago is no more than Iago has already performed on himself: if the projection of his own inner contamination into Othello is Iago's relief, it is diversity studies, also his undoing, and in a way that corroborates both the bodiliness of the fantasy of projection and its dangers to the projector as well as the recipient. Klein notes that excessive use of projective identification results in the weakening and impoverishment of the ego; in the words of Betty Joseph, at times the mind can be . . . so evacuated by projective identification that the individual appears empty. Resume Shoe. 53 If at the end of the play there is nothing left to envy, there is also no one left to essay et decorum, experience envy: Iago's projection of himself into the racial other he constructs as the container for his contamination ends not only by destroying his (and our) good objects but also by leaving him entirely evacuated. Having poured the pestilence of shoe store himself into Othello, Iago has nothing left inside him: his antigenerative birth hollows him out, leaving him empty. The closer he is to his goal, the flatter his language becomes; by the end, there is no inside left, no place to speak from. The play that begins with his insistent I ends with his silence: from dulce et decorum est this time forth he never will speak word.
1 Quotations follow the Arden edition of Othello, edited by M. R. Resume Store. Ridley (London: Methuen, 1958). Ridley follows the 1622 quarto, which often differs from the Folio Othello; I have noted the pestel of sony, differences where they seem significant to my argument. Citations of plays other than Othello follow William Shakespeare: The complete Works, ed. Alfred Harbage (Baltimore: Penguin, 1969). 2 Race is of course a vexed term; many have pointed out that the word race gained its current meaning only resume store, as it was biologized in support of the economic institution of slavery and that the link between race and skin color is a peculiarly contemporary obsession, that (for example) Irish and Jews might in 1604 have been thought of as racially separate from the English. For a particularly lucid account of the questions surrounding the invocation of tradition race as a category in early modern England, see Lynda E. Boose, 'The Getting of resume store a Lawful Race': Racial discourse in early modern England and the unrepresentable black woman in Women, Race, and Writing in the Early Modern Period, Margo Hendricks and Patricia Parker, eds. (London and pipefitter letter New York: Routledge, 1994), 35-54, esp.
35-40; see also John Gillies, Shakespeare and resume store the geography of difference (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1994), for the claim that early modern otherness was based on geography rather than on pipefitter apprenticeship cover, the anachronistic category of race (25). Nonetheless, in Iago's capacity to make Othello's blackness the primary signifier of his otherness—as Boose observes, once his Ensign has raised the flag inscribing Othello within the difference of skin color, all the presumably meaningful differences Othello has constructed between himself and the infidel collapse (38)—the text insists on the visible difference of skin color that will increasingly come to define race, perhaps because, unlike religion, it (proverbially) cannot be changed. For a discussion of the significance of visible difference in early modern England, see Kim Hall, Reading What Isn't There: 'Black' Studies in Early Modern England, Stanford Humanities Review 3 (1993): 23-33, esp. 25-27; in her account science merely takes up already pre-existing terms of resume difference, such as skin color and features, that have [previously] been combined with physical and mental characteristics (25). 3 Ridley follows the Folio reading of history predictions 2012 line 392, since this line occurs in a passage not found in Q1 ; Q2 (1630) famously reads Her name in place of F's My name, perhaps to rationalize Othello's peculiar association of resume shoe store his name with the fairness of ap us history essay a figure for female virginity.
I prefer My name, partly because it suggests the identificatory dynamics that underlie Othello's love for Desdemona; but either reading points toward Othello's association of the stain on resume shoe store, Desdemona's virgin body with the blackness of his own face. 4 Desdemona becomes a black weed only in the quartos; F omits the adjective. 5 This position was powerfully—and variously—articulated in three classic essays published in 1979-80: Edward A. Snow's Sexual Anxiety and the Male Order of Things in Othello, English Literary Renaissance 10 (1980): 384-412; Stanley Cavell's Othello and the Stake of the Other in Disowning Knowledge in Six Plays of Shakespeare (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1987), 125-42 (originally published in 1979 in The Claim of Reason [Oxford: Oxford UP]); and Stephen Greenblatt's The Improvisation of Power in Renaissance Self Fashioning: From More to Shakespeare (Chicago and suffrage essay London: U of Chicago P, 1980), 222-54, esp. 232-52. For the association of Othello's blackness specifically with sexual contamination, and Othello's internalization of this association, see especially Snow, 400-402; and Cavell, 136-37. For a fuller reading of the association between blackness and monstrous sexuality in early modern English culture and in Othello, see especially Karen Newman, 'And wash the Ethiop white': femininity and the monstrous in store Othello in Shakespeare Reproduced: The text in history and suffrage essay ideology, Jean E. Howard and Marion F. O'Connor, eds. (New York and London: Methuen, 1987), 143-62, esp. 148-53; for resume shoe, a fuller reading of the education, ways in which Othello internalizes the Venetian construction of his blackness, see Edward Berry, Othello's Alienation, Studies in English Literature 1500-1900 30 (1990): 315-33. The blackening of Desdemona has become a critical commonplace: see, for example, Michael Neill, Unproper Beds: Race, Adultery, and the Hideous in Othello, Shakespeare Quarterly 40 (1989): 383-412, esp.
410; Berry, 328; Ania Loomba, Gender, race, Renaissance drama (Manchester and resume store New York: Manchester UP, 1989), 59; Parker, Fantasies of 'Race' and 'Gender': Africa, Othello and bringing to light in Hendricks and Parker, eds., 84-100, esp. 95; and especially Newman, 151-52, for whom the blackening of Desdemona indicates the convergence of woman and black in the category of monstrous sexuality. 6 See W. H. Auden's related account of Iago as practical joker: The practical joker despises his victims, but at the same time he envies them because their desires, however childish and mistaken, are real to them, whereas he has no desire which he can call his own. Case Study. .. . If the resume shoe, word motive is given its normal meaning of essay predictions 2012 a positive purpose of the self like sex, money, glory, etc., then the shoe, practical joker is without motive. Yet the professional practical joker is certainly driven, .. . but the in higher case studies, drive is resume, negative, a fear of lacking a concrete self, of being nobody. Suffrage Essay. In any practical joker to whom playing such jokes is a passion, there is always an store, element of malice, a projection of his self-hatred onto others, and in the ultimate case of the absolute practical joker, this is in higher education, projected onto resume all created things (The Dyer's Hand and tradition other essays [New York: Random House, 1962], 256-57).
The emptiness of Auden's practical joker is sometimes associated by later critics with Iago's facility in role-playing; see, e.g., Shelley Orgel, whose Iago gains a temporary sense of self by playing the roles that others project onto him (Iago, American Imago 25 : 258-73, esp. 272). Greenblatt's Iago has the role-player's ability to resume shoe, imagine his nonexistence so that he can exist for a moment in another and as another; but for Greenblatt, Iago's imagined emptiness is less an ontological state than a cover for his emptying out of his victim (235 and 236). More recently Iago's emptiness has reminded critics of a Derridean absence of self or meaning; see, e.g., Bonnie Melchior, Iago as Deconstructionist, Publications of the diversity, Arkansas Philological Association 16 (1990): 63-81, esp. 79; or Karl F. Zender, The Humiliation of Iago, SEL 34 (1994): 323-39, esp. 327-28. In Alessandro Serpieri's brilliant semiotic reading, Iago suffers from an envy of being that is the deconstructionist's equivalent of the state Auden describes: Iago cannot identify with any situation or sign or enonce, and is thus condemned to deconstruct through his own enonciations the enonces of others, transforming them into simulacra. Othello is precisely the lord of the enonce (Serpieri, Reading the shoe store, signs: towards a semiotics of Shakespearean drama, trans.
Keir Elam, in pestel Alternative Shakespeares, John Drakakis, ed. [London and shoe New York: Methuen, 1985], 119-43, esp. Pestel Of Sony Study. 139). In its emphasis on envy and projection, Auden's and Serpieri's work is closest to my own; but see also David Pollard's powerful Baudelairian reading of Iago's emptiness and store the sadistic projections through which he attempts to fill it (Iago's Wound in Othello: New Perspectives, Virginia Mason Vaughan and Kent Cartwright, eds. [Rutherford, Madison, and Teaneck, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson UP; London and Toronto: Associated University Presses, 1991], 89-96). 7 Adam Phillips, Foreword in Harold N. Diversity In Higher Studies. Boris, Envy (Northvale, NJ, and London: Jason Aronson, 1994), vii-xi, esp. ix. 8 For some, Othello is split long before Iago begins his work.
In Berry's account, for example, Othello is resume shoe, divided from the beginning by the two contradictory selfimages he absorbs from questions et decorum est Venice; his failure to escape this limiting framework and hence to achieve a true sense of personal identity is a powerful source of tragic feeling in the play (323 and 330). But for shoe store, critics who read Othello as an early instance of a colonized subject, this failure is not personal but systemic: both Loomba (32, 48, and 54) and Jyotsna Singh (Othello's Identity, Postcolonial Theory, and apprenticeship letter Contemporary African Rewritings of Othello in shoe store Hendricks and Parker, eds., 287-99, esp. Tradition. 288) position Othello specifically in opposition to what Singh calls the dominant, Western fantasy of a singular, unified identity (288). But Iago at least insists that he is the divided one, and Othello initially claims that his soul is perfect or undivided; whatever the state to which Othello is reduced, Othello —like The Tempest —seems to me to encode the fantasy that the exotic other possesses a primitive unitary identity before his induction into a Western-style split self. 9 I first read this paper to a very helpful and responsive audience at Notre Dame in November 1994, on which occasion Richard Dutton called my attention to the way in which Othello's self-division is literally played out on the stage. 10 As Iago's self-alienation passes to shoe store, Othello, so does his habit of essay et decorum est soliloquizing. Soliloquies are usually in shoe store Shakespearean tragedy the discourse of self-division: only those whose selves are in family pieces need to explain themselves to themselves and have distinct-enough interior voices to carry out the job for our benefit. Initially Iago's soliloquies formally mark him as fractured in comparison with Othello's wholeness; by the end, Othello is the soliloquizer. 11 I here depart from Ridley in following F's version of line 80; Ridley and Q1 (1622) give And swiftly come to shoe, Desdemona's arms.
Ridley himself finds Q1's version of line 80 pallid and thinks Shakespeare probably revised it for F; that he nonetheless rejects the Folio version on the grounds that it is inconsistent with Cassio's character suggests his resistance to seeing just how eroticized Cassio's idealizing of Othello is family tradition, (xxixxxx and 52n). In the context of lovemaking, spirits is not a neutral term; for resume, its specifically sexual senses, see Stephen Booth, Shakespeare's Sonnets (New Haven, CT, and London: Yale UP, 1977), 441-43. 12 See Neill's powerful account of the suffrage essay, ways in which the audience is resume shoe store, implicated in Iago's invocation of the horrors of miscegenation, the improper sexual mixture that medieval theologians called adultery (395-99 and 407-9). For Arthur L. Little Jr. the whole of the suffrage essay, play constitutes the primal scene of racism, a forbidden sexual sight/site from which the audience constructs the significance of race ('An essence that's not seen': The Primal Scene of Racism in Othello, SQ 44 : 304-24, esp. 305-6). 13 The familiar associations of blackness with monstrosity (see, e.g., Newman, 148; and James R. Aubrey, Race and the Spectacle of the Monstrous in Othello, Clio 22 : 221-38) and specifically with monstrous births (see Neill, 409-10; and Aubrey, 222-27) would probably have made the subterranean connection between Othello and Iago's monstrous birth more available to Shakespeare's audiences than it is to a modern audience. 14 Projection has classically been invoked as a mechanism in resume shoe Othello, but usually in questions est the other direction, from resume store Othello to Iago; see, e.g., J.I.M.
Stewart, Character and Motive in Shakespeare: Some Recent Appraisals Examined ([London, New York, and Toronto: Long-mans, Green and Company, 1949], 102-5), though Stewart ultimately abandons a naturalistic reading of the play through projection for pipefitter letter, a symbolic reading of Iago and resume store Othello as parts of a single whole. Pipefitter Apprenticeship Letter. For somewhat later versions of Iago as Othello's projection, see, e.g., Henry L. Warnken, Iago as a Projection of shoe Othello in Shakespeare Encomium 1564-1964, Anne Paolucci, ed. (New York: The City College, 1964), 1-15; and Orgel, 258-73. In these accounts projection is loosely used to indicate that Iago expresses unacknowledged doubts or desires in essay Othello's mind (or, in Orgel's reading, Othello's unacknowledged need for a punitive superego); they generally do not explore the resume shoe store, mechanism of diversity case projection or consider the degree to which the store, structure of the play posits Iago—not Othello—as its psychic starting point. For Auden, who reads the play through Iago as practical joker, projection begins with Iago, not Othello (see n. 6, above); see also Leslie Y. Rabkin and Jeffrey Brown, who read Iago as a Horneyan sadist, assuaging his pain by projecting his self-contempt and hopelessness onto others (Some Monster in His Thought: Sadism and ap us Tragedy in Othello Literature and Psychology 23 : 59-67, esp. 59-60); and Pollard, who reads Iago as Baudelairian sadist, filling the world with sadistic projections with which he then identifies to fill his inner emptiness (92-95). Serpieri sees Iago as the artificer of a destructive projection; in his semiotic analysis, litotes—Iago's characteristic nay-saying figure—becomes the linguistic equivalent of projection, a figure of persuasion which, by denying, affirms in the 'other' all that—the diabolical, the lustful, the alien—which it refutes or censures in the 'self (134 and 142). Attention to the status of others has made contemporary criticism particularly sensitive to Othello as the site of shoe store Iago's projections rather than as the originator of projection; see, e.g., Parker on the violence of of sony study projection (100). Resume Store. My account differs from those cited here largely in giving projection a body and in specifying the mechanisms of projective identification at work in the play. 15 Although Neill emphasizes the hidden/hideousness of the bed rather than of bodily interiors (394-95), my formulation here is ap us history, very much indebted to his. In the course of her enormously suggestive account of the cultural resonances of the hidden/private in resume shoe store Othello and Hamlet, Parker comments extensively on the association of the hidden with the woman's private parts, partly via gynecological discourse; see Parker, Othello and Hamlet: Dilation, Spying, and the 'Secret Place' of Woman, Representations 44 (1993): 60-95, esp.
64-69. 16 Gender can of course mean kind; but, as Ridley notes, Shakespeare normally uses it of difference of sex (40n). 17 Ridley notes that supply = satisfy (40n); for a specifically sexualized use, see Measure for Measure, 5.1.210. 18 Doves is the reading in Ridley and Ql; I here depart from history it in giving F's and Q2's dawes. 19 On the relationship between money and faeces, see Sigmund Freud, Character and Anal Eroticism in The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, ed. James Strachey, 24 vols. (London: Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1953-74), 9:167-76, esp. 171 and 173-74; Ernest Jones, Anal-Erotic Character Traits, Journal of Abnormal Psychology 13 (1918): 261-84, esp. Shoe Store. 272-74 and 276-77; Karl Abraham, Contributions to the Theory of the Anal Character in diversity education Selected Papers of Karl Abraham (New York: Brunner/Mazel, 1927), 370-92, esp. 383; and Otto Fenichel, The Psychoanalytic Theory of Neurosis (New York: Norton, 1945), 281. On sadism and anality, see Abraham, The Narcissistic Evaluation of Excretory Processes in Dreams and Neurosis in resume shoe store Selected Papers, 318-22, esp. 319 and diversity in higher education case 321; Jones, 268; and Fenichel, 283.
20 The loci classici for this reading are Martin Wangh, Othello: The Tragedy of resume Iago, Psychoanalytic Quarterly 19 (1950): 202-12; and Gordon Ross Smith, Iago the Paranoiac, American Imago 16 (1959): 155-67. Both essays are based on suffrage essay, Freud's account of delusional jealousy as a defense against homosexual desire in the Schreber case. For an extension and elaboration of this view, with particular focus on Iago's hatred of women, see also Stanley Edgar Hyman, Iago: Some Approaches to the Illusion of His Motivation (New York: Atheneum, 1970), 101-21. Contemporary critics who comment on the homoerotic dynamic between Iago and Othello tend to resume, locate their readings not in this model but in the complex of metaphors that makes Iago's seduction of Othello into an aural penetration and insemination, with a resulting monstrous (and miscegenistic) conception; see, e.g., Coppelia Kahn, Man's Estate: Masculine Identity in Shakespeare (Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: U of California P, 1981), 144-45; and Parker in Hendricks and Parker, eds., 99-100. Parker notes that the imagined penetration is anal as well as aural (99); see also, e.g., Graham Hammill's brief discussion of Iago's anal eroticism, The Epistemology of questions Expurgation: Bacon and The Masculine Birth of Time in shoe Queering the Renaissance, Jonathan Goldberg, ed. (Durham, NC, and London: Duke UP, 1994), 236-52, esp. 251n. 21 For historically based arguments against Iago-as-repressed-homosexual, see Jonathan Dollimore, Sexual Dissidence (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991), 157-62; and Bruce R. Suffrage Essay. Smith, Homosexual Desire in Shakespeare's England: A Cultural Poetics (Chicago and London: U of Chicago P, 1991), 61-63 and 75. Both Dollimore and Smith stress the social functions of the male homosocial bond rather than the dynamics of homoerotic feeling partly on the grounds that the store, homosexual subject is an anachronism in the early modern period. But Shakespeare does not need to have the category of the homosexual subject available to him in diversity in higher education case order to represent Iago as acting out of resume shoe desires inadmissible to him, including sodomitical desires; and critics who insist that we do away with the pestel of sony, homosexual as a category sometimes throw out the baby with the bathwater. In Homosexuality and the Signs of resume shoe Male Friendship in Elizabethan England (in Goldberg, ed., 40-61) Alan Bray demonstrates the cultural (nonsexual) uses to which the bedfellow could be put; but in order for family essays, Smith, for example, to store, invoke Iago's report of Cassio's bedfellow dream to make the argument that Iago is a self-conscious male-bonder rather than a repressed homosexual, he has to ignore the explicit sexiness of the dream (the hard kisses plucked up by the roots, the leg over the thigh).
The dream clearly crosses the line—between male friendship and sodomy—that Bray delineates, more strikingly because Iago need not have included all that sexiness to convey his information to suffrage essay, Othello; and whether or not the resume, reported dream proclaims Iago a repressed homosexual, its effect on Othello clearly depends as much on its crossing of that line as on the information that Cassio dreams about Desdemona. As for subjectivity: whether or not the Renaissance shared our sense of the bourgeois subject—in any case, emphatically not the subject as it is construed by psychoanalysis— Othello is essay questions dulce et decorum, obsessively about what is resume shoe store, hidden away within the person, the inner, private, and cover unknowable self that might harbor inaccessible desires. For a good summary of these controversies—and a sensible middle position—see Alan Sinfield, Cultural Politics—Queer Reading (Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1994), 12-14. 22 Melanie Klein, Envy and Gratitude (1957) in Envy and Gratitude and Other Works 1946-1963 (London: Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1975), 176-235, esp. 179. 24 Klein, 192 and 189. 27 For an shoe store, early statement of this position, see Klein, Early Stages of the Oedipus Conflict (1928) in Love, Guilt and Reparation and Other Works 1921-1945 (London: Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis, 1975), 186-98, esp. 190-91 and 193-96. 28 Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 181. 29 Klein, Envy and family Gratitude, 186.
30 Quoted here from Bernard Spivack's discussion of resume store Iago and the morality tradition in Shakespeare and the Allegory of Evil: The History of a Metaphor in Relation to His Major Villains (New York: Columbia UP, 1958), 184. 31 Betty Joseph, Envy in everyday life in Psychic Equilibrium and Psychic Change: Selected Papers of Betty Joseph, ed. Michael Feldman and Elizabeth Bott Spillius (London and pestel study New York: Tavistock/Routledge, 1989), 181-91, esp. 185. 32 In Kleinian terms, Othello has reached the depressive position, characterized by the capacity to mourn for resume shoe store, the damaged object and to make reparations to it (see especially Klein, A Contribution to the Psychogenesis of 2012 Manic-Depressive States  and Mourning and its Relation to Manic-Depressive States , both in Love, Guilt and Reparation, 262-89 and 344-69); Iago functions from within the more primitive paranoid-schizoid position, with its characteristic mechanisms of splitting and resume store projection/introjection (see especially Klein, Notes on Some Schizoid Mechanisms in Envy and Gratitude, 1-24). 33 As many have argued: see especially Cavell, 134; and Snow, 392. See also my Suffocating Mothers: Fantasies of Maternal Origin in Shakespeare, Hamlet to The Tempest (New York and London: Routledge, 1992), 69-70. 34 Iago's words here, like Emilia's at 3.4.157-60, refer explicitly to jealousy but nonetheless define the self-referential qualities of envy. Apprenticeship. Although the two terms are sometimes popularly confused, they are distinct in psychoanalytic thought: jealousy occurs in a three-body relationship, derived from the oedipus complex, in which the loss of shoe store a good object to a rival is at stake; envy occurs in a pre-oedipal two-body relationship, in which the good qualities of the object are felt to be intolerable.
Jealousy seeks to preserve the suffrage essay, good object, if necessary by shoe store, killing it; envy seeks to apprenticeship, spoil the good object. (For these distinctions, see Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 196-99; and Joseph in Feldman and Spillius, eds., 182.) Jealousy is a derivative of envy but is more easily recognized and resume store more socially acceptable (Klein, Envy and analysis of sony study Gratitude, 198; Joseph in Feldman and Spillius, eds., 182); partly as a consequence, it can sometimes serve as an important defence against envy (Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 198). This defensive structure seems to me at work both in Iago and in the play at large: in Iago, who repeatedly comes up with narratives of jealousy as though to justify his intolerable envy to resume shoe store, himself (tellingly, he uses the traditional language of envy—Spenser's Envy inwardly . . . chawed his owne maw in The Faerie Queene [I.iv.30]—to register the pipefitter apprenticeship cover, gnawing effects of shoe jealousy on him); and in Othello itself, insofar as its own narratives of jealousy are far more legible and recognizably human than the envy represented through Iago and dismissed in him as unrecognizable, inhuman, or demonic. 35 Mock has puzzled commentators for years, occasioning five pages of commentary in the New Variorum edition of Othello (ed. Horace Howard Furness [Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott, 1886]). William Warburton (1747) glosses mocke (in terms strikingly close to my own) as loaths that which nourishes and sustains it (176). With very little plausibility but some interest for family, my argument, Andrew Becket (1815) transforms mocke to muck, glossing it as to resume shoe, bedaub or make foul: two other commentators—Zachariah Jackson and Lord John Chedworth—approved of this emendation enough to apprenticeship cover letter, come up with candidates for the monstrous animal that befouls its food, mouse and dragon-fly, respectively (179). 36 Zachary Grey suggested in 1754 that mock is a contraction for mammock (Furness, ed., 176); as far as I can tell, his suggestion has been entirely ignored. 37 Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 201-2. 38 See Hamlet, 2.2.181-82.
39 This destruction also has the effect of separating the two figures whose conjunction has haunted Iago's imagination. Store. Klein hypothesizes the analysis of sony case, combined parent figure as a special target of envy (the suspicion that the parents are always getting sexual gratification from one another reinforces the phantasy . . . that they are always combined [Envy and Gratitude, 198]); Iago in fact evokes such a fantasy-figure in resume store his initial description of education case Othello and resume shoe Desdemona as fused, a beast with two backs (1.1.116), always in the process of achieving the incorporate conclusion (2.1.258-59) that is essays, always denied him. 41 My formulation here is partly indebted to Janine Chausseguet-Smirgel's work on perversion, especially anal perversion, which she sees as an attempt to dissolve generational and gender differences in order to defend against acknowledgment of the pervert's own puniness and vulnerability; though she does not draw specifically on Klein's concept of envy, her work sometimes intersects usefully with Klein's. In Chausseguet-Smirgel's reading, Sade's intention, for example, is to reduce the universe to faeces, or rather to annihilate the resume shoe, universe of differences (Perversion and the Universal Law in Chausseguet-Smirgel, Creativity and Perversion [New York: W. W. Norton, 1984], 4). Suffrage Essay. Insofar as perversion attempts to resume shoe, replace God's differentiated universe with its own undifferentiation, it is the equivalent of Devil religion (9); the undifferentiated anal universe constitutes an imitation or parody of the genital universe of the father (11). Pestel Analysis Of Sony Case Study. While this formulation is suggestive for Iago, I think that Chausseguet-Smirgel is shoe store, hampered by her Lacanian milieu, with its overvaluation of the phallus and essay predictions 2012 the father's law; Iago is at least as intent on imitating and ultimately replacing the store, mother's generative function as the father's law. 42 With the questions et decorum est, kind of psychological intuition that everywhere animates his portrayal of Satan, Milton reworks Emilia's comment: unable to stand the debt immense of endless gratitude to the God who has created him (Paradise Lost, Bk.
4, 1. 52), Satan proclaims himself self-begot, self-rais'd / By our own quick'ning power (Bk. 5, 11. 860-61). Resume Shoe. Klein cites Milton's Satan as an instance of the spoiling of creativity implied in envy (Envy and Gratitude, 202). 43 According to the Oxford English Dictionary, birdlime is a sticky substance made out of the bark of the diversity in higher education studies, holly tree and smeared on resume shoe store, branches to dulce, entrap birds; With the barkes of resume store Holme they make Bird-lyme, cited from Henry Lyte's 1578 Niewe herball or historie of plantes (Oxford English Dictionary, prep. Family Tradition Essays. J. Resume Store. Simpson and tradition essays E.S.C. Weiner, 2d ed., 20 vols. [Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989], 2:216).
Holme is confusing; it is cited as blacke Holme in Spenser's Virgils Gnat (1. 215), but there apparently refers to resume store, the oak, not the holly. In any case, despite the echo of lime, birdlime seems to have been dark, not white. 44 The equation of faeces with baby is familiar to psychoanalysis; see, e.g., Freud, On the Sexual Theories of Children, on the cloacal theory of birth (If babies are born through the anus, then a man can give birth just as well as a woman [9:205-26, esp. 219-20]); Jones, 274-75; and essays Susan Isaacs, Penis-Feces-Child, Internationaljournal of Psycho-analysis 8 (1927): 74-76.
For fantasies that overvalue the power of faecal creation to create or destroy every object, see Abraham, The Narcissistic Evaluation of Excretory Processes, 322; about one of his patients he reports, That night he dreamed that he had to expel the store, universe out of pestel analysis of sony his anus (320). 45 Oddly, Ridley associates the pitch into which Iago will turn Desdemona's virtue with birdlime without noting its source in Iago's earlier metaphor (88n). 46 For Shakespeare's reworkings of the proverbially defiling properties of pitch, see, e.g., Love's Labor's Lost, 4.3.3; 1 Henry IV, 2.4.394-96; and Much Ado About Nothing, 3.3.53. 47 I here depart from shoe Ridley in following F and diversity studies Q2; Q1, Ridley's copytext, gives conceit. The half-buried metaphor of childbirth is, I think, present in either case, both through the association of groan—especially in proximity to a bed—with childbirth (see, e.g., All's Well That Ends Well, 1.3.140 and 4.5.10; and resume store Measure for essay dulce et decorum, Measure, 2.2.15) and through the family relation between conceit and resume Latin conceptus, cited in pestel of sony case the OED; the OED also gives Conception of offspring as an resume store, obsolete meaning for conceit with a 1589 instance, though it notes that this usage is Perhaps only in higher education studies, a pun (3:647-48, esp.
648). 48 See also the best turn F th' bed (Antony and Cleopatra, 2.5.59). For serve, see Lear's Oswald, A serviceable villain, / As duteous to the vices of thy mistress / As badness would desire (4.6.248-50); for resume store, serve my turn, see Costard's exchange with the king (Love's Labor's Lost, 1.1.281-82). For follow / fallow, see Parker in Hendricks and Parker, eds., 99, citing Herbert A. Ellis, Shakespeare 's Lusty Punning in Love 's Labour's Lost (1973). 49 This is an oversimplified summary of a very complex development in psychoanalytic theory; for a fuller summary, see Projective Identification in R. D. Hinshelwood's A Dictionary of Kleinian Thought (London: Free Association Books, 1991), 179-208; or Elizabeth Bott Spillius's Clinical experiences of projective identification in suffrage essay Clinical Lectures on Klein and Bion, Robin Anderson, ed. (London and New York: Tavistock/Routledge, 1992), 59-73, esp. Resume Shoe. 59-64. For Klein's initial development of the concept of projective identification, see Envy and analysis of sony case Gratitude, 8-11. The development of the concept by shoe, her followers has had broad ramifications for clinical work; for a particularly lucid account of some of suffrage essay these, see, in resume addition to Spillius, Joseph, Projective identification—some clinical aspects in Melanie Klein Today: Developments in Theory and Practice, Elizabeth Bott Spillius, ed., 2 vols. (London and New York: Routledge, 1988), 1:138-50.
50 Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 11. 51 Collied is conjecturally related to coaly by the OED, 3:390-91. 52 Folio gives hell for Q1's cell. The Folio reading would ally black vengeance with Iago's monstrous birth. In either reading, the essay et decorum est, apparently superfluous hollowness suggests an inner space; as Ridley notes, it occurs, again redundantly, in the reference to a hollow mine (4.2.81). Shortly after he calls up black vengeance, and again in 5.2, Othello imagines his revenge swallowing up his victims (3.3.467 and resume 5.2.76), as though returning them to the interior source of his vengeance. 53 Klein, Envy and Gratitude, 11; Joseph in Spillius, ed., Melanie Klein Today, 140.
Source: Iago's Alter Ego: Race as Projection in pestel analysis of sony Othello in resume shoe Shakespeare Quarterly, Vol. Essay Questions. 48, No. 2, Spring, 1997, pp. 125-44. Access our Othello Study Guide for Free. The most significant purpose for Venice being the setting of Othello has to do with Shakespeare honoring the source from which his ideas for the play came. Almost the shoe store, entire play is essay et decorum, based on an. In Othello, Iago is extremely manipulative.
Iago is a master at manipulation. Through his mere words, he plants seeds of resume doubt in letter Othello. Truly, Iago is subtle in his accusation as he merely. There is - as usual in Shakespeare's tragedies - a huge body count at the end of Othello. In the scene in the dark, Cassio is wounded in the leg, and resume store Roderigo is killed by Iago in the dark. In the. There are several reasons given for Iago's hatred of, and questions est intended ruination of Othello. Shoe. First, he is insulted by Othello's promotion of analysis case Cassio; he felt that he deserved the promotion.
That is. For each of the following soliloquies, you can find modern English versions in the etext version of the script. For now, I'm just giving a capsule summary. One comes at resume shoe the end of education Act I, scene 3.
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resume layou formats This page explains how to write a British-style CV (curriculum vitae, or resume, or personal history) and covering letter, used when applying for jobs in the UK. Author: Corinne Mills. Date: January 2009. Author: Tracey Whitmore. Publisher: How To Books Ltd. Your CV ( curriculum vitae ) is a summary of your work experience and education, used for job applications. A resume (properly written as resumé) is an resume shoe, American English term for suffrage essay a CV. A covering letter is a letter sent with your CV which explains details about store, your application to a particular company. A reference is a formal letter to an employer, from analysis of sony case, somebody who knows you well, describing your character or ability. A referee is a person who provides a reference for you.
How should I design the layout of my CV? There are many ways to design a CV. This section gives an resume shoe, example. Print your CV on good quality white paper. Family! The paper size should be A4 (this is 21.0 cm wide and 29.7cm tall). Usually you should not attach a photograph. Leave wide margins (there should be a gap of at least 2 centimetres on the top, bottom, left and right). A good font size to use is 12 (or 10 if you want to put more information on your CV). The document should use only one font style, for example Times New Roman. Use bold ( Bold ) or italics ( Italics ) to shoe store, emphasise important words. Only underline section titles (or do not underline any words).
If you make a list (for example, a list of your job achievements), consider using bullet points. Try to keep the CV on one side of paper, or use two sides if you have a lot of relevant work experience or qualifications. Keep your sentences short and simple. A typical section order is: There is an example CV shown below. When writing your name, always put your own name first and your family name last (even if you write the family name first in pipefitter, your own country).
Include the shoe full postcode in your address. Make sure that you will be able to collect all mail sent to this address (if you move, ask the pestel of sony case study owner to resume, forward letters to pestel analysis of sony study, you). If you have a mobile telephone, put this number on your CV, so that you can be contacted easily. If you use a voicemail service, it will be easier for callers to leave a message for shoe store you. If you do not have a mobile telephone, give the number of the telephone at tradition your accommodation. The telephone number should start with the area code, written in resume shoe, brackets; for example, a London number should be written (020) xxxx xxxx. If the telephone has an answering machine, make sure that you check the messages every day.
If you are sharing someone else's telephone, ask that person's permission before using their number on your CV. Write your e-mail address next to your telephone number, and apprenticeship, check your messages regularly. Create two columns. Use the left-hand column for dates. For start and end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the resume store year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the right-hand column, provide information about ap us essay, each of your job roles. Start by writing the store name of the company (in bold) and its location. On the studies next line you might give a brief description of what the shoe store company does. You might give a title for your job (and perhaps a department name) on another line (highlighting this in bold italics)
You should list your main responsibilities and achievements within each role (perhaps using bullet points) Give more detail for est recent jobs. Make sure that you mention skills which may be useful in the job for which you are now applying. If possible, avoid any date gaps unless they are covered within the resume shoe store Education section. Don't mention how much you were paid. When describing your achievements, use positive action verbs (for example: achieved, arranged, assisted, co-ordinated, completed, dealt with, developed, established, expanded, handled, helped, implemented, improved, increased, interviewed, introduced, maintained, managed, negotiated, organised, planned, processed, programmed, proposed, promoted, purchased, redesigned, reduced, reorganised, revised, sold, solved, streamlined, supervised, trained, translated, worked, wrote). You should not use the word I on your CV; this is pipefitter apprenticeship cover letter understood. For example, you might write Increased sales at the shop, but not I increased sales at the shop. Remember that the shoe person reading your CV may not be familiar with the education system in your country. Create two columns.
Use the suffrage essay left-hand column for the dates. For start and resume store, end dates, use either full years (eg 1998-2000) or the suffrage essay first three letters of the month followed by the last two digits of the year (eg Jun 98-Sep 00) In the store right-hand column, list the name of the school or university on family tradition essays one line, followed by further details (the course name or the number of exam subjects passed) on store the next line. List formal educational qualifications only in this table (eg university and secondary school, but not a language school or part-time courses), stating the pipefitter apprenticeship cover most recent (and highest level) qualifications first. If you have been to a post-graduate school or college, put the name of this after a label such as Post-graduate studies: so that the level is clear. If you have been to a university, use the word University in shoe store, the name, or put a label such as University: before the name so that the level is clear. Essay Predictions 2012! If the university is resume store one of the top universities in your country, state this fact (the interviewer may not know it). State the et decorum name of the town and country after the store university's name. In the description, put the name of the main subject studied (try to in higher case studies, avoid using the words major or minor, which are used in American English).
If you studied English, the subject should perhaps be described as English language and shoe, literature, not just English literature. Avoid mentioning grades unless they are particularly good; if you do mention grades, make sure that they are clear (e.g. 80%, or top grade) - the British university grade system is probably different from that in your country. You should list any schools you have attended between the ages of in higher education studies, about 15 and 18, but not before this age. You should add the label Secondary school: before the name of the shoe school, or include the words High School in the name. If you took exams in a wide range of history, subjects, you may prefer to list only the resume number of subjects passed instead of the history essay 2012 subject names, or if you have been to university you may choose not to resume shoe, list any secondary school qualifications. If you are studying in suffrage essay, the UK, you may want to shoe store, include details of cover letter, this course. If so, write this in resume, a line under the main table.
For example, you could write Currently studying English at ABC school, London (since January 2001). If you have other skills or qualifications which you believe may be relevant, you can list these. English exams which you have passed (eg Passed Cambridge First Certificate of English). Computer skills (eg Good knowledge of standard office software, including e-mail and the internet) Typing speed (only mention this if you are applying for data entry or secretarial jobs) An international driving licence (only mention this if you may need to drive for the job) Create two columns; use the left-hand column for labels and pipefitter apprenticeship, the right-hand column for information. The exact list of personal details you want to give may depend on shoe store your circumstances and what the education job requires, but the list below will give you a guide.
Write Date of birth:, followed by the day you were born in the second column, eg 3 Feb 1980. Resume! Note that the date should be written in British date order (day, month, year), not in American date order (month, day, year). Write Nationality:, followed by your nationality eg Japanese. You may want to tradition essays, write Gender:, followed by Male or Female, if this is resume shoe not obvious to a British person from your name. Whether you are a man or a woman may be relevant for some jobs. Write Work status:, followed by a description of the status implied by the stamp in your passport, for example, Student visa or EC citizen (no work permit required).
Write Interests: followed by a short list of perhaps 3 or 4 main hobbies or interests. As you have come to the UK to study, you can probably include interests such as travel, learning languages, or international cultures. Don't list anything which you wouldn't be happy to discuss at an interview. Include interests which may show the interviewer that you have good social or team-working skills, that show your dedication / enthusiasm / success, or that highlight additional skills that may be useful in the job (for example, computer or language skills). If you think it is necessary, write References:, followed by Available on request.
You should only provide references if your employer asks for them. If you do need to questions dulce et decorum est, give a reference, make sure that you have asked the resume shoe person beforehand. Possible referees include a teacher or previous employer. It may complicate your application if you give the name of a referee who lives abroad; if you want to do this, make sure that the person will be able to provide comments in pipefitter, English, and give an e-mail address so that delays can be minimised. 52 Orchard Street, London W2 3BT. Telephone: 020-7654 3210; Mobile: 07960 999999; E-mail: email@example.com. · Advised the main shop's customers about organic and resume shoe store, health foods. · Developed new business in smaller satellite stores, explaining the benefits of supplements and organic food to pestel analysis case study, potential new customers. · Increased sales at resume shoe both the main and the satellite shops. The extra profits were used to expand the business by establishing a new shop.
· Examined incoming mail and redirected this to family, the appropriate division. · Translated foreign letters (written in English) into Japanese. · Dealt with customs enquiries and procedures. Computer literate: good knowledge of Word and Excel, as well as e-mail and the internet. Fluent in Japanese; practical knowledge of resume shoe store, English and cover letter, Korean. If you are sending an application directly to a potential employer, you should write a one-page letter to accompany your CV (a covering letter). The covering letter may either be typed (better if you are applying to resume shoe store, a large company) or written neatly by hand (better if you believe that a typed letter may appear too formal).
There is an analysis of sony study, example covering letter shown below. State what type of visa you have, so that the store potential employer knows that you will be able to work legally. You may want to mention the family tradition essays level of your English ability. Explain in your letter how you can be contacted. If you are about to change your accommodation, you should ask to be contacted either on your mobile telephone or by e-mail.
If you give the telephone number of your host family, you should ask them for their permission first, and you should check if they have an answering machine. EXAMPLE COVERING LETTER. Re: Job as a part-time sales assistant (reference: JBW5014) I would like to apply for the job of shoe, a part-time sales assistant in diversity in higher education case studies, the food section of Fortnum Mason's in Piccadilly, as advertised in Loot Recruit on 2 August. Please find attached a copy of my CV. My previous jobs include two years as a sales assistant in an organic food shop in Japan. This has given me experience of dealing with customers, as well as cashier skills and a basic knowledge of food retailing. I have been living in London since last September, and shoe, am currently studying English at a language school. I have good English communication skills (recently I passed the ap us 2012 Cambridge First Certificate in English exam).
My fluency in resume, Japanese may be useful when dealing with your Japanese customers. I am an analysis of sony case study, enthusiastic worker, and enjoy working in a team. Resume! My student visa entitles me to work up to suffrage essay, 20 hours per week (or longer during my school holidays), and I could start work immediately. I would welcome the resume shoe store opportunity to discuss the in higher education studies job vacancy with you on the telephone or at resume shoe store an interview. I can be contacted most easily on my mobile telephone or by e-mail (see details at the top of this letter). SENDING YOUR APPLICATION. Check your CV and covering letter carefully before you send them. Use the spell-checker on the computer (set the essay dulce et decorum est language to shoe store, British English rather than American English). Ask a native English speaker to check what you have written, and ask this person for education any comments they may have.
If sending your application by shoe, post, send it by first class rather than by second class (it shows that you care about getting the job). If you send an application by e-mail, telephone to questions et decorum, make sure that it has arrived, or send an resume, application in ap us essay predictions, the post as well. Alternatively, you may wish to hand in your application personally; if so, use this opportunity to find out more about the company and ask when you can expect to shoe store, hear from apprenticeship cover letter, them. If you have not heard from the resume shoe store company two weeks after you sent your application (or before the closing date for applications, if there is one), telephone the pipefitter company to resume shoe store, check that your job application has been received and pestel of sony study, that there haven't been any problems contacting you. It is often the case that people are invited for an interview for only a small number of the shoe jobs to which they apply. Try not to feel depressed if it takes a long time to get a job. If you are rejected by a company, ask them to give you some comments, so that you can improve the quality of dulce, your later applications. Prepare for a job interview: Work/Interview.
Improve your English writing skills: English/Writing.
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3 - Day Diet Analysis The 3 - day diet . analysis was very interesting to me, and has given me some very useful and challenging information pertaining to my health. I know I do not have the healthiest eating habits, and after using the pestel of sony SuperTracker I plan to do my best at changing my diet . My current eating habits are not very bad, but not very good or healthy. I do not eat breakfast, but when I do I eat breakfast I eat food that is for resume store lunch or dinner. I know that is not good, but. Brunch , Dinner , Eating 703 Words | 2 Pages. ? ATKINS DIET ANALYSIS Phuong Nguyen NUTR 1322 Friday 6pm What is Atkins Diet ? The Atkins . Analysis Of Sony Study? Diet is also known as the Atkins Nutritional Approach. Resume Store? It was made by Dr. Atkins, an American cardiologist. Atkins Diet was developed by ap us history essay predictions reducing one’s carbohydrate intake.
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The ideas and values that are known to store members of society that guide their behaviors. Heteronormativity , Mores , Reality 842 Words | 3 Pages. ? 3 Day Diet Analysis Report I would describe my current eating habits as poor and . unhealthy eating habits. Diversity In Higher Case Studies? Sometimes I eat healthy, but I noticed I will probably eat once a day and shoe, it will probably be something light. Sometimes I will let my insecurities take over my eating habits because I think I’m eating too much or gaining weight.
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3 Day - diet analysis SCI/241 04/07/2013 Brian Oddi 3 . Day - diet analysis When talking about eating habits or just my eating habits, I would say that they are not the greatest eating habits, but I would not say they are the worst either. I don’t think it was really what I was eating it was how I was eating. I was skipping meals and then eating more because I was hungrier at the time. I have noticed with me eating habits that I was missing some of essay questions et decorum my daily nutrients, I wasn’t getting all the. Store? Dieting , Eating , Epidemiology 722 Words | 2 Pages. ?2 day diet plan This plan is for people with type 2 diabetes.
It is pestel analysis of sony study good as it does not consist of too much carbohydrates or . sugars meaning it is good for maintaining the shoe store blood glucose level. Family Tradition Essays? Also it is healthy for the patient and there is lots of nutrients and resume store, protein and all the vital stuff they need to intake daily. This will help eventually cure type 2 diabetes combined with exercise and insulin tablets. I chose whole wheat bread as it contains more nutrients, fibre, bran and more vitamins. Bran , Bread , Immune system 509 Words | 3 Pages.
Stacey Freeman Checkpoint: Three Day Analysis 1. How does your diet compare to the recommendations you . received from the Food Guide Pyramid? I just recently decided that I was going to start eating healthier. I am not on a diet ! That is just too much stress. Essay Dulce Et Decorum? However, I have made quite a bit of progress with changing how I eat. The recommendation that I got were not that off of what I’m trying to accomplish.
I need to shoe eat more fruit and suffrage essay, vegetables. I have been doing well with the store grain and. Carbohydrate , Chicken soup , Eating 299 Words | 2 Pages. considering how important it is to socialize, you never really consider how much eating can play such a big part of history predictions our efforts to get close to each other. . In any culture, joining around the dinner table is a way for resume shoe any family to catch up on everyone’s day , for family and friends over suffrage essay as company to visit, business meetings, and endless possibilities. When you consider a home cooked meal, more goes into the meal than it just being that, a meal. Resume Shoe? Family traditions and the ability to pipefitter apprenticeship cover letter properly prepare a meal.
Baking , Coming out , Cooking 837 Words | 3 Pages. Resume Store? | 3 - Day Diet Analysis | | | | 3 - Day Diet . Analysis | | | John Menez SCI/241 May 5, 2013 John Menez SCI/241 I am not a picky eater or one who watches what I eat. I enjoy cooking and I love to eat food that is bad for me. My favorite meal is essay questions et decorum fried pork chops, mashed potatoes with gravy, corn, turnip greens and shoe, corn bread. I am from the south where we use food as a comfort item. When we are happy, sad, mad or just board we eat. We have festivals to celebrate. Nutrition 432 Words | 2 Pages. 3 Three Day Diet Analysis July 28, 2012 Eating healthy is important for suffrage essay everybody and resume store, when . Suffrage Essay? choosing healthy food for ourselves we also choose a healthy body.
As we know eating not healthy diet can cause many health problems, and to decrease those problems we need to eat healthy foods and exercise often to improve and maintain our healthy body. To reduce the risk of any diseases it is suggested to eat foods that are high in fiber, such as fruits, vegetables and whole grains which helps. Eating , Fat , Food 821 Words | 2 Pages. ? 3 Day Food Intake SCI/220 31 March 2014 We’ve heard time and time again during our lives how . important it is to eat fruits and vegetables or to have a well-balanced diet . We also know how hard it can be to ensure that you are eating enough of the store right thing. Are fast food restaurants as bad as people make them seem? How do you know if your diet contains all of the essential vitamins and minerals? The answers to both of these questions lie in the results from the. Essay Questions Dulce Et Decorum Est? Burger King , Eating , Fast food 954 Words | 3 Pages. Three Day Diet Analysis Gloria J. Lee August 13, 2011 SCI/241 Instructor: Madhuri Vemuri * How does . Store? your diet compare to the recommendations you received from the Food Guide Pyramid?
How many servings from each food group did you consume? * * According to the Food Guide Pyramid, I was below the suggested amount of calories, but my fat, cholesterol, and sodium were well above the recommended amounts. I had 6.8 cups of grain (6 cups recommended), vegetables 2 cups (2. Carbohydrate , Cheese , Food 301 Words | 2 Pages. Food Intake - 3 Days According to the World Health Organization, “Nutrition is the tradition essays intake of store food, considered in relation to analysis of sony case study the . body’s dietary needs. Good nutrition – an adequate, well balanced diet combined with regular physical activity – is a cornerstone of good health. Poor nutrition can lead to resume store reduced immunity, increased susceptibility to disease, impaired physical and mental development, and reduced productivity. (World Health Organization, 2012) ” Nothing is more important than following. Dietary fiber , Eating , Fat 838 Words | 3 Pages. Et Decorum Est? Food Intake 3 - Days SCI/220 Food Intake 3 - Days During my three day food . intake I discovered that I only consumed 88 grams of protein.
In these three meals I spent almost 40 dollars and I was short almost 100 grams of protein required for my weight. Four slices of pizza, and two double cheeseburgers produced the most protein. Oatmeal, beer, and coffee only counted for less than 10 grams. All six items consumed over the 3 day stretch accounted for carbohydrates. Resume? The items ranged from pestel case 10g. Dieting , DNA , Eating 787 Words | 3 Pages.
Essay Analysis on “Shoot an Elephant” Essar Essay Analysis 1 Running Head: ESSAY ANALYSIS PAPER Essay . Analysis on “Shoot an Elephant” Michael J. Charley University of Phoenix Instructor: Dr. Store? Vanessa Holmes Course: Business Literature Essay Analysis 2 George Orwell's essay 'Shooting an Elephant' gives a great insight into the human mind. The essay gives a good theme of inner conflict. Orwell feels strong inner conflict between what he believes as a human being, and what he believes and should do as an imperial. British Empire , British Raj , Burma 1289 Words | 4 Pages. |Earned Points | |Content (40) |40 . | | | |* The essay addresses all areas of the essay assignment thoroughly. Essays? | | | |* Content includes excellent details. Shoe Store? | . Cover? Clear , Clearing , Description 362 Words | 3 Pages. The three- day diet analysis was interesting. Resume Shoe Store? There were many positive attributes to it and definitely negative . ones. Over the suffrage essay course of the three days , which were Friday, Saturday and Sunday: and figured this would give a good depiction of what I was consuming on a regular basis.
In some places I was consuming more than I should be and in resume some I was consuming less than I should be. There were also those places were I was getting just the right amount. In Higher Case Studies? It is so interesting to me to shoe store be able to find. Carbohydrate , Cholesterol , Eating 1172 Words | 3 Pages. ? Analysis of an essay A nice cup of tea By: George Orwell Submitted by: submitted to: Vincent B. Reyes . Mme. Cecilia III-Justice Valdez A nice cup of tea If you look up ‘tea’ in the first cookery book that comes to suffrage essay hand you will probably find that it is unmentioned; or at most you will find a few lines of sketchy instructions which give no ruling on several ofthe most important points. This is resume curious, not only because tea is one of the main. Caffeine , Coffee , Sri Lanka 1428 Words | 4 Pages.
Individual Food Intake For 3 Days Your name here September 6, 2012 University of diversity studies Phoenix SCI 241 After using the . food assessment tool at resume shoe, www.choosemyplate.gov I found that my daily intake of food was not sufficient for maintaining a healthy lifestyle. Many of my goals were not achieved or were overachieved. Essay Questions Dulce Et Decorum? This assessment revealed an imbalance in my eating habits. Like many Americans I am on resume the run and constrained by time. Going to school and working fulltime often forces me to tradition eat. Dieting , Eating , Fat 741 Words | 3 Pages. ? • Recorded intake of protein, carbohydrates, and lipids Protein day 1: 108 grams - Carbohydrates day 1. 102 - Lipids . Protein day 2: Protein day 3 : o Which foods in resume store your recorded daily intake provide protein? Which provide carbohydrate?
Which provide lipids? The foods that I recorded in of sony case the last three days that include protein are Eggs, Bacon, Tomatoes, Kale, Fish, Broccoli, protein bar and store, protein shakes. The foods that provided Carbohydrate are, Eggs, Tomatoes, fish oil dietary. Acid , Amino acid , Biochemistry 768 Words | 4 Pages. was limited in doing physical activities and took it out on eating all the wrong foods and essays, actually put on 1/ 3 of the store pounds that I had lost. Analysis Of Sony Case? . After looking for solid support, I am currently working on resume store eating healthier and incorporating enough physical activities to maintain my health and ap us predictions 2012, energy. My current diet plan needs some tweaking but it is pretty close to the recommended diet analysis in the Super Tracker. I am not exactly eating the complete recommended servings from resume each food group because. Calorie , Eating , Fat 705 Words | 2 Pages.
Analysis and Interpretation of pipefitter Five Day Forecast. dieux My essay is on resume shoe the piece Five Day Forecast, 1991, second edition, by Lorna Simpson. Diversity In Higher Education Case? The piece was originally done by . Simpson in resume 1988 using a Polaroid camera. This second edition was done in 1991 and suffrage essay, she shot with a large format 4 x 5 camera with silver gelatin print on shoe paper. The size is 622 x 2464 mm. Pestel Analysis Study? This essay is an analysis and resume, interpretation of Five Day Forecast using methodology(1) as follows: Description: pure description of the object without value, judgments, analysis , or interpretation. Diversity Case Studies? Black people , Camera , First-person shooter 481 Words | 3 Pages. Texting Is Wrecking Our Language Analysis “They are destroying it: pillaging our punctuation; savaging our sentences; raping our vocabulary. . Resume Shoe? And they must be stopped.” This quote from John Humphrys' essay “I H8 Txt Msgs: How Texting Is Wrecking Our Language” clearly shows where he stands on the subject of questions how “texters” are ruining our English language by abbreviating a lot of our words. How people, more specifically the store young ones are being lazy with how they text these days because they believe it really. Dictionary , English language , Essay 1270 Words | 4 Pages. 3 Day Food Intake SCI/220 FEBUARY 11, 2012 Teresa Madewell The results from my three day intake . some of the diversity in higher case studies food s in my recorded daily intake that provided protein were bananas, burrito, Popeye’s chicken, pizza hut stuffed crust, whole milk, spitz sunflower seeds, Cheeseburger, chocolate muffin just about resume everything I ate had protein in it my Carbohydrates were hand and hand with my protein the list was the dulce et decorum same as for the lips it was also pretty close to resume store the others my food intake.
Dieting , Eating , Fat 752 Words | 3 Pages. Personal Dietary Analysis I. Record Keeping A. 24-Hour Dietary Recall 1. Cover? Recall every food and resume store, beverage that you have eaten over the . past 24 hours. Recall how much you consumed and how it was prepared. Sweet Potato pancakes, hot dogs, chicken curry with rice, black pepper beef with rice, crab cakes, coconut water, water. a. How easy or difficult was it to recall your food intake? I think it is pretty easy to recall since most of these food I cooked it by myself. B. Three- Day Diet Record 1. Curry , Eating , Food 542 Words | 3 Pages. Food Intake – 3 Days A term that is used to encompass nutrient recommendations produced by the National Academy of Sciences and . the Food and Nutrition Board is called Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI).
DRI is also a common term for a guideline of reference values used to assess and plan a healthy individual’s nutrient intake (Wardlaw et. al., 2011, p. 60-61). During a consecutive three- day period, protein intakes, carbohydrate intakes, lipid intakes, macronutrient intake ranges, fiber intake ranges. Questions Et Decorum Est? Dieting , Food , Fruit 1368 Words | 4 Pages. Resume Shoe Store? more calories that I burn in a day . Before I started using the tracker I never gave much thought to et decorum how many calories I was burning just . walking around, cleaning, cooking, and working. My eating habits are not the resume shoe greatest. This week I went to the beach for a couple of diversity education studies days and resume shoe store, my eating habits while we were driving to and from Delaware was horrible. Essays? I ate fast food and consumed way to much sodium and sugars. When we were cooking for ourselves and shoe, walking around all day my numbers were much better. Blood sugar , Carbohydrate , Energy 1012 Words | 3 Pages. 03/10/13 FSN429 Follow The Diet Assigned Diet Plan: It is your 55th birthday and your recent doctor’s visit alerted you of the . fact you have HTN and are very overweight. In order to keep CVD at in higher education studies, bay, your doctor recommended the resume shoe following diet : 20-25 kcal/kg, .8 g pro ( or- 15% kcals as pro), 30% kcal from fat ( follow TLC guidelines) and 1500 mg Na. Be sure to eat no less than 35 gm fiber/d.
1. Meal Pattern A. Questions Dulce Est? wt: 184# ( 84 kg) Ht: 6’0” (72 in/ 183 cm/ 1.83 m) Age: 22 YOWM . Butter , Diet food , Egg 2369 Words | 7 Pages. Diet Analysis Paper They’re many different nutrients, minerals, and vitamins you have to resume store take in to maintain a healthy . diet . The nutrients in essay dulce my diet I have to improve on are, eating higher protein, and fiber foods. But also take in less sodium and fat. Minerals and Vitamins are also a very important thing in your diet . I have to improve my diet by consuming more calcium and potassium. I’m going to resume improve my diet by studies doing these things. Shoe Store? Like I said I don’t eat. Carbohydrate , Metabolism , Milk 320 Words | 3 Pages. a lot of suffrage essay foods that are not good for me. Resume Shoe? I especially noticed this while filling out the diversity in higher education case studies worksheet for the past three days . My actual . diet is shoe very different from the daily amounts that I should be receiving from each of the suffrage essay food groups. Out of the five main food groups I receive the most grain intake.
The recommended amount is 6 oz and I ate 11.5 oz in shoe one day . Pipefitter Apprenticeship Letter? In the same day I consumed .25 cup of shoe store vegetables, 2 cups for dairy, and pestel, .5 oz of protein. All of these amounts are lower than what is recommended. Resume? Nutrition 573 Words | 2 Pages. 11/4/11 Analysis Maxine Hong Kingston’s “No Name Woman” blends several genres or styles of writing: short story, memoir, . and diversity case, essay . Since so little is actually known about Maxine Hong Kingston’s aunt and store, Kingston herself wonders if she was simply invented by her mother as a cautionary tale, “No Name Woman” must be considered a short story – a fictional tale about what might have been. “No Name Woman” is a tale about analysis case Kingston’s aunt who as told by her mother was found dead in the. Childbirth , Family , Infant 1177 Words | 3 Pages. ? The Mediterranean Diet John Q. Student College University Abstract This paper explores the research available . on the history, nutritional guidelines, and health benefits of the Mediterranean diet (Mediet). Resume Store? A ranking in U.S. News (2014) has the Mediet as one of the essay dulce est top three best diets on resume shoe store a scale of short- and long-term weight loss, ease of suffrage essay following, nutrition, safety and performance as diabetes and heart diet . This paper examines these claims against the research.
Diets , Food guide pyramid , Health 2354 Words | 13 Pages.
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cobol db2 resume Atlanta, GA 30338. Accomplished Senior IT professional with a background in business intelligence, reporting systems, data quality (including ETL), software design and full life-cycle development. Capable of managing numerous projects while leading cross-functional teams to shoe store, meet and exceed overall IT initiatives. Demonstrated consultative process skills with emphasis on essay questions et decorum est technical, written, and resume relationship development. Business Objects Enterprise ETL (Data Services -- BODI / BODS, SSIS) Reporting (Web Intelligence, Xcelsius, Crystal Reports) Highlights of skills: Business Intelligence Data Warehousing Process Improvement Team Leadership Effectiveness.
Agile, Scrum, Waterfall, Inmon, Kimball, object oriented programming (OOD), rapid application development (RAD), Accelerated SAP (ASAP). Consumer Products, Banking, Lumber, Legal, Logistics, Health Care, Chemicals, Pharmaceuticals, Dept. of Defense, Energy, Electric, Automotive, Government, Politics, Insurance, Data Quality, Telecommunications, Building Materials, Financial Services, Commodities, Fleet Management, Furniture, Food Beverages, Mining, Coal, Debit Credit Cards, Pet Food, Animal Feed, Incentives, Marketing, Education. Teradata Certified Professional, Teradata Certified SQL Specialist. Development of BODS objects supporting multiple change data capture styles that include thousands of mappings and over seventy SAP DSO destinations. All information sourced from and writing to SAP HANA. Created BODS specific portions of mapping documents, including CDC information. Design (modeling) and construction of resume SAP HANA tables, functions, procedures, and views using a combination of Data Services, PowerDesigner, and HANA Studio. Performed modeling with HANA, using attribute, analytic, and calculation views. Migration of information from multiple source systems (out of family SAP HANA) into shoe SAP Bank Analyzer, with various data profiling and quality checks and use of a composite table to ease maintenance/LI Environment: Data Services (BODS) 4, SAP HANA, SAP Bank Analyzer, DB2, PowerDesigner, Windows 7.
Creation of executive dashboard illustrating volumes, imbalances, accounting details, and customer information related to acquisition. Improvement of family essays existing dashboards – organization and bug fixes. Shoe Store? Ensured data accuracy and providing of most important and up to date details by meeting with business analysts and management in in higher studies, multiple locales. Developed several multi-source IDT universes referencing relational databases, containing derived tables. Provided key and timely details in resume, user-friendly dashboard to history essay 2012, help management make informed decisions. Conversion of resume existing dashboards from Xcelsius to Lumira, for comparison purposes.
Environment: Xcelsius 4.1, SAP Lumira, IDT, MS Access 2012, SQL Server 2012, Windows 7. Successful and rapid conversion of multiple Ab Initio processes to Data Services, implementing methodologies to increase maintainability, including simplification, logging, and inline documentation. Data analysis, modeling, and profiling using SQL Server and Data Services, to letter, provide new and resume improved structures and aid in data quality checks related to conversion efforts. Cost savings through replacement of scheduler with scripting involving file watcher loops and, or database flag checks, moving files to staging and production folders, and education case studies emailing of results, including attachments. Executed technical leadership on resume shoe the use of the technology platform and tools, mentoring in family tradition, optimal use of BODS in a SQL Server, SAP, and Unix environment. Environment: Data Services (BODS) 4, SQL Server 2008, Oracle, SAP, Ab Initio, Acorn, Windows 7, Unix.
Created and store optimized executive summary and several linked dashboards, including hierarchical selectors, flash variables, and dynamic sales and marketing information based on live SAP BPC data. Built Crystal Reports detail reports connected to BI services pointed at Web Intelligence blocks containing BEx query details. Reports launched by and received prompts from Xcelsius dashboard. Acted as go-to for pestel analysis of sony case study the team for technical concerns and idea development. Significant contributions to dashboard and ETL architecture and design, including best practices. Resume Shoe Store? Constructed reusable templates to speed batch and real-time ETL development in BODS and provide auditing functionality.
Converted data conversion processes from BW to ECC sources, using Data Services integrated with SAP. Created reporting system, including data model and dictionary, ETL, and WebI reports, based off SAP ECC material master information. Involved frequent discussions with offshore team members and suffrage essay business analysts. Troubleshooting of shoe store reporting, universe, and ETL issues with onshore and offshore engineers. Environment: Data Services (BODS) 4, Business Objects 4 (WebI, UDT), Oracle, SAP BW and ECC, Windows 7. Acted as systems/software engineer for system architecture planning, technical design, software development and test, and software, hardware, and interface integration. Installation and configuration of Business Objects Enterprise and tradition essays Data Services, including Data Quality.
Creation, improvement, and documentation of HR reports and related universe, including standardization and applying best practices. Environment: Data Services XI r3.2, Business Objects XI r3.2, SQL Server 2008; Win Server 2008. Engineered conversion projects, using a self-designed standardized process, for migrating information between SAP 4.7 and store 6.0. Converted information from SAP modules, including manufacturing, material master, basic data, fico, general plant, mdm, mrp, purchasing, qm, sales data, units of measure, warehouse mgmt, and work scheduling. Built and implemented validation projects to ensure quality data migration. Frequent daily interaction with SAP functional analysts and business to review requirements and results.
Environment: Data Services XI r3.2, Oracle 9i; SQL Server 2008; SAP ECC 4.7, 6.0; Win XP. Converted and enhanced Cognos into WebI, Crystal, and Xcelsius reports with SAP data (HCM and SCM). Mapping of tradition essays reporting requirements from business terms into SAP objects. Shoe? Creation and maintenance of pestel case OLAP universes sourced from BEx queries. Writing and editing of resume store SAP BEx queries using Query Designer. Writing of test scripts for accuracy, formatting, and performance.
Environment: Business Objects XI r3.2; SAP ECC 4.7 – HCM, SCM, SD; SQL Server 2008; Win XP. Guided and questions dulce played key role in design document production, including ETL field mappings for store 500+ fields in four systems (2000+ fields total), data dictionary, universe and report documents, and DDL scripts. Constructed universe and related star schema database, with focus on family tradition user-friendly configuration of classes and objects. Universe automatically updated with self-created automation tool. Led report development effort, including creation of many Web Intelligence reports. Designed and resume implemented Business Objects architecture, including hardware and software requirements, CMS information, security, and migration from XIr2 to XIr3. Championed standardization of dulce field mappings, data dictionary, and universe and shoe report documents. Coordinated offshore ETL efforts, including meetings and cover answering of daily questions. Environment: Business Objects XI r3.2; SQL Server 2008; Designer SDK; Crystal Enterprise SDK, Win XP.
Designed, created, implemented, and tested dataflows, workflows, scripts, and jobs for multiple projects. Troubleshooting and performance tuning which reduced several jobs from store several hours to less than one. Full lifecycle project focusing on suffrage essay surveys, including Data Services and Designer (universe) components. Migrated dataflows, workflows, scripts, and jobs between repositories. Environment: Data Services XI r3.2, Business Objects XI r3.2; SQL Server 2008; Windows Server 2008, Windows XP. Created and ran ETL jobs to load and manipulate Material Master and Vendor SAP information. Generated, put into successful production, and trained others in data validation / testing tool, using Data Services and SQL Server procedures and functions. Shoe Store? Administration and configuration of multiple datastores and essay servers. Resume Store? Upgrade of First Logic / Data Quality to questions et decorum, Data Services, with data and resume shoe multiple country address cleansing. Developed, published, and scheduled batch and real-time jobs.
Produced contact duplicate checking ETL project, including match transforms and history adjustable parameters. Constructed dashboards to review data validation results. Environment: Data Services XI r3.1, 3.2; SQL Server 2005; SAP (extracts); Xcelsius 2008; Windows XP. Directed and coordinated organizational strategies of shoe employees responsible for conceptualizing, designing, constructing, testing and implementing business and technical solutions for apprenticeship telecommunications data. Partnered with software and architectural teams to plan and build out new systems, understand scalability and constraints of software, and resume manage disaster recovery and in higher business continuity planning. Resume Shoe? Acted as key developer, leading a team of analysis four (mostly remote) developers in the creation of Webi reports, universes, and Xcelsius dashboards consisting of proprietary telecommunications information. Implemented ETL related to numerous systems, including creating and resume manipulating tables with raw SQL/SQL Server Integration Services (SSIS) and conversion of SAS into packages and SQL. Diversity Education Case? Guided and shoe store developed the Business Objects teams, including providing hiring recommendations, training, mentoring and monitoring staff performance to case, effectively adhere to company’s “best practice” initiatives. Environment: Business Objects XI r2 (Webi, Designer, CMS, Admin); Crystal Reports XI; Crystal Xcelsius 2008; SQL Server 2005; Teradata; SSIS; Netezza; SAS; Aqua Data Studio; Windows XP. Responsible for creating Business Objects universes and reports to provide information on clinical trials.
Successfully migrated universes and reports from development to test to production. Store? Created Oracle functions and essay stored procedures to supply comma-delimited lists and date information. Created functional and technical documentation for all reports and universes, outlining processes to create an shoe store, easily readable roadmap of all procedures for end users. Environment: BusinessObjects XI r2; Oracle 9i; ARISg; Windows XP. Led efforts in the successful extraction and transformation of information from suffrage essay Excel to SQL Server database, designing a database geared towards OLAP reporting and later Essbase loading. Store? Created over two thousand transformations to essay dulce et decorum, alter information extracted from Excel. Developed ETL program using VB with features for types of processes to display and resume shoe store run, status lists, storing metrics, HTML help, and options to skip process with errors to convert text values to questions dulce, zero’s. Environment: SQL Server 2005; Visual Basic 6; Hyperion Essbase; Microsoft Excel 2003; OLAP; Windows XP.
Responsible for gathering customer requirements, architecting prototypical solutions, acquiring customer acceptance, and managing software processes from resume store initial design to family essays, final implementation and deployment. Primarily responsible for migrating Sybase, Business Objects (6.x), and Oracle Sagent data warehouses to resume store, provide commodities-related financial information to client and internal business users. Education Case? Key Projects: Migrated three reporting systems to store, Business Objects XI and Crystal Reports XI, with Oracle 9i. Administration using Central Management Console to schedule reports, configure user and group security, and manage categories, folders, universes, and licensing. In Higher Education Case? Created and store tested reports and universes with information about analysis, commodities, futures, and options. Installed, tested, and maintained Business Objects XI (including Crystal) client and server software. Environment: Oracle 9i; Business Objects XI r2 (Webi, Crystal Reports, Performance Management, SDK); Sagent; Visual Basic 6; Scripting (VB, Java, batch); ASP; HTML; XML; CSS; SDLC; Cisco VPN; Windows XP.
IT Consultant 1995 to 2006. Key Clients: LeasePlan, Lockheed Martin, WPAFB (Air Force), Haworth, HPFS, ATT, Travelers, CIT, Cigna, Anheuser-Busch, Peabody Group, MasterCard, Ralston Purina, Maritz, Davis Interactive Client:nbspnbsp LeasePlan -nbspAtlanta, GA,nbsp Business Objects Expert (2005 to resume, 2006) Created a Business Objects data warehouse to provide leasing information to 100 key clients. Designed and cover letter rolled out an innovative reporting system using Webi, including linked reports. Created conversion utility supporting improved (Excel) and unavailable formats (Word and HTML). Client:nbspnbsp Lockheed Martin (US Navy) -nbspNew Orleans, LA,nbsp Business Objects Expert (2004 to 2005) Gained acceptance of a conversion of an store, Access reporting system into Business Objects. Est? Developed, documented, and performance tuned thirteen reports and associated universes. Conducted qualitative and quantitative analysis to define project scopes and technical criteria. Created many Data Integrator jobs, workflows, and dataflows supplying source data for systems. Collaborated with key internal and external decision makers to shoe, recommend process enhancements, including creation of conversion utility for perfecting Word and Excel files from case study Excel exports. Recipient of the “Lockheed Martin Outstanding Performer” Award (2004).
Client:nbspnbsp WPAFB (US Air Force) -nbspDayton, OH,nbsp Business Objects Technical Support Analyst (2005 to 2006) Provided expert analysis and assistance for the Air Force Knowledge System application, supporting over 450 tickets arising from over resume shoe 300 users. Tested and troubleshot WIS and in higher case studies INF errors, training, and network, database and universe issues. Troubleshot invalid data resulting from universe and resume shoe store database problems. Client:nbspnbsp Haworth -nbspHolland, MI,nbsp Data Integrator Developer (2005 to 2006) Gathered specifications and apprenticeship letter developed, tested, and rolled out resume, transformations and universes for AP, PO, and FA segments of Oracle Financials using Business Objects Data Integrator and Designer. Client:nbspnbsp HPFS -nbspMurray Hill, NJ,nbsp Business Objects Expert (2003) Served as financial reporting analyst, balancing data related to a conversion of letter a loan system. Store? Provided support to users for report requests and maintenance, creating and testing 30 reports. Analyzed, documented, and ap us history predictions 2012 implemented recommendations for SQL Server DTS scripts. Client:nbspnbsp ATampT -nbspBedminster, NJ,nbsp Business Objects Expert (2003) Reporting analyst/administrator for a data warehousing project targeted to analyze and improve call center performance and processes.
Responded to daily maintenance requests, streamlining processes through the installation, administration and configuration of Business Objects, including Publisher. Client:nbspnbsp Travelers -nbspHartford, CT,nbsp Business Analyst (2002 to 2003) Main point of contact in a Focus mainframe, SAS to client-server (Business Objects, Crystal Reports) migration and conversion of the Annuity Reporting System. Resume Shoe Store? Collaborated with cross-functional teams to apprenticeship cover, develop 42 reports including prototype creation, testing, documentation, performance tuning, and requirements gathering and design. Resume Store? Conducted in-depth data analysis including data dictionary, physical data model, entity relationship diagrams, and PL/SQL queries for balancing and reviewing integrity of data. Suffrage Essay? Client:nbspnbsp CIT Group -nbspLivingston, NJ,nbsp Business Objects Expert (2002) Served as lead financial reporting analyst in a Citation mainframe to resume store, client-server (ALS) Business Objects implementation of a data warehouse (Oracle, Sybase) for leasing. Partnered with end-users and key internal decision makers on requirements gathering. Full life-cycle development and performance tuning of 54 flawless reports using Business Objects Reporter, Designer, Supervisor, and Broadcast Agent. Trained, mentored and monitored new and existing developers, instilling “best practices” to adhere to internal protocols and procedures. Client:nbspnbsp Cigna -nbspHartford, CT,nbsp Data Warehousing Consultant - Genio / Brio (2001 to 2002) Responsible for the enhancement and maintenance of a customized Brio data warehouse reporting application for essay investment data, including transforming source data (Genio). Shoe? Gathered scopes and specifications to test and provide daily support of Brio and Genio.
Taught end users on the capabilities, enhancements, and limitations of Brio. Client:nbspnbsp Anheuser-Busch, Inc. -nbspSt. Louis, MO,nbsp Senior Business Objects Developer (1999 to 2001) Implemented full lifecycle design of tradition essays a 60 report data warehouse for shoe pricing and promotions, that aided retailer sales tracking and marketing applications. Administered Business Objects repository, security, setup, universes, and report scheduling, including an suffrage essay, upgrade from version 4 to 5. Constructed automated universe and report documentation with Business Objects SDK. Participated in Oracle ETL (transformation) related efforts, including creation of PL/SQL functions, packages, stored procedures, views, tables, indexes, explain plans, and types. Client:nbspnbsp Peabody Group -nbspSt. Louis, MO,nbsp Business Objects Developer (1999) Production included report creation, design, and prototyping security, universe maintenance and shoe origination, data definition and manipulation, testing and apprenticeship letter layout. Client:nbspnbsp MasterCard -nbspSt.
Louis, MO,nbsp Consultant (1998 to 1999) Accountable for the conception of financial reporting system and associated graphical user interface, generating financial reports using Crystal Reports, VB, and Oracle. Client:nbspnbsp Davis Interactive (Interchange Technologies) -nbspSt. Louis, MO,nbsp Consultant (1995 to 1999) Responsible for design and support of multimedia projects with Macromedia Director and VB. Created graphical user interfaces and database engines to interact with databases and kiosks. Assembled software for reusable client incentive system (CIMS for resume shoe store Windows). Performed database administration, including backups, scheduling tasks, and setting up users and groups. Designed, developed, and tested reports and associated interface using Visual Basic and Crystal Reports. Produced reusable Visual Basic tools, including batch form dynamic link library, report executable creator, system administration form creator, data source creator, and SQL Server administrative software. Environment: Visual Basic 6; Crystal Reports; SQL Server 6.5; Filemaker; Windows NT.
B.S. Diversity In Higher Studies? Accounting; Minor: Business Management, December 1996. Recipient of Academic Scholarship. Tutor: General Statistics, 1995-97. Teradata Certified Professional; Teradata Certified SQL Specialist.
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Case Study on Business Models: Wal-Mart vs. Costco. Can you tell me the shoe store key differences between Wal-Mart’s (not just Sam’s Club) and Costco’s business models? Could Wal-Mart raise it’s minimum wage to Costco’s higher level without effecting profits. Essay Dulce. Why or why not. This case gives you a way to learn about different retail business models. How would you go about resume store answering this question? HINT: What would be the big difference between a Wal-Mart and a Costco store as soon as you entered? If a union leader from suffrage essay, Wal-Mart wanted to have its members have the resume shoe same wage rates as Costco, how would you advise?
I am not asking for ap us history essay predictions a valuation, but an analysis of the differences between retail models. Is one better than the other? Harvard Business School Magazine December 2006. Executive Summary from Harvard Business School. Wal-Mart’s legendary obsession with cost containment shows up in countless ways, including aggressive control of employee benefits and wages. Managing labor costs isn’t a crazy idea, of course.
But stingy pay and benefits don’t necessarily translate into lower costs in the long run. Consider Costco and Wal-Mart’s Sam’s Club, which compete fiercely on low-price merchandise. Among warehouse retailers, Costco—with 338 stores and 67,600 full-time employees in the United States—is number one, accounting for about 50% of the market. Resume. Sam’s Club—with 551 stores and 110,200 employees in the United States—is number two, with about 40% of the market. Though the businesses are direct competitors and ap us essay predictions, quite similar overall, a remarkable disparity shows up in their wage and benefits structures. The average wage at Costco is $17 an hour. Wal-Mart does not break out the pay of resume store its Sam’s Club workers, but a full-time worker at education studies, Wal-Mart makes $10.11 an hour on resume shoe store average, and a variety of sources suggest that Sam’s Club’s pay scale is pestel of sony case study similar to Wal-Mart’s. A 2005 New York Times article by Steven Greenhouse reported that at shoe, $17 an pipefitter apprenticeship hour, Costco’s average pay is 72% higher than Sam’s Club’s ($9.86 an hour). Interviews that a colleague and I conducted with a dozen Sam’s Club employees in San Francisco and Denver put the resume shoe average hourly wage at about $10.
And a 2004 Business Week article by Stanley Holmes and Wendy Zellner estimated Sam’s Club’s average hourly wage at $11.52. On the benefits side, 82% of Costco employees have health-insurance coverage, compared with less than half at Wal-Mart. And Costco workers pay just 8% of their health premiums, whereas Wal-Mart workers pay 33% of theirs. Ninety-one percent of diversity case studies Costco’s employees are covered by store retirement plans, with the company contributing an annual average of $1,330 per employee, while 64 percent of employees at suffrage essay, Sam’s Club are covered, with the company contributing an annual average of $747 per employee. Costco’s practices are clearly more expensive, but they have an offsetting cost-containment effect: Turnover is unusually low, at resume, 17% overall and just 6% after one year’s employment. In contrast, turnover at family tradition, Wal-Mart is resume shoe store 44% a year, close to the industry average. In skilled and semi-skilled jobs, the fully loaded cost of replacing a worker who leaves (excluding lost productivity) is typically 1.5 to 2.5 times the worker’s annual salary.
To be conservative, let’s assume that the total cost of replacing an tradition essays hourly employee at Costco or Sam’s Club is only 60% of his or her annual salary. If a Costco employee quits, the cost of replacing him or her is resume store therefore $21,216. If a Sam’s Club employee leaves, the tradition cost is $12,617. At first glance, it may seem that the low-wage approach at Sam’s Club would result in lower turnover costs. But if its turnover rate is the same as Wal-Mart’s, Sam’s Club loses more than twice as many people as Costco does: 44% versus 17%. By this calculation, the total annual cost to Costco of employee churn is $244 million, whereas the resume shoe store total annual cost to pipefitter cover, Sam’s Club is $612 million. That’s $5,274 per resume shoe Sam’s Club employee, versus $3,628 per Costco employee.
In return for its generous wages and benefits, Costco gets one of the most loyal and productive workforces in all of retailing, and, probably not coincidentally, the lowest shrinkage (employee theft) figures in et decorum est, the industry. While Sam’s Club and Costco generated $37 billion and $43 billion, respectively, in U.S. sales last year, Costco did it with 38% fewer employees—admittedly, in part by selling to higher-income shoppers and offering more high-end goods. As a result, Costco generated $21,805 in U.S. operating profit per resume shoe hourly employee, compared with $11,615 at Sam’s Club. Costco’s stable, productive workforce more than offsets its higher costs. These figures challenge the pipefitter common assumption that labor rates equal labor costs. Resume Shoe Store. Costco’s approach shows that when it comes to wages and benefits, a cost-leadership strategy need not be a race to the bottom. Have a GREAT WEEKEND and HAPPY LABOR DAY to those in the U.S.
Best response gets a choice of prizes. THE FOURTH REICH. Why the U.S. IS Using Syria as a Pre-Text to War. Always ask, “Qui Bono?” Who benefits from a Mid-East War?
The U.S. needs to attack Syria to stop Russian pipelines from feeding Europe and hastening the fall of the Petrodollar: http://www.tfmetalsreport.com/podcast/5015/holiday-tradition-fresh-jackass. 17 responses to ap us essay predictions, “ Case Study on shoe Business Models: Wal-Mart vs. Costco ” Charlie Munger, 2/6/13: Sol Price (founder of case study Price Club) used to say, success in business came from shoe store, deciding which business you could intelligently do without. He had a list of business he didn’t want. Those things he didn’t want — he didn’t want business from people who wrote bad checks. He didn’t want business of people who shoplifted.
He didn’t want business of people who clogged-up his parking lot without buying very much. He carefully invented a system where he kept those people out, and succeeded by deciding what he would be better off without and avoiding it. This is a very good way to suffrage essay, think, and store, it’s not all that common. It’s, perfectly, obvious, isn’t it? And it has been of enormous help to pestel case, the people sitting at this head table.
But most people just aren’t trained to resume, do that —if it’s more business, they tend to want it. Thanks Punchcard. You know your Munger lessons well. Costco, I need to find recent stats, has the highest sales per square foot of any retailer in history. The inventory turns are immense. Price Club, of course, evolved into Costco. Thanks Punchcardblog: Interesting. Both Wal-Mart and Costco have been and are quite successful as businesses and investments since their beginnings. But what can we learn about their differences?
Both sell cheap, but why the difference in labor costs? As workers at Wal-Mart should be strike to get the same or higher wages than Costco? I can’t offer you the choice of three prizes: If you are comparing Wal-Mart to Costco strictly, Costco has a large base of revenue, it’s membership fees, that don’t have associated costs, which allow them to keep prices low and probably funnel some of that to its employees. I realize on some level that’s captured in SAMs, but if Wal Mart wanted to charge a membership fee, it may be able to funnel that to employees. Ok, to put on the analyst hat: doesn’t WMT have more revenue than Costco? Yes, Costco charges a membership fee while WMT doesn’t. Why?
Why doesn’t WMT charge such a fee? Could it if it wanted to? Because if it could but didn’t, should we put forth a shareholder lawsuit against management? How are wages set? Why are revenues per employee and profit per employee higher at Costco vs. Suffrage Essay. WMT? Is Costco’s management more “moral” than WMT? Have you been to the two stores? Anything strike you as VERY different between the stores? I was a bit vague.
Coscto intentionally limits the resume shoe store number of products for pipefitter apprenticeship letter sale (SKUs). Resume Store. By having a limited number of products, it also has a limited number of customers. The business model is to diversity in higher education studies, attract high income people who shop their occasionally and load up on a few essentials. WMT’s business model is to carry a high number of resume SKUs and attract low income people who shop their regularly for everyday needs. COST’s model is much less labor intensive. As a result, they need less employees and can afford higher wages. The quote from Munger gets at the fact that Costco does not try to pipefitter cover letter, appeal to everybody. BINGO! You got it.
Now we just need to resume, put some numbers on your thesis. I will post on that later. The distinction between Wal-Mart and Costco likes in membership. Costco is able to offer low prices and essay est, take in low margins because they charge a membership and incentive customers to purchase more to get “theirs money’s worth”. Resume Shoe. Irregardless of what the customer does, get a membership and essays, buy lots vs get a membership and buy little, Costco makes money either way. Wal-mart on shoe the other hand doesn’t charge a membership fee and therefore they must suppress their costs because there is no incentive for the customer to purchase at Wal-Mart other than its marketing of “everyday low price” and “price matching policies”. However to continue to suffrage essay, stay as the shoe store market leader, they must continually suppress costs to a point where their competitors are unable to suppress their costs to the same extent. Unfortunately, as a side effect of surprising the wages of workers, Wal-Mart has an asset (“labor”) that don’t perform as well. See, (“labor”) is a unique asset in retailing. The cost of labor is a function of how much you are willing to “invest” in essay dulce, it.
Invest too much and it has tremendous diminishing marginal returns. Likewise, if you invest too little, they simply don’t produce. Resume Store. Therefore there is tradition actually a “sweet spot”, if you will, for resume labor and Costco seems to have perfected the art of mastering that asset. Wal-mart is suffrage essay taking their capital and resume shoe store, investing it in cost reduction while Costco is taking their capital and able to invest it in ecommerce or expansion. What do you mean by “suppress” costs.
Does WMT have a lower cost of goods sold than its competitors? Can it get Coke or Pepsi or J#038;J to suffrage essay, sell its products at a lower price to WMT than competitors? What is WMT a market leader in? Where on the income stmt does it prove that WMT has lower costs than competitors. Numbers? I am too confused by your last two paragraphs to understand……….. But thanks for resume the post. I also speculate that labor costs is a function of the age in the workforce. High-turnover generally belongs to pestel case study, people are are young or don’t really care for their job. Resume Store. (Walmart) As a result paying more for someone working at 80% of their capacity is pipefitter letter still 20% wasted. Likewise, Costco is able to resume, display the persona of being steady and of sony, therefore people are more willing to operate at a higher level. Shoe. Assuming Costco employees perform at pipefitter letter, 85%, then their waste is lower.
However judging by the pay of the resume two companies, Walmart pay is only $10.11/$17 = 60% A Wal-mart employee is only 60% as productive as a Costco employee…… If you add in health benefits and other extracurricular, you would find the Wal-Mart number drops even more… A high percentage of analysis of sony study Costco’s net income comes from membership dues. The dues are paid at the beginning of the year and resume shoe, earned into income ratably during the year. Renewal is high. Diversity Case. Thus membership unearned income amounts to shoe store, an interest-free loan, which, while recorded as a liability, is in fact a valuable asset. What is more, we feel we being treated fairly. Indeed, we are; if they can buy something for a bargain price they pass the bargain on diversity in higher to members.
But since we have paid most of their profit up front, the price seems an even better deal, because it isn’t in the markup. And the employees are rarely surly; I know a number by name. Shoe Store. It is a pleasure to shop at Costco, and we routinely buy more than we expect. Tradition Essays. It is shoe a truly remarkable business. I’m surprised more businesses haven’t tried to emulate Costco. Costco started out as an exclusive member club for rich professionals and small business owners. They started out slowly, understanding their niche customers and their buying habits. Walmart on the other hand bought stuff in bulk and sold it out for lower prices than the pipefitter apprenticeship cover letter next guy. Walmart catered to every age and income demographic. Shoe. Costco on the other hand entertained people with fat wallets who would purchase in bulk and letter, even pay membership fees for greater savings on selected products.
Because Costco’s member is invested in the company even before he shops there they’re more likely to be loyal. And the greater amount they spend the lower their percentage cost for the membership. For example, a person who spends $5,500 pays 1% for shoe their membership ($55). On the other hand a family that spends $11,000 pays only pestel analysis of sony study 0.5% for their membership. The more you buy the lower your effective membership cost. Costco has a treasure hunt atmosphere. You see everyone loading up on stuff in shoe, their huge shopping carts. You don’t mind jumping in pestel analysis case, since the stuff is way cheaper than it is at other places. Walmart competes with off-price merchandisers, dollar stores, pharmacies and everything in between. Costco’s arch-nemesis? – Sam’s Club. Average Walmart SKU – 140,000 vs Costco’s average SKU of 4,000.
Walmart is also very notorious for their treatment of suppliers and employees. I’ve talked to a lot of Walmart employees and almost all of them had a negative view of the company. Jim Senegal wasn’t wrong when he said that higher wages at Costco was not altruism, it was good business. The positive marketing and sales they’ve received due must have paid for shoe store their higher employee costs many times over apprenticeship although it is hard to shoe store, quantify. Costco employees are also much more helpful and knowledgeable than their Walmart counterparts. I don’t doubt the role wages play in this. Costco have free money in the form of membership income which they can use to build new warehouses and distribution centers. I recall that Costco sells all their inventory more than twice before it needs to pay the family tradition essays vendors.
Who needs working capital? I looked at the non-cogs expenses a while ago and costco approached 10% while WalMart came closer to 30%. Obviously, costco does bulk items unlike walmart, but those kind of slim margins speak highly for the value their customers receive, and it probably makes them at least a little unlikely to be easy to compete against. If this is true, then all the Walmart emplyees would simply go work at Costco. The Plague Doctor – you are assuming that Costco would choose to hire the same caliber of shoe employee that Walmart does. Also, with Costco turnover being so low, the positions may not be available. I aM NOT SURE WHAT YOU ARE ASKING?
Lower turnover for Costco may lower their overall employee costs. Also, the type of pestel analysis case study employee might be slightly different than at Wal-Mart–more competition for the job.