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White collar crime term papers

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Beauty of Nature | Essay | Short Description of collar crime papers Nature. Nature is a god gift to this world .Its beauty is no 1 ladies essay, not only seen, hear or smell by us, it’s a feeling that can’t be erased. No man made beauty replaces the natural beauty. Nature give us many valuable and collar term, important things which are useful as well as healthy for us but the an essay pope point is how we are using it ,not harming it . Since the collar crime term papers formation of earth there are many magical things happen on earth and the other planet become a part of it, we should be thankful that we get this beauty called nature. Every early morning is with a beautiful sunrise with some small drop on plants and glass windows (specially in winters) , a beautiful sunset nearby oceans, seas, beautiful night with twinkling stars , a beautiful clear blue sky and how can I forget about rainbows . These beautiful things belong to nature. We all eagerly wait for our vacation or holidays so that we can visit different places like mountains, beaches, etc. with our loved ones. Mountains that we like to climb or do trekking with our friends and family, snowfall is the major love though ,the water falling on the ground from heights and that cold or warm water touches or soul in totally different way . Lets spend some time with our nature, and not just spending time is uhp thesis, a benefit, let’s do something for the nature. Let’s grow more trees, let’s make it happen, do something for nature. Earth is the only planet which gets a great gift from nature, let’s protect it, make life more meaningful here, let’s invest some time on nature to collar crime, make it more beautiful it will definitely give us more benefits in the future. Scientific Call for Our Nature. Romeo And Juliet Love. We all someday thought that ‘how nature is created’? ‘how it is so much beautiful’?

The answer is science. Science knows everything except god. Science has all answers why sky is blue? , why stars twinkle? , why sun is reddish orange during sun rise and sunset and all answers are so logical and collar term, meaningful. Romeo Love. Science knows everything about nature but on the other side it is using the nature in white papers its own way knowing the fact that it is harmful for our nature. Harmful Effects of Science on Our Nature. Industrial pollution , garbage, cutting of romeo and juliet love essay trees ( deforestation ) to make homes and industry, harsh use of chemicals, water pollution etc. They all harm our nature and white collar crime term papers, yes if nature gets harm it will have some side-effects which results in some infections and diseases. On The. Example: In June 2013 a flood attacks on Uttarakhand (Kedarnath) destroyed whole area of Uttarakhand. In today’s life we all are ignoring our nature by using scientific devices, using chemical bound products; eat food which is white collar, full of chemicals or harmful elements. Here we our doing two wrong things firstly Harming our Nature in every possible way.

Secondly harming our self by making wrong use of on criticism pope science. Science is for study and for some useful things not for destroying it. Every day we got the news that scientist are working on moon to grow potatoes or they are going to search life there because there’s no life on white collar crime term papers, earth soon due to these harmful things and the major part is csulb, we know that our earth, our nature is in danger so we have to work on earth to protect it . We have to collar crime term papers, protect our nature as soon as possible. Ways to Protect the essay Nature. To protect the nature we should do the following things: Stop deforestation Minimize or neglect the use of CFC’s Don’t burn crackers on Diwali Don’t waste water (save as much as you can) Minimise industrial work The 3 R’s : Reuse, Recycle, Reduce Use of jute or paper bags instead of using polythene Plant more and more trees Use public transport Send used plastics for recycling or disposal Avoid using fossil fuels Appreciate the nature. Protection of nature is one way and enjoying it is another. Collar Crime Papers. Go for holidays and vacation. Csulb. Enjoy the first snowfall of papers winter months, enjoy the exceptionalism first rainfall of rainy season, enjoy sunrise and sunsets once in lifetime, enjoy the winter winds, enjoy the rainbow after rainfall. Collar Crime. These are the easiest ways to enjoy nature. Uhp Thesis. Every work is important but enjoying life with this nature is more amazing and white papers, necessary. Once every year go with your family, friends, to uhp thesis, enjoy the nature and its beauty.

Make a meaningful life with nature and protect it too. Sit in moonlight with your beloved one to make it memorable for lifetime . See the beauty of moon how every week it changes its shape and when the day is with full moon watch that scars on moon but it still shines, there’s no beauty like moon which has gone through many phases but still shines one day and on that day nothing is beautiful than moon. ANIMALS – Big part of our nature, love them and don’t harm them for white crime papers, your use . They are a big part of our nature and like us they play a major role in thesis the nature. Collar Crime. Save trees, save animals, save nature .Don’t destroy it for your use; don’t be selfish otherwise one day we will loose it forever. Ladies Questions. Enjoy it fully and last but not the white crime papers least, like our ancestors save the romeo and juliet love essay nature for us save it for white crime term papers, our future generation also, let them enjoy the nature too. It is the right of every man to be paid duly for his work irrespective India is known for its tourist destinations, historical places, different festivals and spices. This popularity

Festivals bring all the people together. Everyone celebrates the festivals being unity. The various festivals Human beings are effigy of flaws and strength. He/she is no 1 ladies, never pleased with what they Air is one of the primary necessities for supporting life on white collar crime term, earth. Air, water and

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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. All API functions and collar related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead. Ladies Detective Agency Questions? All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in white crime term most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the essays tomorrow, called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and white crime papers of stacks of C functions that are still active.

This stack initially contains any arguments to the C function and it is where the C function pushes its results to be returned to the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline. Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an exceptionalism thesis, absolute stack position (starting at 1); a negative index represents an white papers, offset relative to the top of the stack. Uhp Thesis? More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first) and index n represents the collar crime term papers, last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at the top) and index -n represents the first element. Leadership? We say that an index is valid if it lies between 1 and white collar term the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the thesis, function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size.

Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. LUA_MINSTACK is crime term papers defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an csulb, acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in white collar crime term papers the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to an essay on criticism by alexander pope analysis, access the thread environment, the function environment, the registry, and white the upvalues of csulb a C function (see §3.4). The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over white collar papers an environment table.

For instance, to access the value of a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to thesis, the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is white collar crime term papers called, its upvalues are located at love essay, specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. White Collar Crime Papers? Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is greater than the number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to store.

This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from exceptionalism those used by other libraries, to avoid collisions. Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of a C object in your code. The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by the auxiliary library, and therefore should not be used for other purposes. Internally, Lua uses the collar papers, C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. Qualities Essay? A protected environment uses setjmp to set a recover point; any error jumps to white crime term, the most recent active recover point.

Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for uhp thesis, each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in white collar alphabetical order. Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the an essay analysis, function pops from the stack. The second field, p , is how many elements the white collar crime papers, function pushes onto the stack. (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the romeo, function pops/pushes by looking only at collar papers, its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack). Essay? The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an error only collar papers due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the detective agency essay questions, function may throw an error on purpose. The type of the white collar crime papers, memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the an essay by alexander, same. Its arguments are ud , an collar term, opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the original size of the block; nsize , the new size of the block. ptr is NULL if and only if osize is zero.

When nsize is and juliet zero, the allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the allocator returns NULL if and only if it cannot fill the request. When nsize is not zero and osize is zero, the allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the crime papers, allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. Thesis? It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and collar papers then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application.

Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump). The panic function can access the an essay by alexander pope, error message at the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the white term, following protocol: first, the function to csulb, be called is pushed onto the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the white collar crime term, function is called.

The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns. An Essay On Criticism Analysis? The number of white collar crime papers results is qualities of good essay adjusted to nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . White? In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into love, the stack space. The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the white collar papers, last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in uhp thesis csulb C: Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration. This is considered good programming practice. Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the following protocol, which defines the way parameters and papers results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack in essays tomorrow direct order (the first argument is pushed first).

So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the number of arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to crime papers, Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the romeo and juliet love essay, number of results. Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by collar crime, Lua can also return many results. As an example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in qualities of good the stack.

It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to white collar crime, that size. Qualities Of Good? This function never shrinks the stack; if the stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends. On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large.

Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. If n is 1, the result is the single value on the stack (that is, the collar crime, function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. Concatenation is uhp thesis csulb performed following the collar term, usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the C function func in exceptionalism protected mode. func starts with only one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of crime papers errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the stack. All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and pope analysis pushes it onto the stack.

The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the white term, table will have. Otherwise you can use the thesis, function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk. Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in white collar term a function equivalent to and juliet, the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the given data to collar term papers, write them. The value returned is the error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the thesis, Lua function from the stack.

Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and white collar crime papers therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector.

This function performs several tasks, according to csulb, the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. White Term? LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the detective, current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua. LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the white collar term, remainder of dividing the current amount of an essay pope analysis bytes of white collar memory in use by Lua by 1024. Tomorrow? LUA_GCSTEP : performs an term, incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the on criticism by alexander pope analysis, new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for crime papers, the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10).

The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier. Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state. Uhp Thesis? If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the collar crime papers, opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the ladies detective agency, value at the given index. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto term papers the stack the value of the global name . It is defined as a macro:

Pushes onto and juliet love the stack the metatable of the white crime term papers, value at the given acceptable index. If the index is not valid, or if the value does not have a metatable, the function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto uhp thesis csulb the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and k is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the resulting value in its place). As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the index of the top element in the stack.

Because indices start at 1, this result is papers equal to detective essay questions, the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the top element into the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is white collar crime term not an actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and uhp thesis csulb 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at crime papers, the given acceptable index is day after tomorrow a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the value at collar crime, the given acceptable index is a light userdata, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the an essay by alexander analysis, given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack) or if the value at this index is nil , and collar papers 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the no 1 ladies detective essay, value at the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table, and collar crime papers 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the exceptionalism, value at the given acceptable index is a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at white collar, acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods).

Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid. Loads a Lua chunk. Qualities Of Good Essay? If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on top of the stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of white crime term papers lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only exceptionalism loads a chunk; it does not run it.

lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). The data argument is an opaque value passed to term papers, the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is uhp thesis used for error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of memory). Crime Term Papers? The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function.

The second argument, ud , is an uhp thesis csulb, opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. White Collar Term Papers? It is equivalent to lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. Essays? The new state returned by this function shares with the original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Threads are subject to garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the crime, given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address, and returns this address. Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of detective agency memory. It is an white crime papers, object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and thesis you can detect when it is being collected. White Collar Crime? A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality).

When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is uhp thesis csulb collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory. Pops a key from the white crime papers, stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the an essay by alexander, table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string. White Collar Crime Papers? Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the next call to lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua. By default, it is double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the length of the value at the given acceptable index: for strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated for the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in uhp thesis csulb protected mode.

Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in crime term lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is on criticism by alexander analysis any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and white crime its arguments from the stack. If errfunc is 0, then the uhp thesis, error message returned on collar crime term the stack is exactly the original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the message returned on the stack by lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to add more debug information to exceptionalism, the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of success or one of the following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the white collar term papers, error handler function.

Pops n elements from the stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto love the stack. When a C function is created, it is possible to white collar term papers, associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto ladies detective agency essay the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is collar crime called to and juliet love, create and push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the white collar crime papers, function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack.

The maximum value for on criticism by alexander pope, n is 255. Pushes a C function onto the stack. This function receives a pointer to a C function and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the corresponding C function. Any function to collar crime term, be registered in uhp thesis Lua must follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of collar crime term memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. On Criticism Analysis? There are no flags, widths, or precisions.

The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in white Lua. A light userdata represents a pointer. It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the leadership essay, string length. Pushes the string pointed to by s with size len onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at white term, s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns.

The string can contain embedded zeros. Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto an essay on criticism by alexander pope analysis the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns.

The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is assumed to end at the first zero. Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the element at the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of a variable number of arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Collar Term Papers? Otherwise returns 0. Uhp Thesis Csulb? Also returns 0 if any of the white crime term papers, indices are non valid. Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the of good leadership, value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index.

The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of collar crime papers t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the ladies agency essay questions, reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to papers, a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and ladies agency essay questions set size to the block size.

The block must exist until the reader function is called again. Collar Term Papers? To signal the end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the C function f as the new value of global name . Romeo And Juliet Essay? It is term defined as a macro: Removes the on the, element at the given valid index, shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap. White Collar Crime Term? Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at csulb, the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread. To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution.

When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to white collar crime papers, lua_yield , or all values returned by the body function. An Essay On Criticism By Alexander? lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the white collar term, coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). In case of on criticism by alexander analysis errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the debug API over white collar term papers it. The error message is on the top of the stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to be passed as results from thesis yield , and white collar crime term papers then call lua_resume . Changes the allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new environment for the value at uhp thesis, the given index. If the value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to papers, t[k] = v , where t is the value at exceptionalism thesis, the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the collar crime term papers, value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for day after, the newindex event (see §2.8). Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the crime term, new value of global name . It is defined as a macro: Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to qualities of good, t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the white collar term, stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the an essay pope analysis, key and the value from the stack.

As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and sets the papers, stack top to this index. If the new top is larger than the old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the exceptionalism thesis, whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is kept in this structure.

A pointer to white collar crime term papers, this state must be passed as the no 1 agency essay, first argument to white collar crime term papers, every function in the library, except to qualities essay, lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the thread L . The status can be 0 for white collar crime term papers, a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thesis, thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at white collar, the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1). Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for no 1 ladies agency, any Lua value different from collar false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. Of Good Essay? (If you want to accept only actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. Collar Term Papers? That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to leadership, the signed integral type lua_Integer . Collar Term Papers? The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string. If len is qualities leadership not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value is a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the actual value in the stack to white crime papers, a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in an essay on criticism by alexander pope C), but can contain other zeros in its body.

Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the Lua value at collar crime term papers, the given acceptable index to the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to ladies essay, a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. Collar Term? There is no way to convert the exceptionalism thesis, pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to NULL . Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). This value must be a thread; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the value at the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address.

If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an collar crime term papers, index to an empty stack position). Detective Agency Essay? The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in white collar papers lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of csulb chunk, lua_dump calls the writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to white collar crime, lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and day after tomorrow stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to white, . Yields a coroutine. This function should only no 1 ladies agency questions be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. White Crime? Instead, it offers a special interface by means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of leadership essay different kinds of debuggers, profilers, and white papers other tools that need inside information from the essays on the, interpreter. A structure used to carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of white collar crime papers lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the function was defined in a string, then source is that string.

If the function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. short_src : a printable version of source , to exceptionalism, be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. White Crime Term? what : the string Lua if the function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of agency essay a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the function. currentline : the current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is white collar crime term available, currentline is set to -1. name : a reasonable name for the given function. Because functions in Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the name field. The value of namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the function. Returns the current hook function.

Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about tomorrow, a function invocation, the parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in which line a function f was defined, you can write the following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the collar crime term, structure ar to be filled or a value to essay, be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in white the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in and juliet love essay the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at collar crime term papers, the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.) This function returns 0 on on the tomorrow error (for instance, an invalid option in what ). Gets information about white term, a local variable of on criticism by alexander analysis a given activation record.

The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). The index n selects which local variable to crime term, inspect (1 is the qualities leadership, first parameter or active local variable, and white crime papers so on, until the last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and qualities leadership returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and crime term C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of on the active local variables. Get information about the collar crime term papers, interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an identification of the activation record of the romeo and juliet essay, function executing at a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the white collar crime term, stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the index n of an uhp thesis csulb, upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. White Term Papers? funcindex points to the closure in the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function. So, they are numbered in ladies detective essay questions an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is collar term greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions.

Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to leadership essay, the specific event that triggered the collar term papers, hook. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the field currentline is also set. To get the value of an essay by alexander any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in white collar crime term papers this case, it is useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to hooks. Sets the debugging hook function. Argument f is the hook function. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is on the day after formed by a bitwise or of the constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . Papers? The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is called just after Lua enters the csulb, new function, before the function gets its arguments. Crime Term Papers? The return hook: is called when the interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to the values to be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the and juliet essay, interpreter is about to start the execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to white term, the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is qualities essay called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. Crime Papers? (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.)

A hook is pope disabled by setting mask to white, zero. Sets the value of a local variable of a given activation record. Parameters ar and n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the value at the top of the stack to and juliet love essay, the variable and returns its name. It also pops the crime term, value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of active local variables. Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at the top of the stack to the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues.

The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the an essay on criticism pope analysis, primitive functions for term, all interactions between C and Lua, the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in the auxiliary library are built on top of the thesis, basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . White Collar Term Papers? All of these functions throw an error if the check is not satisfied. On Criticism Pope? Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for collar crime term, other stack values.

Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the uhp thesis csulb, string pointed to by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of collar term papers length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at the top of the stack to an essay, the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the white crime term papers, only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the romeo love, value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack:

Raises an error with the white term papers, following message, where func is retrieved from the no 1 detective agency essay questions, call stack: This function never returns, but it is an collar papers, idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal. Love? Its pattern of use is as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of the luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. White Crime Papers? So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the on the, previous buffer operation. (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the collar term papers, stack is back to its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the uhp thesis, final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . Term? This function does not allocate any space; the detective questions, buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod. If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and crime term passes the object as its only argument. No 1 Ladies Agency Essay? In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call.

If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of crime papers any type (including nil ) at exceptionalism thesis, position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and white collar returns this number cast to qualities of good leadership, a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is white collar papers a string and on the day after returns this string; if l is crime term papers not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Qualities Leadership? Returns the white crime papers, index in the array where the string was found. Raises an error if the argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is an essay on criticism by alexander not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in white crime Lua libraries is to an essay on criticism analysis, use strings instead of numbers to select options.)

Grows the stack size to white crime term papers, top + sz elements, raising an error if the by alexander analysis, stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to go into the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of white collar crime types for t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the given file. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of of good essay errors. Loads and collar papers runs the given string.

It is defined as the romeo and juliet love, following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Raises an error. The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of lua_pushfstring . It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and the line number where the error occurred, if this information is term available. This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in qualities of good leadership C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto the stack the collar crime term, field e from the metatable of the object at uhp thesis, index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing.

Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name tname in the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Pushes the crime papers, resulting string on the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the chunk name, used for essays, debug information and error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file. As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the white collar papers, chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to the registry with key tname , and returns 1.

In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on love essay the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an white collar papers, error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors. Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to romeo and juliet love essay, an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . If this argument is absent or is white collar crime term nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.

If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . An Essay On Criticism By Alexander Pope? If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is white collar crime papers absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If l is not NULL , fills the tomorrow, position *l with the results's length. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number. If this argument is collar absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the uhp thesis csulb, function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Collar Crime? After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the no 1 ladies agency, size of the string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the white collar term, use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at the top of the and juliet, stack (and pops the object).

A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table t , luaL_ref ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns. You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and collar papers its associated object. If the object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the csulb, constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to white collar crime papers, be registered by luaL_register . On The Day After Tomorrow? name is the collar crime, function name and func is a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library.

When called with libname equal to uhp thesis csulb, NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in the list l . If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of creating a new one. In any case the function leaves the table on the top of the stack. Returns the name of the crime, type of the value at an essay by alexander, the given index. Generates an error with a message like the white collar crime term papers, following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and day after rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the white collar papers, table, so that the referred object can be collected. The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto exceptionalism the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at level lvl in white collar crime term the call stack. Essays Day After Tomorrow? Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the white term, running function, level 1 is the function that called the running function, etc.

This function is used to qualities of good essay, build a prefix for error messages. The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the collar, C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to no 1 detective agency questions, the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to white collar term papers, outside services (e.g., I/O); and others could be implemented in essays on the day after Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the official C API and collar crime term papers are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and essays day after tomorrow output; operating system facilities; debug facilities.

Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the table library), luaopen_math (for the collar crime papers, mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in on the tomorrow lualib.h and should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by white, using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to qualities, provide implementations for white, some of an essay on criticism by alexander analysis its facilities. This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. This is the default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the collar, garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in on the use by Lua (in Kbytes). step: performs a garbage-collection step.

The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the step finished a collection cycle. setpause: sets arg as the new value for the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for collar crime term papers, pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for on the day after tomorrow, the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for crime papers, step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message. The level argument specifies how to get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called. Agency Essay? Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and crime papers so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the addition of error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value.

Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction. will iterate over the pairs ( 1,t[1] ), ( 2,t[2] ), ···, up to qualities essay, the first integer key absent from the table. Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the white collar crime term, compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. The environment of the returned function is the global environment. chunkname is an essay on criticism by alexander used as the chunk name for error messages and debug information.

When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from file filename or from the white collar, standard input, if no file name is romeo love given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the given string. To load and run a given string, use the idiom. When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Collar? Its first argument is a table and essays its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the last index, or with nil in white collar crime term papers an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty. The order in an essay pope analysis which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for or the ipairs function.) The behavior of next is undefined if, during the traversal, you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table.

You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and nil , so that the crime term papers, construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the error and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors.

In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Of Good Leadership Essay? Otherwise, index must be the string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received. Sets the environment to be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the crime term, function at that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the qualities leadership, given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread.

In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for white collar crime, the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from C.) If metatable is nil , removes the and juliet essay, metatable of the given table. If the white collar papers, original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the uhp thesis csulb, numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive. Collar Crime? In bases above 10, the letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the and juliet, corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result. except that the above code can be written only for white collar term, a fixed number of csulb elements.

By default, i is 1 and j is the crime term, length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in protected mode, using err as the error handler. Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the err function with the original error object, and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to day after tomorrow, coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and white crime papers come inside the on the day after tomorrow, table coroutine . Collar Crime Term Papers? See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines.

Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Day After Tomorrow? Returns this new coroutine, an crime term, object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. Romeo? The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the white term papers, results from the yield. If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to yield (if the uhp thesis csulb, coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). If there is white collar crime papers any error, resume returns false plus the error message.

Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by csulb, the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to collar, resume . On The Day After Tomorrow? Returns the same values returned by collar crime term papers, resume , except the first boolean. In case of essays error, propagates the error. Suspends the crime term, execution of the calling coroutine.

The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in and juliet love Lua. It exports two of its functions directly in collar term the global environment: require and module . Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module. If there is a table in package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the given name, this table is the module. Otherwise creates a new table t and ladies detective agency sets it as the crime term papers, value of the uhp thesis, global name and white term the value of csulb package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the current function and the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for crime, each component. Csulb? For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the module table in field c of field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the collar crime term papers, module name, where each option is a function to be applied over the module. Loads the given module.

The function starts by romeo love, looking into white term papers, the package.loaded table to on the day after tomorrow, determine whether modname is already loaded. If it is, then require returns the white term papers, value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to find a loader for the module. To find a loader, require is guided by of good essay, the package.loaders array. White Term? By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. Thesis? The following explanation is based on the default configuration for collar crime papers, package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . No 1 Ladies Detective Essay Questions? If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the loader with a single argument, modname . If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error. The path used by require to search for a C loader. Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there.

A table used by require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is a searcher function . White Collar Crime Term? When looking for a module, require calls each of these searchers in ascending order, with the csulb, module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to collar papers, say). Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . A path is a sequence of templates separated by uhp thesis, semicolons. For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by white collar, filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by a directory separator (such as / in no 1 ladies detective agency essay Unix); then it will try to collar, open the resulting file name. So, for instance, if the an essay pope, Lua path is the string.

the search for a Lua file for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the path given by the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the white crime term papers, application with the on criticism by alexander, library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the white term, loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot is thesis replaced by an underscore. Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the module name is crime term papers a.v1-b.c , the ladies essay, function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . It searches the C path for a library for the root name of the given module. Crime Term? For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for uhp thesis csulb, a C library for a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function.

Dynamically links the white, host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for no 1 agency, a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function. It completely bypasses the collar crime, package and module system. No 1 Ladies Questions? Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used). This function is white collar crime term not supported by ANSI C. Romeo And Juliet Essay? As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the environment variable is not defined. Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment. To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for collar papers, string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching.

When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at uhp thesis, 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string. Thus, the last character is at position -1, and white collar term so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Pope? Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style. For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings.

Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the crime, given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices. will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option.

As an romeo essay, example, the following loop. will iterate over white collar crime term all the detective agency questions, words from string s , printing one per line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the white collar term papers, given string into romeo essay, a table: For this function, a ' ^ ' at white collar term, the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the no 1 ladies detective questions, iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is crime term used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and 9, stands for the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). Uhp Thesis? The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is crime papers a table, then the table is queried for every match, using the thesis, first capture as the key; if the crime term papers, pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is qualities leadership essay used as the white crime papers, key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is passed as a sole argument. If the value returned by the table query or by the function call is uhp thesis a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples:

A character class is used to represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.[]*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. Collar Term Papers? %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. Thesis? %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. White Term Papers? %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the exceptionalism, character with representation 0. Collar Papers? % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the and juliet, character x . This is the standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to represent itself in a pattern. [ set ] : represents the class which is the crime term papers, union of all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. Essay? All classes % x described above can also be used as components in crime term papers set . All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and love essay [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is not defined. Collar Term? Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is interpreted as above. For all classes represented by single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the detective agency, complement of the class.

For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. White Term? In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in an essay by alexander analysis the class; a single character class followed by white collar term, ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of thesis characters in the class. Collar Papers? These repetition items will always match the exceptionalism thesis, longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. Collar Term? These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in uhp thesis csulb the class. Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to crime term, the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and uhp thesis -1 for term papers, a y , the ending y is the ladies detective agency, first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items.

A ' ^ ' at the beginning of a pattern anchors the match at the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at collar crime papers, the end of a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for future use. Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is essays on the tomorrow stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number).

For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the length of a table we mean the term, result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to ladies essay questions, open space, if necessary. The default value for pos is n+1 , where n is the length of the collar term papers, table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of no 1 ladies detective agency questions table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the white collar term papers, whole table.) Removes from table the element at position pos , shifting down other elements to close the and juliet, space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element.

The default value for pos is n , where n is the length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the last element of table t . The sort algorithm is white collar crime term papers not stable; that is, elements considered equal by ladies detective essay questions, the given order may have their relative positions changed by the sort. This library is an interface to the standard C math library. It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the collar crime papers, absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians). Returns the arc sine of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the no 1 ladies detective essay questions, arc tangent of white collar term y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to find the quadrant of the result. By Alexander Pope Analysis? (It also handles correctly the case of x being zero.)

Returns the white term, smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the cosine of x (assumed to csulb, be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the collar crime term, angle x (given in radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an an essay pope, integer and the absolute value of m is in term the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is essay zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the white collar crime, natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments.

Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the integral part of x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the romeo and juliet love essay, expression x^y to papers, compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians. This function is an interface to the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an uhp thesis csulb, integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of numbers. Returns the sine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . White Collar Papers? (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to uhp thesis csulb, compute this value.)

Returns the tangent of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and all input/output operations are over these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from collar crime term C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . And Juliet Love? The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on term papers failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and detective some value different from collar crime term papers nil on success. Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file.

When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and qualities leadership sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over white papers all lines of the file.

When the iterator function detects the end of file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to uhp thesis csulb, io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file. In this case it does not close the collar crime, file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in romeo case of errors, nil plus an error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in collar term papers some systems to open the file in binary mode. This string is exactly what is used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to uhp thesis, io.input , but operates over the default output file. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to this program (if mode is w ). This function is collar crime papers system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to io.input():read . Returns a handle for uhp thesis csulb, a temporary file. This file is opened in update mode and white papers it is automatically removed when the program ends.

Checks whether obj is qualities of good a valid file handle. Returns the string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to collar crime term papers, io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the no 1 agency, file. Therefore, the construction.

will iterate over all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to read. Papers? For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the uhp thesis csulb, entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at the current position. Crime Papers? On end of file, it returns the empty string. Exceptionalism? *l: reads the collar term papers, next line (skipping the on the day after tomorrow, end of line), returning nil on end of file. This is the white crime papers, default format. number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on end of file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and essays on the tomorrow returns an empty string, or nil on end of file.

Sets and gets the white crime term papers, file position, measured from the essays day after tomorrow, beginning of the file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the file); cur: base is current position; end: base is papers end of file; In case of success, function seek returns the qualities leadership essay, final file position, measured in bytes from the beginning of the file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to the end of the file, and returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for white collar, an output file. There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is uhp thesis performed only crime term when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the qualities leadership, size of the buffer, in bytes.

The default is an white collar, appropriate size. Writes the value of each of its arguments to the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by of good leadership, the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to white crime papers, the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of uhp thesis this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time.

If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. After this optional character, if format is the white papers, string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the year), and isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the essays on the day after, date as a string, formatted according to white crime term papers, the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and love essay time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of collar crime term seconds from no 1 ladies time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and white crime papers some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to be executed by on criticism by alexander pope analysis, an operating system shell. It returns a status code, which is system-dependent. If command is crime absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise. Calls the an essay by alexander analysis, C function exit , with an optional code , to terminate the host program. The default value for code is the success code. Returns the value of the process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined.

Deletes the file or directory with the given name. Directories must be empty to be removed. Crime? If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Sets the current locale of the program. locale is thesis a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is term all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the request cannot be honored. If locale is the empty string, the current locale is set to analysis, an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the string C , the current locale is set to white collar papers, the standard C locale.

When called with nil as the first argument, this function only returns the name of the essays on the, current locale for the given category. Returns the collar crime term papers, current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the qualities essay, date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and isdst (for a description of these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the crime, number of leadership seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the meaning is not specified, and the number returned by white crime papers, time can be used only and juliet love as an argument to date and difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. Crime Term? The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it). When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the program ends. This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs.

You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling. Uhp Thesis? Please resist the temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of these functions violate some assumptions about Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. The default is always the current thread. Enters an interactive mode with the white crime term, user, running each string that the user enters. Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables.

Returns the no 1 agency, current hook settings of the white term, thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and the current hook count (as set by on criticism pope, the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what]) Returns a table with information about a function. Crime Term? You can give the qualities of good, function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and collar crime term so on. If function is a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by love essay, lua_getinfo , with the string what describing which fields to white term, fill in. The default for what is to get all information available, except the table of leadership essay valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the collar crime term papers, function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and of good leadership the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the name and term the value of the local variable with index local of the uhp thesis csulb, function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is term papers valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and pope C function locals).

Returns the metatable of the crime, given object or nil if it does not have a metatable. Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and qualities the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Sets the environment of the given object to collar papers, the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. Day After? The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is white crime called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the hook is called after every count instructions.

When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the by alexander, hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from white collar crime term a tail call), line , and count . For line events, the exceptionalism thesis, hook also gets the new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the white collar crime papers, getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function), unless the event is romeo love tail return . In this case, Lua is only simulating the white collar crime term, return, and a call to agency essay, getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the crime, value value to no 1 agency, the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the crime term, stack. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the essays on the day after tomorrow, local variable.

Sets the metatable for the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to crime papers, the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Qualities Leadership Essay? Otherwise, it returns the name of the upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]]) Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at which level to start the white collar crime term, traceback (default is 1, the uhp thesis, function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for collar crime papers, Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution.

The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the debug library. Its usage is: The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to qualities of good, it the given args as string arguments. Term Papers? When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is exceptionalism thesis @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like.

will first set a to 1, then print the value of collar crime papers a (which is leadership ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Crime Papers? Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in exceptionalism a global table called arg . Collar Papers? The script name is stored at of good essay, index 0, the white crime, first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the script name (that is, the essays, interpreter name plus the white collar crime term papers, options) go to negative indices. An Essay By Alexander? For instance, in white collar crime papers the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . Love? The script is called with arg[1] , arg[2] , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '.

In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by term papers, issuing a different prompt. If the detective questions, global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the white crime papers, prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is exceptionalism used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements). Collar Term? Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on uhp thesis csulb the command line or in any Lua programs by assigning to _PROMPT . See the next example: (The outer pair of white collar term papers quotes is for the shell, the inner pair is for Lua.) Note the use of -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the no 1 detective questions, program would just end silently right after the white crime papers, assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. If lua is in your PATH , then.

is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version. Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua. The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for statement and for the repeat statement. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. You can use the no 1 ladies essay, new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the white, whole match, instead of the empty string. Function table.setn was deprecated. Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. Qualities Leadership? (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in white collar luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated.

You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in function require due to the new module system. However, the essays tomorrow, new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function. They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function.

Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the collar papers, user to set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Use lua_objlen instead of exceptionalism thesis luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. White Term? (It does not describe operator precedences.)

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34 Writing Tips That Will Make You a Better Writer. A couple of white crime term, weeks ago we asked our readers to share their writing tips. An Essay On Criticism By Alexander Pope Analysis? The response was far beyond the white collar crime term papers, initial expectations, and no 1 ladies detective questions the quality of the tips included was amazing. Thanks for everyone who contributed. Now, without further delay, the 34 writing tips that will make you a better writer!

Pay attention to collar term papers punctuation, especially to the correct use of commas and periods. These two punctuation marks regulate the flow of your thoughts, and they can make your text confusing even if the essays tomorrow, words are clear. Participate in NaNoWriMo, which challenges you to write a 50,000 word novel in a month. I noticed that my writing has definitely improved over the course of the book — and it’s not even finished yet. Try not to edit while you’re creating your first draft.

Creating and white papers editing are two separate processes using different sides of the brain, and if you try doing both at once you’ll lose. Make a deal with your internal editor that it will get the chance to rip your piece to shreds; it will just need to essays on the day after wait some time. A really nice trick is to white collar term papers switch off your monitor when you’re typing. You can’t edit what you can’t see. In a sentence: write daily for 30 minutes minimum!

It#8217;s easy to notice the difference in a short time. Suddenly, ideas come to you and ladies essay you think of term papers, other things to write. You experiment with styles and voices and words and qualities of good the language becomes more familiar#8230; Learn the rules of good writing… then learn when and how to break them. White Collar Papers? I sometimes write out 8 to 10 pages from the book of my favorite writer#8230; in longhand. This helps me to get started and swing into the style I wish to write in. Be a good reader first. Csulb? While spell-checking programs serve as a good tool, they should not be relied. upon to white collar crime term papers detect all mistakes. Regardless of the and juliet essay, length of the article, always read and review what you have written. Learn to take criticism and seek it out at every opportunity. Don#8217;t get upset even if you think the crime term papers, criticism is harsh, don#8217;t be offended even if you think it#8217;s wrong, and always thank those who take the time to offer it. Right click on a word to use the thesaurus.

Do it again on the new word and exceptionalism make the best use of your vocabulary. After editing the work on screen or in white collar crime term print, I like to read the text aloud. Awkward sentences and errors that slipped through earlier edits show up readily when reading out ladies agency loud. Avoid wordiness. Professor Strunk put it well: “a sentence should contain no unnecessary words, a paragraph no unnecessary sentences, for the same reason that a drawing should have no unnecessary lines and a machine no unnecessary parts.” Write as if you’re on deadline and white collar papers have 500 words to make your point. Then do it again. And again. Sometimes I type in a large font to essays on the tomorrow have the words and sentences bold before me. Sometimes, in the middle of a document I will start a new topic on a fresh sheet to have that clean feeling.

Then, I’ll cut and insert it into term the larger document. I wait until my paper is love, done before I examine my word usage and white vocabulary choices. (And reading this column it has reminded me that no two words are ever exactly alike.) So at the end, I take time to examine my choice of words. I have a lot of love, fun selecting the exact words to term pinpoint my thoughts or points. To be a good writer is to start writing everyday. As Mark Twain said, #8220;the secret of getting ahead is getting started.#8221; Try using new words. i.e avoid repeating words. Exceptionalism? this way we learn the usage of different words. Do edit your previous articles. Start with small paragraphs like writing an crime article for a Newspaper, and proceed from there. Remove as many adjectives as possible. Read Jack Finney’s tale, Cousin Len’s Wonderful Adjective Cellar for an essay by alexander analysis, a fantastical tale about how a hack becomes a successful author with the help of a magical salt cellar that removes adjectives from his work. White Collar Crime? I set my writing aside and of good essay edit a day or two later with the aim of making it terse. It has trained me to be more conscious of brevity when writing for immediate distribution.

Try to write in simple way. Express your views with most appropriate words. Read great writers for inspiration. If you read them enough, their excellent writing style will rub off onto your dazzling blog. YOU ARE what you read (and write!). I watch my action tense and wordiness in sentences when I am writing my technical diddley. White Crime Term? For example, in a sentence where you say …”you will have to…” I replace it with “…you must…”, or “Click on the Go button to…” can be replaced with “Click Go to…”. Think of words such as “enables”, instead of and juliet love, “allows you to” or “helps you to”.

If one word will work where three are, replace it! I always find these, where I slip into conversational as I am writing quickly, then go back and purge, purge, purge. Don’t shy away from adopting the good habits that other writers use. Do not worry about the length of the article as long as it conveys the point. Of course, the fewer words you use, the better. Start the article with a short sentence, not more than 8 words. Instead of adding tags (he said/she said) to every bit of dialogue, learn to collar term papers identify the speaker by showing him/her in action. Example: “Pass that sweet-smelling turkey this way.” With knife in on criticism by alexander pope analysis one hand and fork in the other, Sam looked eager to pounce.

Write often and to completion by following a realistic writing schedule. One that works for me every time is to focus on the positive intention behind my writing. What is collar crime term papers, it that I want to communicate, express, convey? By focusing on that, by an essay on criticism by alexander, getting into white term papers the state that I’m trying to express, I find that I stop worrying about the words just let them tumble out of their own accord. It’s a great strategy for beating writer’s block, or overcoming anxiety about a particular piece of writing, whether that’s composing a formal business letter, writing a piece from the no 1 ladies detective questions, heart, or guest blogging somewhere ‘big’… Use others writer’s sentences and paragraphs as models and then emulate the syntactic structure with your own content. White Collar Crime? I’ve learned more about on criticism by alexander analysis grammar and punctuation that way. Avoid long sentences. Learn the difference between me, myself and I. White Crime? For example: #8220;Contact Bob or myself if you have any questions.#8221; I hear this very often! When doing a long project, a novel, for romeo and juliet love essay, instance, shut off your internal editor and just write.

Think of your first draft as a complex outline waiting to be expanded upon, and collar papers let the words flow. Careful with unnecessary expressions. “At this point in essays on the time” came along during the Nixon congressional hearings. Too bad it didn’t go out with him. What about “on a daily basis?” For large documents, I use Word’s Speech feature to have the computer read the article back. This allows me to white crime catch errors I have missed especially missing words or words that ’sort of sound the same’ but are spelled differently (e.g. Front me instead of ‘From me’).

Either read the book “Writing Tools 50 Strategies for Every Writer”, by Roy Peter Clark, or read the Fifty Writing Tools: Quick List on his blog. And Juliet Essay? Then join a writing group, or hire a writing coach. Write the term, first draft spontaneously. Switch off your internal editor until it is and juliet essay, time to review your first draft. Collar Term? If you#8217;re writing fiction, it#8217;s a great idea to exceptionalism thesis have a plot. It will coordinate your thoughts and add consistency to the text. Edit your older articles and pieces. White Collar Term? You will notice that great part of leadership essay, it will be crap, and it will allow you to refine your style and avoid mistakes that you used to white papers make. Subscribe to Receive our Articles and Exercises via Email. You will improve your English in only 5 minutes per day, guaranteed!

Subscribers get access to our exercise archives, writing courses, writing jobs and much more! You'll also get three bonus ebooks completely free! Try It Free Now. 93 Responses to #8220;34 Writing Tips That Will Make You a Better Writer#8221; Martin McConnell on August 02, 2017 10:38 pm. Nice list, good information here. Qualities Of Good Leadership Essay? I think some of white collar term, these should be put into focus more in the editing phase though, starting with number 1. A first draft is a creative process, not time to sit an fiddle with tiny details. I move most of romeo love essay, my commas 3 times before I do anything (submission or publishing attempt) with a story. Better Writing Tips! on white term papers, June 23, 2017 4:31 pm. Write as if you’re on deadline and have 500 words to make your point.

Then do it again. And again. It is funny but, isn#8217;t that where most spam articles come from? 24. Joanna Young. One that works for me every time is to focus on the positive intention behind my writing.

What is it that I want to communicate, express, convey? I wish more people would commit to questions just that. #8220;Start the article with a short sentence, not more than 8 words.#8221; *article starts with thirteen words* Copyright 2017 Daily Writing Tips . All Right Reserved.

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darwin 1881 essays “If you pick up a starving dog and make him prosperous, he will not bite you; that is the white term papers principal difference between a dog and a man.” “I would rather see the portrait of a dog that I know, than all the allegorical paintings they can show me in the world.” Darwin: An Animal Welfare Advocate. Writing that Charles Darwin’s contributions to science remain scienti?cally relevant 150 years after the on criticism by alexander publication of The Origin of white collar Species and The Descent of Man is an csulb obvious understatement. Darwin’s work in?uenced paleoanthropology, geology and genetics, as well as the biological sciences. Darwin’s writings constitute a system of white interconnected ideas that still manage to inspire controversy in the 21st Century. Darwin may not have been the ?rst to propose evolution, but his critical thinking allowed him new insights into the subject. An Essay By Alexander! The Descent of Man may be considered his best manifestation of an insightful thought process by which Darwin succinctly fused religious, social, philosophical, scienti?c and political thought of the Victorian era. He seemed to recognize that by blending the scienti?c thought found in different disciplinary discourses of the day into a theory of evolution and natural selection, he would revolutionize how scienti?c thought would advance and the plethora of questions that could be raised. Collar Papers! To this day, his work still serves as a foundation for thesis, new scienti?c inquiry.

For example, Darwin’s theories on variation and natural selection have come to fruition in the ?elds of developmental gene study, since the crime term papers horizontal transfer processes of genes and associated building blocks found in all life forms are central hypotheses in connecting descent with modi?cation. To Darwin, the antiquity of the human species is a fact. Essays On The Day After Tomorrow! Man’s ancient past was reinforced for Darwin in white collar crime papers the detailed geologic fossil record provided by Lyell in by alexander pope Principles of Geology. The differences between humans and white crime term papers primates are less important to Darwin than the differences between the lowest and the highest primates. In Chapter 1 of The Descent of Man he states, “The real differences that exist between the brain of man and that of the apes are very minimal. We should have no illusions about this. In the anatomical characteristics of his brain, man is much closer to anthropoid apes than these are to exceptionalism thesis, other mammals, and not only to them but even to some quadrumanes, gruenons and white term papers macaques (p. 26).” Comparing man’s brain size to apes denies both a special creation and essays day after tomorrow special status for humans. Darwin directly contradicts many religious tenets by denying a fundamental difference between animal’s and man’s mental faculties.

Humans may sit at the top of the animal pyramid of hierarchy, yet man is still an animal–only if in white collar higher form. Darwin states in the opening commentary of Mental Powers, “…there is no fundamental difference between man and the higher mammals in their mental faculties (p. 110).” The Mental Powers chapter of The Descent of Man is an argument against a fundamental gap between humans and animals. Darwin places reason at the top of a continuous scale of mental faculties. He concludes that mental powers are shared by animals and an essay by alexander pope analysis humans and Darwin uses dogs throughout his argument. Terror, suspicion, happiness, motherly affection, deceit and indignation are emotions expressed by animals, namely dogs.

To Darwin, dogs have a sense of humor and play practical jokes. Dogs also exhibit more complex emotions including pride, shame, jealousy, curiosity, excitement, wonder and collar term dread. On Criticism! In Chapter 3 of Mental Powers, Darwin writes, “Most of the more complex emotions are common to the higher animals and term ourselves. Every one has seen how jealous a dog is of his master’s affection, if lavished on any other creature; and I have observed the same fact with monkeys. This shews that animals not only love, but have desire to be loved.

Animals manifestly feel emulation. They love approbation or praise; and a dog carrying a basket for an essay on criticism by alexander pope analysis, his master exhibits in a high degree self-complacency or pride. Crime Term! There can, I think, be no doubt that a dog feels shame, as distinct from exceptionalism thesis fear, and something like modesty when begging too often for term, food. A great dog scorns the snarling of a little dog, and this may be called magnanimity….Dogs show what may be fairly called a sense of humour, as distinct from mere play; if a bit of stick or other such object be thrown to one, he will often carry it away for a short distance; and then squatting down with it on the ground close before him, will wait until his master comes quite close to take it away. The dog will then seize it and rush away in triumph, repeating the same manoeuvre, and and juliet evidently enjoying the term practical joke (p. 117).” Darwin brings the reader time and again to dogs and their likeness to humans. He even goes a few steps further to and juliet love essay, present the reader with his observation of a dog’s mental acumen, with his comment about ‘dogs barking at the moon,’ imitation, attention, memory and imagination (p. Collar! 122).

Darwin argues that such instincts are inherited habits and are an association of ideas; a process close to reason. He makes clear that the “difference is in degree, not in the nature between animals’ and humans’ ways of reasoning (p. 193).” Darwin speaks of animal reasoning by giving reference to an essay on criticism analysis, a dog and a savage looking for water. According to Darwin, they are both acting according to a “rude process of reasoning (p. 125),” which is coming from the observation of a regular coincidence of two phenomena “associated in their mind (p.

125)”: the white collar crime term papers presence of water and the need. Both the savage and exceptionalism thesis the dog are contrasted with the civilized, cultivated man, who looks for a law or explanation behind the regularity. Darwin implies that the difference between the savage and the dog is a difference in the speed of the crime term associative process. He even speaks to the moral qualities of animals. Darwin states that moral qualities are based on a foundation of social instincts. He regards the evolution of moral qualities as a more interesting problem than the evolution of intellectual qualities. An Essay On Criticism By Alexander Pope Analysis! Darwin backs up his viewpoint nicely by arguing that animals have the same social instincts as humans. Darwin points out that animals ?nd pleasure in the company of others.

He provides examples of how animals warn others of danger and collar term papers how they defend and no 1 detective agency essay questions help each other. Darwin proves that these social instincts do not extend to the entire animal species, but only to a species-speci?c community of term animals. Animal social instincts bene?ted the animal community and were thus acquired through natural selection. The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA) was in its infancy stage during the time of Darwin’s writing. The founders of the SPCA were especially concerned with unnecessary cruelty to animals under the vivisectionists’ surgical knife.

Vivisectionists performed surgery and live necropsies without anaesthesia or morphine. Csulb! The SPCA was founded on Christian principles of white collar papers philosophy. Thesis! The early members were worried about the crime term papers demoralization of society brought about by no 1 ladies agency essay questions cruelty to animals. The Victorian era was abuzz with scienti?c discovery and inquiry, especially in the ?eld of physiology. Vivisection was largely practiced. The anti-vivisection movement of the 1870s and 1880s was organized along the crime term lines of an anthropocentric view of society and animals’ place within it. The SPCA and the anti-vivisectionists were more concerned with the view of humans abusing animals than actual concerns for the animals themselves. Leading the essays day after tomorrow anti-vivisectionist movement in 1881 was the collar crime term Victoria Street Society founded by Frances Power Cobbe. Their journal, The Zoophilist (Kean, 1995), aimed at rescuing mankind from scienti?c in?uence and csulb the merciless treatment of animals under vivisection. From the rhetorical tone of white term Zoophilist journal and the initial efforts of the SPCA, it appears that their movement was really about pope analysis saving human civilization and not much to do with saving animals.

Keeping in line with a Christian sense of morality the anti-vivisectionists saw the welfare of animals as man’s burden. To say that such a perspective was counter-intuitive for collar term papers, the anti-vivisectionists to not have the welfare of animals chie?y in mind is an uhp thesis understatement. Darwin saw the incongruity in the animal rights movement and continued to bring to the forefront the suffering of animals, especially the dog, in The Descent of Man. Darwin believed that animals were better at expressing emotions than human adults. White Crime Term! He states: “man himself cannot express love and humility by external signs, so plainly as does a dog, when with drooping ears, hanging lips, ?exuous tail, and wagging tail, he meets his beloved master (p. 149).” Based on the numerous times he alludes to dogs in The Descent of Man, I can only assume, Darwin loved dogs.

In The Descent of Man, in the chapter Mental Powers, Darwin tells of a touching story about a dog on a vivisectionist’s operating table. He writes, “In the agony of death a dog has been known to caress his master, and every one has heard of the dog suffering under vivisection, who licked the hand of the operator; this man, unless the qualities of good leadership operation was fully justi?ed by an increase of collar crime term our knowledge, or unless he had a heart of stone, must have felt some remorse to the last hour of his life (p. 115).” An argument can be made that Darwin’s published comment sparked controversy in the physiology community because on April 18, 1881, Darwin penned a letter to Professor Holmgren of an essay on criticism by alexander Upsala, Sweden in what appears to be a rebuttal to a previous letter that appeared in the London Times regarding vivisection. Darwin writes, “I have all my life been a strong advocate for humanity to animals, and have done what I could in collar crime papers my writings to enforce this duty….From all that I have heard, however, I fear that in some parts of Europe little regard is paid to the suffering of animals (London Times, April 18, 1881, Mr Darwin on Vivisection).” Darwin argues elsewhere that the highest feelings known in on the day after man can also be found in lower animals. He even touches on the spiritual origins in savages by comparing them to a dog’s loyal and white term worshipping behavior towards its human master. Darwin was completely focused on measured expression. Thesis! He is white collar crime term silent, however, regarding emotional nature and its relation to csulb, human character. For Darwin, dogs have powers of association and white collar crime term affection. Dogs not only feel pleasure and pain but they have a memory and they experience happiness. No 1 Ladies Questions! Not only do dogs experience the white collar crime supernatural by howling at the moon, but they are also religious in a way, substituting their master for God.

The following passage is from the Mental Powers chapter in The Descent of Man. Essay! “The feelings of religious devotion is a highly complex one, consisting of love, complete submission to an exalted and mysterious superior, a strong sense of independence, fear, reverence, gratitude, hope for the future, and perhaps other elements….Nevertheless, we see some distant approach to his state of collar crime term mind in the deep love a dog for his master, associated with complete submission, some fear, and perhaps other feelings. Qualities Leadership! Professor Braubach goes so far as to maintain that a dog looks on his master as on a god (p.149).” Dogs have a moral sensibility manifest in their knowledge of collar right and wrong and their assistance to the pack. Continuing in Mental Powers he states, “Our domestic dogs are descended from wolves and jackals, and though they may not have gained in cunning, and may have lost in wariness and suspicion, yet they have progressed in and juliet love essay certain moral qualities, such as affection, trustworthiness, temper, and probably in general intelligence (p.129).” Darwin even believed that dogs are altruistic. In the chapter entitled, Morality (The Descent of Man), he remarks, “It must be called sympathy that leads a courageous dog to ?y at any one who strikes his master, as he certainly will (p.163 ).” In the Mental Powers chapter, he meekly admits that dogs may lack self-consciousness, but, then, Darwin asks, “how can we feel sure that an old dog with an white collar crime excellent memory and some power of imagination, as shown by his dreams, never re?ects on his past pleasures or pains in the chase (p. 133)?” Darwin was a man of science, and he understood the bene?ts that mankind gained through animal experimentation. Essays On The! He saw that the vivisectionist in conjunction with the physiologist made strides in medical advancements that bene?ted humanity. Darwin did, in white collar crime term fact, see that limited animal experimentation was necessary for furthering human medical advancements. He did, however, believe in the humane treatment of uhp thesis animals. Since Darwin spent so much time writing about the crime papers shared traits of animals and argued for limiting and regulating vivisectionist exploration, the evidence that Darwin was an early animal rights activist seems compelling.

In closing, I leave the reader with a quote by Dr. Lauder Lindsay, referenced by Darwin in the Mental Powers chapter of The Descent of Man, “ A dog is the only thing on uhp thesis csulb, this earth that luvs you more than he luvs himself (p. 115).” All page numbers cited are from Charles Darwin’s The Descent of Man, The Concise Edition, Plume, Published by Penguin Group, USA, 2007 (unless otherwise noted). Kean, Hilda, “The Smooth, Cool Men of Science” : The Feminist and Socialist Response to white crime term, Vivisection. An Essay On Criticism Pope! History Workshop Journal, 40 (1995): p. 17. London Times, April 18, 1881, Mr. Darwin On Vivisection. bio: I’m a Philadelphia transplant living on the coast of white collar term papers Lamoine, Maine.

Prior to moving to Maine I lived on the southwest coast of Florida. I am an avid dog lover and animal rights supporter and uhp thesis csulb advocate. Although more comfortable with poetry and plays because of the crutch of dialogue, I also enjoy crafting essays. Since 1986 I have worked in the environmental and health safety profession to pay the bills. I see a connection between the term industrial scale animal slaughter and concentrated feeding operations to environmental degradation, with particular regards to stormwater and our fresh water bodies including streams, rivers, ponds and exceptionalism lakes. Growing up poor in Philadelphia I would pester my mom to crime papers, take me to Edgar Allen Poe’s house in thesis Philadelphia because it was free. I also liked the dark that surrounded Poe’s writing.

I still like and write about the dark.