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How to write a good application book

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A response to some of the comments on my last essay. I wrote this essay mainly to how to a good application book organise thoughts in my head, and to share them with others. Cover Letter Admissions Position! The aim is to how to a good provoke thought and debate, and against essay I am glad I have done that. Write Book! I don’t claim to be right, but do claim the oates nature, right to write book put forward ideas for nature others to discuss. So I thought it would be appropriate to respond to how to write a good application some of the many interesting comments people have made. Marginalization Essay! I don’t expect or need everyone to how to a good book agree with me. In fact, if everyone agreed with me I think I’d have achieved nothing beyond being another voice in the echo chamber. Sebastian Ungureanu writes: “I was discussing your article with a friend, and we were wondering what exactly do you mean by saying “ The liberal intellectuals are always in the minority” — do you mean in academia?

In the general population? There are, as you said, certain closed groups in which quite the contrary is true, and it would be great if you could go into joyce nature essay, a bit more detail here. Thanks!” My point was picking up from Clay Shirky’s great Twitter feed recently (underlined bits here are links out). He points out that Liberals cluster, mainly in cities, then think that their opinion is in the majority. What we just saw in the UK with Brexit was London thinking nobody would vote to Leave, only to find that they were in write a good application book a minority, clustered in a city, and improvisation music were out of touch with too many people outside London and other affluent cities. How To Write Book! That realisation should be the most important outcome of the Brexit vote: that the hamlet, UK is too divided between those who benefit from globalisation and the EU, and a good application those who do not.

Henje Richter writes: “ Thank you for the interesting read. But being a historian myself, I have a little trouble with you trying to use the carol oates against, historian’s toolbox to interpret the present or to predict the how to application book, future — our methods simply aren’t able to do that. Using them the way you do leads to such conclusions as history being cyclical, which it really isn’t. It can be told cyclically, yes. But it can also be told in any other way: teleologically, eschatologically, chaotically, etc. History is our way of sur sartre making sense of write a good past events, not the events themselves. What I am trying to carol oates against say is: Don’t tell a story where things just happen and book you can’t do a thing about it. Tell the carol nature essay, one where people are powerful, where even small actions can have big effects and where nothing is set in how to write stone, especially not future events. We definitely live in interesting times and things are in motion, but where they go from joyce oates nature, here is up to write a good application book us to decide, and for future historians to personal essay endings write about.” Thanks. I love this point. I totally agree.

I am using the toolbox of write a good application history to speculate as to what might happen next. The aim is to provoke people into thinking more about the times we’re in, which are clearly significant. I agree the cycles are to some extent created with the benefit of hindsight, but you can also see very clear patterns from history that tend to repeat. Essay Endings! If we don’t learn lessons from those patterns in history, surely we’re just blindly stumbling forward, to make the same mistakes again and again. Steve Dorsett writes: “Stupid, idiotic article. Comparing leaving a political union which was corrupt, didn’t work due to the self-serving nature of it’s members states and ignored and overrode the democratic will of write a good application book individual members, as leading to joyce oates against nature essay a nuclear war. People chose to make a choice as to how they were governed — this is a GOOD thing and a sign that we live in write a good application book a truly free democratic society that we were able to do this. And you belittle the will of the people, as some sort of sign that it signifies an oncoming apocalypse or armageddon. This is intellectual snobbery of the worst kind.”

Steve, you totally failed to improvisation music understand the write a good, article. Also, you are calling it stupid because you disagree with a point in it, that Brexit may not have been a good idea. It is dissertation sur sartre precisely that response I am arguing leads to people not challenging events, and why things get out of control. If I am an intellectual snob, you are not being intellectual enough. How about we meet in how to application the middle? What I’m saying is that single events which at the time seem isolated and contained can cause reverberations to lead to massive global events. The killing of Archduke Ferdinand led to personal essay endings WW1 and the death of 17m people. That is an example. I then say, and how to book use italics to essay endings emphasise it, that one scenario could be what I describe, and write a good application make clear it is just one of many possible scenarios . I agree with your description of the EU, actually, but am trying to put Brexit into a wider global context, where the implications are generally not well understood. Personal Essay Endings! The Brexit vote will impact the how to write a good book, American elections, elections around Europe, and empower the type of marginalization far right parties we thankfully don’t have here in the UK. You are the person I refer to write book in the article, who does not look at the past, the future, or the global context of an marginalization event.

Read the links in this essay and have a think. Kingshuk Mukherjee writes: “This is opinion masquerading as fact. You use tidbits from history to conform to write book your opinions, when the case could be argued the cover position, other way. I’m neutral in all this. But the confirmation bias is very real.” No, this is how to write opinion presented as opinion, built around facts. Anyone can build any number of opinions around facts, and that is the essay questions, point of debate. The case could be argued in an infinite number of ways. As I point out, I am just presenting one of them. Everyone has a bias. How To Write! I am presenting mine in how I interpret the facts to form an opinion.

Don’t confuse having an essay hamlet opinion with a presentation of a fact. And instead of how to write application book just criticising, why not write the argument the other way so people can compare both. Simon Hamilton-Allison writes: “This is full of cover admissions position propositions and how to a good assumptions without reference to essay questions any peer reviewed works or critical analysis. This stream of consiousness drivel contains methaphor after metaphor after metaphor.” It is an opinion piece not a peer-reviewed article. It is write book loaded with my assumptions, that’s the nature of an opinion piece.

It does reference (click the dissertation sur sartre, underlined links) to a lot of news and other references. But it’s a bit silly to make such a criticism of an essay on Medium. It is clear this presents a set of opinions and ideas, and write a good book is not an academic work claiming to be anything more than that. Saying an essay entire essay is ‘drivel’ is write application easy. Writing another essay to counter the points is marginalization not. See that as a challenge. Marc Salomon write: “I can’t take such historical/political analysis seriously if it ignores economics, in this case, neoliberalism as a proximate cause of a good book anger. Essay! People are angry legitimately and for reasons that aggregate statistics do not capture.” Totally agree Marc, and write application book I love economics, but it was not the subject I chose to write about.

Had I tried to bring that in it would have been twice as long. The anger is legitimate, and the political establishment and media seem mainly to blame. Dissertation! I’d say that’s usually the case when things all fall apart. Don Joe writes: “You make some interesting points, but at the same time you’re just being led by the nose by the age-old US-promoted blind fear of book Russia and you’re not checking your facts on what Putinist Russia has done and personal can do. If you take off your anti-Russia hate goggles you will see that 1. all of how to write application Putin‘s forceful interventions in neighboring countries were aimed at protecting the interests of significant Russian-ethnic populations” Joe, I’m not American and not exposed to American media.

Russia just invaded a sovereign country, and annexed a region, Crimea, with the same population as Latvia. Essay! It is now widely accepted, based on a forensic investigation of the evidence, that they also shot down the MH17 civilian airliner. The argument that Putin was protecting ethnic Russians is the very basic, simplistic bit of propaganda he used, and was taken from the rule-book written by Hitler, who used exactly the same technique and reasoning when he invaded the Sudetenland. The man who led the invasion, Strelkov, admitted afterwards that it was hard at first to persuade the locals to rise up and fight. You affirm my main point: if people don’t learn from history, it repeats itself. How To A Good! Jason Kenny writes: “Brexit — a group of angry people winning a fight ”Is this a fact or are you trying to write history? Do you know that the majority of the 17.4million people were angry? No, this is another case of sore loser syndrome I am afraid. I voted to leave because I think we have an opportunity to be stronger and improvisation music essay show the world you don’t need to be in an exclusive club run by unelected officials to have prosperity and peace. Not angry at all to be fair!” Jason, no it is how to application not a fact, it is an opinion.

It is an opinion very widely shared, and I think accurate. Many people voting for Brexit were angry with a political elite that’s totally failed them, and music essay angry with a Europe that’s failed to how to write application make itself relevant to them. The sore loser argument is the point in my essay: when people belittle alarmists as sore losers, they fail to sit up and look at what is personal happening around them. Your vote was clearly based on a respectable and thought-through argument, and I respect that. Some people will agree with it, and some won’t, and that’s all good. But a lot of people interviewed say they voted to how to a good book Leave because they’re angry. My essay isn’t about you and Brexit, it’s about the global implications of against a combined set of events happening at the moment. Stop thinking about how to write a good, losers and winners, and using the tired argument that the ‘losers’ should stop debating, and instead start looking at the wider possible implications of what you just voted for. A significant rise in hate crimes in the UK was not an outcome that was either promised by Leave or warned of by Remain, but is an outcome all the personal endings, same. Michel Proulx writes: “If Russia and China had organised a series of combined manoeuvres in Venezuela, Cuba and along the coasts of the USA, everyone would have been raving mad about the potential dangers of such manoeuvres. In 1962, the Cuba crisis barely avoided leading to a nuclear war.

Yet, what is NATO doing now along the borders of Russia and the coast of China? And you dare say that “Russia is a dictatorship with a charismatic leader using fear and passion to establish a cult around himself”. I don’t think much of Putin’s democratic stance, and how to write a good application I do think some of your points are valid. Yet I can’t help feeling you are slightly nearsighted in cover what concerns Russia.” Michel, you have to be very naive to suggest Russia is in anyway democratic. Also, NATO’s exercises along the Russian borders at the moment are primarily a response to how to write application Russia invading and ceding a neighbouring country. These are facts and not opinions, so are not nearsighted. Read more about what just happened there.

tmanstark writes: “It’s seems there’s a lot of 20 / 20 hindsight in your piece as well as a confusion that the same group of improvisation music people are doing the same thing over and over. How To Application! That last part, in typical essay questions particular, is where this falls apart. There is no grand theory of everything and just saying there are some patterns really isn’t saying anything. Brexit is application not the same as the Holocaust, is essay not the same as the rise of Trump (who in fact hasn’t become president yet). Sure there are some shared characteristics but that does not make them the same. How To A Good Application! There are more characteristics that are not the same. This piece is a disorganized exercise in, as Somalians say, “we’ll muddle through.” I feel muddled after having read it.

But not any more informed.” A lot of dissertation sur sartre 20/20 hindsight… yes, that is called history and is what the essay is about. And that is a good application precisely what I was arguing. I don’t anywhere say Brexit is the personal endings, same as the Holocaust. Read more carefully, you are, as you say, very muddled. Application! I clearly didn’t say that Brexit is like the typical essay questions hamlet, holocaust or that Trump is Hitler. What I’m saying is that with the benefit of historical hindsight we can see that apparently small events can lead to much larger ones.

In a very simple way, you can argue that killing Arch Duke Ferdinand led to the Somme. Hitler’s annexation of the Sudentland led to the Holocaust. Without the first event the second would probably not have happened. The point is simply that we should try to use this lesson from history to question what the future implications might be of events now. Events now are unusual because there are very similar things happening in different places at the same time. When small ripples touch each other they can become big waves. wuddaworld writes: “Am curious whether or not you’ve factored in the impacts of willful inaction regarding climate change (which seems to how to book be a common trait among authoritarians) when you say ‘Humans will come out the other side, recover, and move on. The human race will be fine, changed, maybe better.’” No, and that’s a great point. It’s a whole other essay. If you think mine was depressing, try combining it with another about the essay, climate! martyn jones writes: “I seriously doubt the next world war will start with one person’s death.

You yourself said that you would fail your university exams by not taking more than one side. So tell the other side of the story as well.” No, in this case I am not writing an academic essay, I’m just expressing opinions. And for you to doubt the next world war will start with one person’s death entirely demonstrates what I was saying. I’m sure nobody thought that WW1 was going to start when Archduke Ferdinand was killed. How To Write Book! And I doubt anyone predicted WW2 would start when the first soldiers died. It is precisely that unwillingness to look at essay history and let it cause you to ask questions that creates the how to book, risks of repeating itself. Trevin writes: “You’re fear mongering. First it was Britain’s economy would fail post-Brexit, now that you’ve inevitably been proven wrong you’ve moved on to another false idea.” Do you read the news?

The British economy is in a dreadful state as a result of Brexit. The sad truth is that the cover letter admissions position, people who voted for it are the how to a good application book, ones most likely to be hit by personal, the ensuing recession. Read this piece in the Economist for example. There is so much written about it that it must be willful blindness if you don’t see it. Even the British Government accepts we’re seeing a financial crisis and possible recession now. “Trump won’t honor NATO simply because nobody honors NATO. Under NATO Americans are being used as a broad sweeping sword.” NATO works because everyone honours it. The minute that system fails, NATO fails.

That is why NATO was quick to respond after Trump made these comment. “You likened NATO to the complex alliances before the First World War, then you admit that Trump doesn’t want to be apart of how to book NATO. You then claim this to be a bad thing.” Nope, I didn’t liken NATO to the complex alliances before WW1. You misunderstood that. the_vinx writes: “Why do you start so strong and then blame the start of WW3 on Russia? By all statistics America is greatest in starting wars. I think you’re seriously blinded by your nationalism.” I’m not nationalist, but it’s a fair point. I didn’t blame the next war on Russia, I presented a scenario which I clearly said was one of many possible scenarios, in which Russian military action in Europe could lead to another war. I actually imply in that scenario that America would also be responsible for that war, due to a Trump-led isolationist policy disrupting a NATO response. Clearly, Trump may not win, Putin may not invade Latvia. Anything could happen but my point is that right now things look very bad — there are a lot of corresponding events happening that can be pieced together to paint a worrying picture. Not playing through scenarios like this means we’re less likely to see dangers in typical essay questions the future. Not worrying is surely the most dangerous thing you can do.

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michealangelo resume The Personal and Political Difficulties in how to write a good book Creating a Masterpiece. I've grown a goiter by dwelling in this den- as cats from stagnant streams in Lombardy, or in what other land they hap to be- which drives the essay, belly close beneath the chin: my beard turns up to heaven; my nape falls in, fixed on my spine: my breastbone visibly. grows like a harp: a rich embroidery. bedews my face from brush-drops thick and thin. My loins into how to a good book, my paunch like levers grind: my buttock like a crupper bears my weight; my feet unguided wander to and fro; in front my skins grows loose and long; behind, by bending it becomes more taut and endings, strait; crosswise I strain me like a Syrian bow: whence false and quaint, I know, must be the fruit of squinting brain and eye; for ill can aim the how to write, gun that bends awry. Come then, Giovanni, try. to succor my dead pictures and my fame; since foul I fare and painting is my shame. Michelangelo's Poem: On the Painting of the cover letter, Sistine Chapel. In creating his celebrated masterpiece, the fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, Michelangelo Buonarroti faced physical, emotional and political adversities.(1) The maliciousness of book Buonarroti's enemy Donato Bramante, Pope Julius' impatience, emotional strains of supporting his family and physical exertion overcame by Michelangelo helps show that artistic genius often grows from essay, sacrifice.

To fully appreciate the skills of the master and his gifted talents in creating such an incredible work, it is essential to examine the struggles he overcame to accomplish his masterpiece. To understand the book, turmoil's that Michelangelo encounter in Rome before and during the improvisation, completion of the chapel it is important to have a basic knowledge of a good book his life leading up to its commission. Born into a noble but impoverished Florentines family on March 6, 1475, and baptized Michelangiolo di Lodovico di Lionardo di Buonarroto Simoni, he was the dissertation, second son of application book Lodovico di Lionardo Buonarroti Simoni.(2) After his eldest brother entered the Dominican order, Buonarroti took care of his poor family as if he were the first born son. Letter! Letters from the master increasingly reveal the seriousness with which he took this burden and the importance he gave his family's status and welfare.(3) As a youth his father intended Michelangelo to be a man of letters, but the artist had different plans for himself. How To Application Book! The master would run away at essay endings, spare moments between studies to draw or paint.

This angered his father and uncle and Buonarroti often suffered beatings for how to write a good application, such insolence.(4) Despite such treatment Michelangelo continued to pursue his dreams. In April 1488, at age thirteen, Michelangelo entered his first apprenticeship under the tutelage of the artist Domenico Ghirlandaio (1449-94).(5) Ghirlandaio was painting a fresco on letter position the chapel of Santa Maria Novella and needed the additional help of many apprentices and painters. Application Book! It is more than likely that Michelangelo gained the knowledge needed to letter, paint the Sistine Chapel while in Ghirlandaio's school.(6) Michelangelo's training under his first teacher lasted approximately one year before Lorenzo de' Medici took interest in the gifted young man. How To Write! Medici, known as Lorenzo il Magnifico, wished for Buonarroti to study the sculptures in letter his gardens at San Marco and become a member of his household. Although Michelangelo's father was unhappy with his son becoming a 'stonemason,' Lodovico could or would not refuse Lorenzo's request.(7) From the moment Buonarroti entered Lorenzo's household he acquired his undying love for and devotion to sculpture, and how to write application, excelled within this genre. He became a master of marble, never turning his thoughts to painting until contracted to work on admissions the Sistine Chapel. There is little doubt that the association with Lorenzo helped Buonarroti, not only as an artist but also intellectually. While in the court of the Medici's Michelangelo kept company with the greatest intellectuals and artist of the time. Michelangelo lived within the how to write application book, Medici residence for many years.

Due to the death of Lorenzo, growing distrust of the Medici's, and dissertation sur sartre, possibly the preaching of Savonarola, Buonarroti felt the write a good book, need to leave the beautiful city of essay Florence. How To Write Book! This was a very difficult decision partly because of the heartache of leaving his family. Michelangelo desired to return to his beloved city when it was safe to do so. Only after the Florentine people forcibly removed the carol against nature, Medici family and the riots ended, when the artist was about how to a good twenty-two years old, did he again set foot in endings his native country.(8) Michelangelo's career flourished during his self imposed exile and afterwards. From the time he left Florence until he began work on the Sistine Chapel, Buonarroti created many glorious works within his expertise; sculpture. How To Application! Some of these earlier sculptures are: St.

Proculus, St. Improvisation Essay! Petronius, the little Madonna on the Steps, and Angel Bearing Candelabrum to name a few.(9) When the great sculptor was in Rome from 1496-1501 he created the Bacchus and arguably his most beautiful sculpture, the how to write a good, Pieta of personal essay endings St. Write! Peter representing one of the 'Seven Sorrows of the Virgin.'(10) Upon returning to Florence in dissertation sur sartre 1501, Michelangelo found his city changed. Its government had become more stable and it was entering a high renaissance.(11) It was at this time that Michaelangelo created his most renown sculpture, David the giant. Until the creation of the Sistine Chapel, David held the application, honor of being Buonarroti's greatest masterpiece. While Michelangelo gained acceptance and acknowledgment as a master, he also gained enemies. Extremely competitive, the art world of the Renaissance saw a constant flow of animosity amongst fellow artists. Even before beginning the chapel Donato Bramante, a favorite architect of Pope Julius II, attempted to set Michelangelo up for a fall to elevate his preferred artist, Raphael. In a letter sent to Michelangelo from Piero Rosselli written in 1506, Rosselli wrote: [Bramante] said, 'Holy Father[Pope Julius II], for sure he will not come, for I am intimate with Michelangelo, and dissertation sur sartre, he told me that he would not undertake the chapel, although you insisted upon how to a good application giving him this task, but that he would only attend to the tomb and not to painting.' And he further said, 'Holy Father, I believe he lacks the heart to do it, for carol against essay, he has not done all that many figures, especially where the figures are high up and foreshortened, which is quite another thing from painting on the ground.'(12) Rosselli, further in book his letter, defends Michelangelo and joyce carol oates against nature essay, states that he knew Bramante lied about being on intimate terms with the a good application book, great artist.(13)

It is dissertation, important to point out that Michelangelo himself acknowledged that his skills lay in sculpture not painting. Painting held little interest for the master. Throughout his life he preferred the chisel to application, the brush. His preference is apparent by the way he signs his letters even while painting the ceiling: I, Michelangelo, sculptor. In fact he begged Pope Julius, almost to the point of angering the pontificate, to give the personal, commission to another.(14) The pope would have no one but Buonarroti paint the grand ceiling.

Apparently the Holy Father had faith and a better insight into the genius of Michelangelo than the artist did. By 1508, Bramante urged the pope to end Michelangelo's work on Julius' tomb in order for the artist to paint the chapel. It is how to write a good book, Giovanni Papini's opinion that the architect had ulterior motives for improvisation, this change of heart. Bramante's thoughts may have strayed in two directions. If Michelangelo did not accept the contract offered by the pope, then in anger Julius would eliminate him as a favored artist in the Vatican. Alternately, if Buonarroti accepted Bramante believed he would fail in how to write a good book his endeavor and turn the pope against him.

In either case it would eliminated Michelangelo from the competition gaining favor for questions hamlet, Raphael, who began to paint the Stanza of the Vatican Palace in 1509. Yet instead of doing him a disfavor, Bramante's attempt at write a good application book, destroying Michelangelo seems to give fuel to the artists' genius.(15) In May 1508 Buonarroti accepted the typical essay questions, task of painting the high vault of the Sistine Chapel. On the 10 of May the artist wrote: Today, May 10, 1508, I, Michelangelo, sculptor, have received from his Holiness, Pope Julius II, 500 florins, paid to me by how to a good application, Messer Carlino, chamberlain, and typical essay questions, Messer Carlo Albizzi as an advance for the painting which I shall today begin in a good book the chapel of Pope Sixtus, according to the agreement drafted by essay, the Monsignor of Pavia, which I have signed in my own hand.(16) The pope gave Buonarroti little choice but to continue their turbulent relationship. Michelangelo for four years (1508-1512) would more than once suffer poverty and frustration at the hands of the pope. How To Write A Good! It seems that at various times Julius failed to advance Buonarroti the sur sartre, funds necessary to work on the immense project.(17) In numerous letters to his family, Michelangelo wrote of application his lack of funds, yet he rarely blamed the pope for such deficiencies. Essay! Found in a letter to his father dated January 27, 1509, is a perfect example of a good Michelangelo accepting guilt:

I myself am quite concerned, for this Pope hasn't given me a single grosso for a whole year, and I am not asking for any, for my work is typical, not progressing in such a way as to make me think that I deserve anything.(18) Michelangelo is too kind about the neglect of the pope. Surely at how to a good application, certain times Julius is typical, clearly avoiding payment. In late 1510 the how to a good application, pope went to Bologna and cover position, failed to give Buonarroti the how to a good application, money to move the scaffold to cover letter, the next section. Twice Michelangelo, who was in Florence visiting his family, made trips to how to application book, the Bologna to gain the money. For many months at the end of 1510 the project halted and did not resume again until early 1511.(19) Along with the financial burden Michelangelo met with, the letter, artist coped with the impatience's of the pope. It became a habit Julius' to climb the scaffold, with Buonarroti's help, to view the write, painting closer. This frustrated the artist especially when the delayed completion of the essay endings, fresco angered the pope. Condivi wrote that on application book one occasion the pope asked Michelangelo when he would finish the chapel to music, which he answered: 'When I can,' the pope enraged, retorted, 'You want me to have you thrown off the scaffolding.' Hearing this, Michelangelo said to himself, 'You shall not have me thrown off,' and he removed himself and write a good book, had the scaffolding taken down, and on joyce against All Saints' Day he revealed the work.(20) On All Saints' Day, Michelangelo displayed the first half of his masterpiece to how to a good, the waiting eyes of the pope and the public.

The pope appeared please and yet shortly afterwards he left on the formerly mentioned trip to Bologna that held up the second half of the project. Throughout the time Michelangelo painted the fresco, he received constant entreaties from his family, mainly his father, for admissions position, money. As stated previously, Buonarroti dedicated himself to advancing and protecting his family. If capable, the how to write a good application book, artist sent his father almost all of his funds leaving barely enough to sustain himself.(21) The strains of letter admissions position supporting his family financially did not compare to the mental ones they placed on him. Still extant are many letters from Michelangelo to different member of his family in reply to the constant request for advice or information given to him about some misfortune the family encountered. Agonizing to Buonarroti, he attempted to alleviate their difficulties as best he could. A characteristic letter to application, his father on September 5, 1510, reveals the pain the artist withstood at cover letter admissions, not being with his sick brother.

He wrote that if his brother continued his illness he would endure the wrath of the pope and how to a good, journey home immediately.(22) In another letter to his father on September 15, 1510, Michelangelo states: I understand from your last letter how the matter is going. I cannot help you in another way. Do not let that upset you, and do not mope over it, for even if a person loses his property it is not the end of the world. Take good care of yourself and, rather than experience discomforts, let your possession disintegrate, for I prefer to have you alive and poor. If you were to die, I wouldn't know what to do with all the gold in the world.(23) This letter illustrates how this great artist, while working on a vast theological work of art, had little choice but to concern himself with worldly affairs. Improvisation Music Essay! It also shows that working on how to a good book such a project only enhanced his sense of values, belief in essay love, and, in other various letters, the Almighty. The physical tortures Michelangelo withstood often destroyed lesser men.

First, understand that the write a good, majority of the work Michelangelo performed he did while lying on his back upon a scaffold fifty feet in dissertation the air. The close proximity of the a good application book, ceiling, the transferring of improvisation images onto the vault walls, and the painting itself collaborated to weakening Buonarroti's body. His eyes received great strain. For at least a year after the completion of the fresco the artist still required others to read to him because his sight continued to be impaired. Beyond the difficulties of sight, the write, master had to contend with backaches and sur sartre, cramps within his limbs. Being withdrawn from the sunlight gave Buonarroti a sickly completion and his inconsistency in eating gave him a gaunt look.(24) When viewing a portrait or sculpture of the artist in his latter years, it is easy to imagine him as a stereotypical artist. The idea of a thin, melancholy man is an excellent vision of the artist at this period. Continuously he complained how his hunger ached him, how his health failed him, and the fatigue within his limbs pained him. He even took up the pen and wrote a poem about his difficulties.(25) To his brother he once wrote:

It is understood that I should love myself more than others, yet I can hardly provide myself with what I need. I endure many hardships and bodily fatigue here; I have no friends at all, and I do not want any. I hardly have time to eat what I need to how to, keep going; so I do not want anybody to bother me, for I just couldn't take it all.(26) Michelangelo stated so eloquently the never ending troubles he faced to complete the chapel. Music! His strong will and sense of being help him bring his thoughts to the world during such hardness. As Buonarroti battled to prove to Bramante and his enemies that he could paint a beautiful fresco, he proved to himself that his visions can become a reality.

Not only did Michelangelo suffer through Bramante's insult, he withstood the demands of the pope. This was more difficult than it seems because to anger the pope could mean the end of his career, a chance Michaelangelo was not willing to take. Yet it was this impatient, demanding pope that helped Buonarroti realize his potential as a painter. It was Julius who force Michelangelo to take up the brush. The politics of the pope's court along with the physical and emotional pressures surrounding Michelangelo steeled the will of the master.

As the dilemmas of this world mounted Buonarroti was able to leave the physical world and enter the spiritual one of his dreams. By withstanding the difficulties in his life Michelangelo climbed to the top of the art world just as he climbed the scaffolding in the Sistine Chapel. Each step brought him closer to heaven. Throughout his life, and notably the interval from 1508 through 1512, Michelangelo epitomized the ideal image of an artist sacrificing for his art. A Good! It is the culmination of the physical, emotion and political turmoil's surrounding Buonarroti that gives life and breath to the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel. Only artistic masters can produce magnificent artwork while engulfed in chaos. Only Michelangelo could have created the Sistine Chapel, his transcendental masterpiece. 1. Howard Hibbard, Michelangelo: Painter, Sculptor, Architect (New York: The Vendom Press, 1974) Hibbard defines fresco as watercolor painted into newly applied, damp plaster.

75. 2. George Bull trans., Michelangelo: Life, Letter and Poetry (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), XXX: 8. 3. Howard Hibbard, Michelangelo: Painter, Sculptor, Architect (New York: The Vendom Press, 1974), 18. 4. Ascanio Condivi, The Life of Michelangelo , ed. Hellmut Wohl, trans. Alice Sedgwick (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1976), 9. 5. Howard Hibbard, Michelangelo: Painter, Sculptor, Architect (New York: The Vendom Press, 1974), 12.

7. Ascanio Condivi, The Life of Michelangelo , ed. Hellmut Wohl, trans. Sur Sartre! Alice Sedgwick (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1976), 12-13. 8. How To Application! George Bull, trans., Michelangelo: Life, Letter and Poetry (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987), 18-19. 9. Howard Hibbard, Michelangelo: Painter, Sculptor, Architect (New York: The Vendom Press, 1974), 18-21. 12.

George Bull, Michelangelo: a biography (New York: St. Martins Press, 1995), 71-72. 14. Ascanio Condivi, The Life of joyce against Michelangelo , ed. Hellmut Wohl, trans. Alice Sedgwick (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1976), 39. 15. Giovanni Papini, Michelangelo: His Life and His Era , trans. Loretta Murnane (E. P. Dutton and Company, Inc., 1952), 153.

16. George Brandes, Michelangelo: His Life, His Time, His Era , trans. How To Write A Good Application! Heinz Norden (New York: Frederick Ungar Publishing Company, 1963), 252-253. 17. I, Michelangelo, Sculptor: an Autobiography Through Letters , ed.

Irving Stone (New York: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1962), 44-63. 19. Howard Hibbard, Michelangelo: Painter, Sculptor, Architect (New York: The Vendom Press, 1974), 78. 20. Ascanio Condivi, The Life of improvisation essay Michelangelo , ed. Hellmut Wohl, trans. Alice Sedgwick (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1976), 58. 21.

I, Michelangelo, Sculptor: an Autobiography Through Letters , ed. How To Write A Good Application Book! Irving Stone (New York: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1962), 44-63. 25. This poem is the epigraph. 26. I, Michelangelo, Sculptor: an Autobiography Through Letters , ed. Irving Stone (New York: Doubleday and dissertation, Company, Inc., 1962), 53. Brandes, Georg.

Michelangelo: His Life, His Times, His Era . Trans. Heinz Norden. New York: Frederick Ungan Publishing company, 1963. Bull, George. Michelangelo: a Biography . New York: St. Martins Press, 1995. Condivi, Ascanio. The Life of how to a good book Michelangelo . Edited by Hellmut Wohl and Translated by Alice Sedgwick. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1976. Hibbard, Howard. Michelangelo: Painter, Sculptor, Architect . Dissertation! New York: The Vendom Press, 1974.

I, Michelangelo, Sculptor . Edited by Irving Stone. New York: Doubleday and Company, Inc., 1962. Michelangelo: Life, Letters and Poetry . Selected and a good application book, Translated by George Bull. Essay! New York: Oxford University Press, 1987. Papini, Giovanni.

Michelangelo: His Life and His Era . How To Write A Good! Translated by Loretta Murnane. E. P. Dutton and Company, Inc. 1952. Shaw, Christine. Julius II: The Warrior Pope . Oxford UK: Blackwell, 1993.

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Atheists for Jesus - A Richard Dawkins Essay. An essay by Richard Dawkins: The argument, like a good recipe, needs to write book, be built up gradually, with the ingredients mustered in advance. First, the joyce against nature essay, apparently oxymoronic title. In a society where the majority of theists are at least nominally Christian, the two words are treated as near synonyms. Bertrand Russell's famous advocacy of atheism was called Why I am not a Christian rather than, as it probably should have been, Why I am not a theist. All Christians are theists, it seems to go without saying.

Of course Jesus was a theist, but that is the least interesting thing about him. He was a theist because, in his time, everybody was. Atheism was not an option, even for so radical a thinker as Jesus. What was interesting and remarkable about Jesus was not the obvious fact that he believed in how to, the God of his Jewish religion, but that he rebelled against many aspects of Yahweh's vengeful nastiness. At least in the teachings that are attributed to him, he publicly advocated niceness and was one of the first to do so. To those steeped in the Sharia-like cruelties of Leviticus and Deuteronomy; to those brought up to letter admissions, fear the how to write application book, vindictive, Ayatollah-like God of essay, Abraham and Isaac, a charismatic young preacher who advocated generous forgiveness must have seemed radical to the point of how to book, subversion. No wonder they nailed him. Ye have heard that it hath been said, An eye for an eye, and improvisation essay a tooth for a tooth: But I say unto you, That ye resist not evil: but whosoever shall smite thee on thy right cheek, turn to how to a good, him the other also. And if any man will sue thee at the law, and take away thy coat, let him have thy cloke also. And whosoever shall compel thee to go a mile, go with him twain. Give to essay, him that asketh thee, and from him that would borrow of thee turn not thou away.

Ye have heard that it hath been said, Thou shalt love thy neighbour, and hate thine enemy. But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and write application book persecute you. My second ingredient is another paradox, which begins in sur sartre, my own field of Darwinism. Natural selection is a deeply nasty process. Darwin himself remarked,

What a book a devil's chaplain might write on the clumsy, wasteful, blundering low and horridly cruel works of nature. It was not just the facts of nature, among which he singled out the larvae of Ichneumon wasps and their habit of feeding within the bodies of live caterpillars. The theory of natural selection itself seems calculated to foster selfishness at the expense of public good, violence, callous indifference to suffering, short term greed at the expense of long term foresight. If scientific theories could vote, evolution would surely vote Republican. My paradox comes from the un-Darwinian fact, which any of us can observe in how to write book, our own circle of acquaintances, that so many individual people are kind, generous, helpful, compassionate, nice: the sort of dissertation, people of whom we say, She's a real saint. Or, He's a true Good Samaritan. We all know people (is it significant that the book, ones I can think of are mostly women?) to whom we can sincerely say: If only everybody were like you, the world's troubles would melt away. Joyce Carol Nature. The milk of human kindness is only a metaphor but, na?ve as it sounds, I contemplate some of my friends and I feel like trying to bottle whatever it is that makes them so kind, so selfless, so apparently un-Darwinian.

Darwinians can come up with explanations for human niceness: generalisations of the well-established models of kin selection and reciprocal altruism, the stocks-in-trade of the write application, 'selfish gene' theory, which sets out to explain how altruism and cooperation among individual animals can stem from self-interest at the genetic level. But the sort of carol, super niceness I am talking about in humans goes too far. It is a misfiring, even a perversion of the Darwinian take on niceness. Well, if that's a perversion, it's the kind of perversion we need to how to write book, encourage and carol oates nature essay spread. Human super niceness is a perversion of Darwinism because, in a wild population, it would be removed by natural selection. It is also, although I haven't the space to go into detail about how to application, this third ingredient of my recipe, an apparent perversion of the sort of rational choice theory by which economists explain human behaviour as calculated to joyce oates against nature, maximize self-interest. Let's put it even more bluntly. From a rational choice point of a good book, view, or from a Darwinian point of view, human super niceness is just plain dumb.

And yes, it is the kind of dumb that should be encouraged - which is the purpose of my article. Typical Questions. How can we do it? How shall we take the how to a good, minority of letter position, super nice humans that we all know, and increase their number, perhaps until they even become a majority in application book, the population? Could super niceness be induced to essay, spread like an epidemic? Could super niceness be packaged in such a form that it passes down the generations in swelling traditions of longitudinal propagation? Well, do we know of how to a good application book, any comparable examples, where stupid ideas have been known to spread like an epidemic? Yes, by sur sartre, God! Religion. Religious beliefs are irrational.

Religious beliefs are dumb and dumber: super dumb. Write A Good Application Book. Religion drives otherwise sensible people into celibate monasteries, or crashing into joyce New York skyscrapers. Religion motivates people to whip their own backs, to set fire to themselves or their daughters, to a good, denounce their own grandmothers as witches, or, in less extreme cases, simply to stand or kneel, week after week, through ceremonies of position, stupefying boredom. How To. If people can be infected with such self-harming stupidity, infecting them with niceness should be childsplay. Religious beliefs most certainly spread in epidemics and, even more obviously, they pass down the typical essay questions, generations to form longitudinal traditions and how to a good book promote enclaves of locally peculiar irrationality. We may not understand why humans behave in the weird ways we label religious, but it is a manifest fact that they do. The existence of religion is evidence that humans eagerly adopt irrational beliefs and spread them, both longitudinally in traditions and dissertation horizontally in epidemics of how to write a good application, evangelism. Could this susceptibility, this palpable vulnerability to infections of irrationality be put to genuinely good use? Humans undoubtedly have a strong tendency to personal essay endings, learn from and copy admired role models. Under propitious circumstances, the epidemiological consequences can be dramatic.

The hairstyle of a footballer, the dress sense of a singer, the speech mannerisms of how to write a good, a game show host, such trivial idiosyncrasies can spread through a susceptible age cohort like a virus. The advertising industry is carol oates against nature essay professionally dedicated to the science - or it may be an art - of application, launching memetic epidemics and nurturing their spread. Christianity itself was spread by the equivalents of essay, such techniques, originally by St Paul and later by priests and missionaries who systematically set out to increase the numbers of converts in what turned out to be exponential growth. Could we achieve exponential amplification of the numbers of super nice people? This week I had a public conversation in how to write application, Edinburgh with Richard Holloway, former Bishop of that beautiful city. Bishop Holloway has evidently outgrown the supernaturalism which most Christians still identify with their religion (he describes himself as post-Christian and letter position as a 'recovering Christian'). He retains a reverence for the poetry of religious myth, which is write a good enough to keep him going to church. And in the course of our Edinburgh discussion he made a suggestion which went straight to my core.

Borrowing a poetic myth from the worlds of mathematics and cosmology, he described humanity as a 'singularity' in dissertation sur sartre, evolution. He meant exactly what I have been talking about in this essay, although he expressed it differently. The advent of human super niceness is something unprecedented in write application book, four billion years of evolutionary history. It seems likely that, after the Homo sapiens singularity, evolution may never be the music essay, same again. Be under no illusions, for Bishop Holloway was not. The singularity is a product of blind evolution itself, not the creation of any unevolved intelligence. It resulted from the natural evolution of the human brain which, under the blind forces of natural selection, expanded to application book, the point where, all unforeseen, it over-reached itself and essay started to write book, behave insanely from the selfish gene's point of view. The most transparently un-Darwinian misfiring is contraception, which divorces sexual pleasure from its natural function of gene-propagation. More subtle over-reachings include intellectual and artistic pursuits which squander, by the selfish genes' lights, time and sur sartre energy that should be devoted to surviving and reproducing. The big brain achieved the evolutionarily unprecedented feat of genuine foresight: became capable of how to write, calculating long-term consequences beyond short-term selfish gain. And, at least in some individuals, the brain over-reached itself to the extent of indulging in that super niceness whose singular existence is the central paradox of my thesis.

Big brains can take the driving, goal-seeking mechanisms that were originally favoured for selfish gene reasons, and divert (subvert? pervert?) them away from essay their Darwinian goals and into other paths. I am no memetic engineer, and I have very little idea how to increase the numbers of the super nice and spread their memes through the meme pool. The best I can offer is what I hope may be a catchy slogan. How To Write A Good. 'Atheists for Jesus' would grace a T-shirt. There is no strong reason to choose Jesus as icon, rather than some other role model from the ranks of the essay, super nice such as Mahatma Gandhi (not the odiously self-righteous Mother Teresa, heavens no). How To Write A Good Application Book. I think we owe Jesus the honour of separating his genuinely original and radical ethics from the supernatural nonsense which he inevitably espoused as a man of his time. And perhaps the oxymoronic impact of 'Atheists for Jesus' might be just what is needed to kick start the meme of super niceness in joyce carol nature, a post-Christian society. If we play our cards right - could we lead society away from the nether regions of its Darwinian origins into kinder and more compassionate uplands of post-singularity enlightenment?

I think a reborn Jesus would wear the T-shirt. It has become a commonplace that, were he to book, return today, he would be appalled at what is being done in his name, by Christians ranging from the Catholic Church to the fundamentalist Religious Right. Less obviously but still plausibly, in the light of modern scientific knowledge I think he would see through supernaturalist obscurantism. But of music essay, course, modesty would compel him to turn his T-shirt around: Jesus for Atheists. The Enlightenment wounded the beast, but the killing blow has yet to land. I haven't read much Dawkins. and was curious why he even desires this world to be filled with 'super nice people'?? It would seem to how to application, me that most atheists would desire the natural propagation of the human species wherever that lead. I just wonder why he would desire 'niceness' to be 'selected' and propagated to the coming generations and not one of the other numerous qualities/fallibilities of essay, humanity. Jesus said among other things I came as a sword,to separate father from son etc,he was a radical end of how to write application, days who thought that judgment was at hand.

A fanatic Evolution and specifically natural selection do not exist on the sub atomic level. natural selection is a tautology. Jesus was not some sweet puppy he had a set of teeth. Dawkins atheism is in fact a symptom of his attachment to endings, Theism at some subconscious level. Otherwise he simply would not care. The singularity is write a good book a metaphysical concept with no more or less metaphysical than a creator God mathematical realism can produce realities which simply do not exist in the lab or nature. I broke with the Bible when i was about joyce oates against nature essay, nine years old because it was philosophically absurd. However i have had no need to convince anyone else of write, this. Dawkins atheism is in fact a symptom of dissertation sur sartre, his attachment to Theism at some subconscious level.

Otherwise he simply would not care. How do you know that? Our revels now are ended. How To Write. These our actors, | As I foretold you, were all spirits, and oates | Are melted into air, into thin air; | And, like the how to write a good application, baseless fabric of music, this vision, | The cloud-capped towers, the gorgeous palaces, | The solemn temples, the great globe itself, - Yea, all which it inherit, shall dissolve, | And, like this insubstantial pageant faded, | Leave not a rack behind. We are such stuff | As dreams are made on, and our little life | Is rounded with a sleep. - Shakespeare.

I haven't read much Dawkins. and was curious why he even desires this world to how to write a good, be filled with 'super nice people'?? It would seem to me that most atheists would desire the natural propagation of the human species wherever that lead. Music. I just wonder why he would desire 'niceness' to be 'selected' and propagated to how to write book, the coming generations and not one of the other numerous qualities/fallibilities of humanity. Atheism implies no such desire. Improvisation Music Essay. That would be a matter of personal outlook on life, which can vary hugely - lack of belief in God does not automatically imply not caring about a good application, how mankind develops. It does remove some artificial constraints tied to marginalization essay, the dogmas of how to write application book, religion and the claimed prescriptions of the imagined Deity. But a desire for a more peaceful world is an entirely natural thing for all but psychopaths, certainly does not depend on belief in a God, rather it is at least part of the inspiration for religious beliefs in the first place, at essay questions, least the write a good book, more positive, non-violent ones. It is joyce oates nature essay certain that at least some aspects of religious dogma and teachings can inspire in some people actions which are anything but 'nice', even when that is how to write application not the joyce oates against nature essay, intention of the how to book, writers.

It can definitely get in the way of pursuing the goals of marginalization essay, a more peaceful, friendly world by introducing entirely irrelevant imperatives, and a good application book claiming they are 'moral'. Favorite oxymorons: Gospel Truth, Rational Supernaturalist, Business Ethics, Christian Morality. Theology is now little more than a branch of human ignorance. Sur Sartre. Indeed, it is ignorance with wings. - Sam Harris. The path to Truth lies via careful study of reality, not the how to write a good application book, dreams of our fallible minds - me. From the sublime to the ridiculous: Science - Philosophy - Theology. Jesus said among other things I came as a sword,to separate father from son etc,he was a radical end of days who thought that judgment was at hand. Admissions. A fanatic Evolution and how to a good application specifically natural selection do not exist on the sub atomic level. natural selection is a tautology. Jesus was not some sweet puppy he had a set of teeth. Dawkins atheism is in fact a symptom of his attachment to Theism at some subconscious level.

Otherwise he simply would not care. The singularity is carol oates nature a metaphysical concept with no more or less metaphysical than a creator God mathematical realism can produce realities which simply do not exist in the lab or nature. I broke with the write a good book, Bible when i was about nine years old because it was philosophically absurd. However i have had no need to convince anyone else of this. The 'singularity' is a mathematical abstraction, a model, which may or may not correspond well with the improvisation, state of reality at around the origin of our Universe. Whereas a creator God is a poorly defined concept which is full of logical problems, and explains nothing about ultimate origins, since such an entity is infinitely more difficult to reconcile with current scientifically derived knowledge, and it is how to application book vastly more difficult to marginalization essay, explain its own origins. Whereas the well established observation that higher processes and the complex entities that depend on them can and a good do emerge from simpler elements makes the idea of a God utterly unnecessary. Not really comparable ideas, except maybe in the context of the confused nonsense that is metaphysics. Favorite oxymorons: Gospel Truth, Rational Supernaturalist, Business Ethics, Christian Morality. Theology is now little more than a branch of human ignorance.

Indeed, it is ignorance with wings. - Sam Harris. The path to Truth lies via careful study of reality, not the dreams of personal essay endings, our fallible minds - me. From the sublime to the ridiculous: Science - Philosophy - Theology. Almost every atheist that I know has rejected religion for two reasons. The first is how to application that supernatural theism simply makes no sense. Music. Secondly, and perhaps more importantly, atheists reject religion because they find it to how to a good book, be in contradiction with their own moral conscience. We believe in two things, truth and beauty.

We want people to be kind, honest, and intelligent because that would make the world a better place. It's too obscure a thought to essay, worry about promoting genetic evolution when we will not live long enough to see its consequenses. We want the world to be a better place and for all human beings to have the oppurtunity of a happy and fulfilling life. The evolution of ideas is much more important to humanity now than the evolution of how to write a good book, genes could ever be. I can't speak for other atheists, but I myself place an enormous value on faith. I think that it is vital to believe in dissertation sur sartre, a power greater than ourselves. For me that power can only be embodied by truth, beauty, reason, math (as dull as that may sound), evolution, and morality. Write A Good Book. We simply believe that principals are more important than mythologies. All the big religions have something about niceness, even though they get used by questions hamlet, the power-hungry or socially insane, and became big by politics. How To Write A Good Application. I did a long, careful thinking project and came up with a conclusion that after supernaturalism has been abolished, much of the divine spirit survives.

That is the ethical/aesthetic part, and sur sartre also the common feeling of conscience or needing to how to write a good, deserve some irrationally sensed benevolence. In other words, a spirit in which to live best is an idea and an ideal, perhaps deep in essay questions hamlet, culture or basic to psychology. When I looked for a non-religious symbol, I found that mathematics provides the write a good application, notion of an typical questions hamlet, attractor. I really don't know whether somebody could actually construct phase space for ethics; but the philosophy of goodness has always had to use metaphors, because this is abstract thought about write a good application, imagination! I was pleased to read Dawkins' essay here, especially the sentence about how the argument needs to be built up precisely and marginalization connectedly and presented slowly and clearly!

My suggestion is that even if Jesus wouldn't really be an atheist, a term much older than the prophets of a good application book, about 600BC, who preached compassion all over the world - must have been a discovery of those times - is the divine spirit and joyce carol oates nature it is still a valid term, atheists can use it meaningfully, and write a good book there are even suitable symbols in contemporary thought-forms to be found. I also suspect that a discussion about teleonomy as compared with teleology isn't resolved merely by improvisation music, abolishing supernatural beings. But I don't think there are any apt terms for such a discussion, yet. That is - as atheists, we are up against the barrier of language changing too slowly and science also coming together too vaguely yet. However, I definitely have to report that spirituality hardly misses a beat, when you lose supernaturalism, but instead, some beautifully consistent notions suddenly become obvious: notions that most religions have always had to reject.

If I understand correctly. Richard Dawkins now wants to application, start his own church.

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2012 Symposium on VLSI Circuits (VLSIC) The proceedings of this conference will be available for purchase through Curran Associates. Write. VLSI Circuits (VLSIC), 2012 Symposium on. Session 1 - Coral ballroom 4 and 5. The evolution of next-generation data center networks for high capacity computing. With the emergence of cloud computing, new data center architectures are being created to address the challenges of the new computing models. The scale of these next-generation data center networks drives the demand for high-density, low-latency and low-power networking solutions. These networks are being deployed with flat topologies, virtualization and hamlet, low latency. The silicon solutions that are.

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390 GHz followed by two cascaded #x00F7;2 injection locked frequency dividers with output frequency of. 49 GHz is demonstrated. Write. The peak power radiated at. A 160-GHz receiver-based phase-locked loop in 65 nm CMOS technology. A 160-GHz receiver-based PLL with tuning range from 156.4 GHz to 159.2 GHz is admissions, presented. Sub-THz 1/9 prescaler is replaced by a good application book, a 3rd harmonic mixer incorporating frequency tripler for frequency down conversion. Frequency acquisition is assisted by received signal strength indicator (RSSI) for automatically frequency sweeping and fast locking. The frequency locking time is less than 3 #x. View full abstract» A 32.4 ppm/#x00B0;C 3.2-1.6V self-chopped relaxation oscillator with adaptive supply generation. A self-chopped relaxation oscillator with adaptive supply generation provides the stable output clock against variations in temperature and essay, supply voltages.

The frequency drift is less than #x00B1;0.1% for the supply voltage changing from 1.6 to write 3.2 V and #x00B1;0.1% for a temperature range from -20 to 100#x00B0;C, which is reduced by 83% with the self-chopped technique. This relaxation oscilla. View full abstract» A 280nW, 100kHz, 1-cycle start-up time, on-chip CMOS relaxation oscillator employing a feedforward period control scheme. A sub-#x03BC;W, 1-cycle start-up CMOS relaxation oscillator has been developed with a feedforward period control scheme and carol essay, a digitally-controlled boost charging technique. The oscillator is implemented in how to write 90nm CMOS and we sucessfuly have demonstrated 100kHz clock generation with #x00B1;1%-accuracy and essay, an extremely low power consumption of 280nW.

View full abstract» Circuit techniques to overcome Class-D audio amplifier limitations in mobile devices. Circuit techniques to overcome practical noise, reliability, and EMI limitations are reported. An auxiliary loop with ramping circuits suppresses pop-and-click noise to 1 mV for an amplifier with 4V achievable output voltage. Switching edge rate control enables the system to meet the a good, EN55022 Class-B standard with a 15 dB margin. An enhanced scheme detects short-circuit conditions without relying o. View full abstract» A 5.2mW, 0.0016% THD up to 20kHz, ground-referenced audio decoder with PSRR-enhanced class-AB 16#x03A9; headphone amplifiers. Joyce Against Nature Essay. A low-power ground-referenced audio decoder with PSRR-enhanced class-AB headphone amplifiers presents ;0.0016% THD in a good the whole audio band against the supply ripple by a negative charge-pump.

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View full abstract» A pipelined ADC digitally calibrates capacitor mismatches in its 4-bit first stage and the gain error in sur sartre the first 5 stages. Using a one-stage op amp with a gain of 10 and how to write a good application book, realized in dissertation 65-nm CMOS technology, the how to write a good application book, ADC digitizes a 490-MHz input with an SNDR of 52.4 dB, achieving an FOM of 0.097pJ/conversion-step. View full abstract» A 61.5dB SNDR pipelined ADC using simple highly-scalable ring amplifiers. A ring amplifier based pipelined ADC is presented that uses simple cells constructed from small inverters and capacitors to essay hamlet perform amplification. The basic ring amplifier structure is characterized and demonstrated to how to write application book be highly scalable, power efficient, and compression-immune (inherent rail-to-rail output swing). The prototype 10.5-bit ADC, fabricated in sur sartre 0.18#x03BC;m CMOS technology, achieves 6. View full abstract» A 440pJ/bit 1Mb/s 2.4GHz multi-channel FBAR-based TX and an integrated pulse-shaping PA. A 2.4GHz TX in how to write application book 65nm CMOS defines three channels using three high-Q FBARs and supports OOK, BPSK and MSK.

The oscillators have -132dBc/Hz phase noise at 1MHz offset, and are multiplexed to an efficient resonant buffer. Optimized for low output power #x2248;-10dBm, a fully-integrated PA implements 7.5dB dynamic output power range using a dynamic impedance transformation network, and is used for amp. Carol Oates. View full abstract» An 8-PPM, 45 pJ/bit UWB transmitter with reduced number of PA elements. A pulsed UWB transmitter (Tx) using finite impulse response synthesis of the a good book, raised-cosine pulse is presented. Cover Admissions Position. Symmetric pulse combining technique is proposed to reduce the number of power amplifier elements by half. A novel all-digital delay locked loop (AD-DLL) serves as an write book 8-array pulse position modulator (PPM) for aggressive duty-cycling of the Tx. Letter Admissions Position. The chip is fabricated with 90nm CMOS technol. View full abstract» An all 0.5V, 1Mbps, 315MHz OOK transceiver with 38-#x00B5;W career-frequency-free intermittent sampling receiver and 52-#x00B5;W class-F transmitter in 40-nm CMOS. A Good Application Book. An all 0.5V, 1Mbps, 315MHz OOK transceiver in improvisation 40-nm CMOS for body area networks is developed. Both a 38-pJ/bit career-frequency-free intermittent sampling receiver with -55dBm sensitivity and a 52-pJ/bit class-F transmitter with -21dBm output power achieve the write a good application book, lowest energy in the published transceivers for wireless sensor networks. View full abstract»

A 2.4GHz hybrid PPF based BFSK receiver with #x00B1;180ppm frequency offset tolerance for wireless sensor networks. A low-power 2.4GHz 1Mb/s hybrid polyphase filter (PPF) based BFSK receiver with #x00B1;180ppm frequency offset tolerance (FOT) and 40dB adjacent channel rejection (ACR) at a modulation index (MI) of oates nature essay, 2 is presented. High FOT at how to write a good application, low MI is achieved by a frequency-to-energy conversion architecture using PPFs without any frequency correction. The proposed hybrid topology of the PPF provides an improve. View full abstract» A 0.13#x00B5;m 8Mb logic based Cu x Si y O resistive memory with self-adaptive yield enhancement and operation power reduction. A 0.13#x03BC;m 8Mb CuxSiyO resistive memory test macro with 20F2 cell size is improvisation, developed based on a good, logic process for the first time.

Smart and adaptive assist write and read circuit are proposed and verified in order to fix yield and power consumption issues from large write speed and high temperature resistance variation. SAWM (self-adaptive write mode) helps to en. View full abstract» A 3.14 um 2 4T-2MTJ-cell fully parallel TCAM based on nonvolatile logic-in-memory architecture. A four-MOS-transistor/two-MTJ-device (4T-2MTJ) cell circuit is proposed and fabricated for a standby-power-free and a high-density fully parallel nonvolatile TCAM. By optimally merging a nonvolatile storage function and a comparison logic function into a TCAM cell circuit with a nonvolatile logic-in-memory structure, the transistor counts required in dissertation the cell circuit become minimized. As a result. View full abstract» 1Mb 4T-2MTJ nonvolatile STT-RAM for write a good embedded memories using 32b fine-grained power gating technique with 1.0ns/200ps wake-up/power-off times.

A 1Mb nonvolatile STT-RAM using the 4T-2MTJ cell is cover letter admissions, designed and fabricated using 90nm CMOS and MTJ processes. 32 cells along a word line (WL) are simultaneously power-gated with quick wake-up/power-off times of 1.0ns/200ps, respectively, to book reduce operation power and to eliminate standby power of the chip. The cell is hamlet, experimentally shown to write a good application book retain data with static noise margin (SNM) 0.32V under . View full abstract» US Canada: +1 800 678 4333 Worldwide: +1 732 981 0060. A not-for-profit organization, IEEE is the world's largest technical professional organization dedicated to advancing technology for the benefit of humanity. Copyright 2017 IEEE - All rights reserved.

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commis resume sample Sujets de dissertation et textes. Elaboration des cours. Auteurs et oeuvres. Ressources en ligne. Rsum n°1 : texte de Jean Cazeneuve , Guerre et Paix , 1995 Encyclopdia Universalis. Rsum n°2 (PSI, MP) : texte de Charles Nicolle , La Nature, conception et morale biologiques , 1934, Flix Alcan, p. A Good Book. 108-113. Rsum n°4 : texte de Samuel P. Marginalization. Huntington , Le choc des civilisations , 1996, Quatrime partie, Chapitre X, tr. A Good Application Book. fr. Improvisation Essay. J.-L. How To Application. Fidel, G. Admissions. Joublain, P. How To Application. Jorland et J.-J.

Pdussaud, Odile Jacob, 2007, p. Improvisation Music. 375-380. Rsum n°5 : Clausewitz , De la guerre , 1832, Chapitre 1, § 2 et 3, tr. How To A Good Application. fr. Essay Questions Hamlet. Nicolas Wacquet, Rivages poche, Petite Bibliothque, p. How To A Good. 19-22. Rsum n°6 : Carl Schmitt , La notion de politique , 1932, tr. Dissertation Sur Sartre. Steinhauser, Champs Flammarion, 1992, p. How To Write A Good Application Book. 70-73. Rsumez le texte suivant en 100 mots (± 10%) : La recherche des causes de la guerre, telle qu'elle est apparue dj dans les efforts pour assurer la paix, conduit en dceler les fondements dans plusieurs domaines. Endings. Il faut d'abord envisager la dimension sociale propre ce phnomne essentiellement collectif. Application Book. De ce point de vue, on questions hamlet peut tudier les sources et les consquences du militarisme.

Herbert Spencer et Auguste Comte croyaient une volution faisant succder les socits industrielles aux socits militaires, celles-ci tant caractrises par des institutions qui subordonnent troitement l'individu la socit et tendent la tyrannie politique en mme temps qu' l'autarcie conomique. Write Book. De nombreux polmologues placent aussi leur analyse sur l'aspect conomique des guerres. Dissertation. Ils citent de grandes crises conomiques et sociales qui n'ont entran aucune guerre, mais ils notent que les conflits arms, depuis la disparition de la guerre aristocratique, provoquent une transformation de la vie conomique dans les pays belligrants, de sorte que certaines difficults peuvent tre provisoirement rsolues par le rythme acclr de la consommation en matriel qu'impose l'tat de belligrance. How To Write A Good. La guerre n'est d'ailleurs pas possible sans une certaine accumulation de puissance conomique, et la lassitude qui met fin certains conflits peut parfois tre attribue l'appauvrissement que finissent par produire les hostilits. Music Essay. On peut faire une analyse du mme genre propos des aspects dmographiques de la guerre, laquelle les phnomnes de surpopulation ne sont pas toujours trangers. Application Book. C'est pourquoi, selon Gaston Bouthoul, la principale fonction sociologique de la guerre serait d'tre, en mme temps qu'un exutoire aux impulsions collectives, un processus de « rquilibration dmo-conomique ». Joyce Carol Against Nature Essay. Quant l'aspect technique, dont on how to a good application book a vu l'importance dans l'volution historique des guerres, il est remarquable aussi dans ses « retombes ». Joyce Carol Oates Against Nature. Les guerres, surtout dans la priode la plus rcente, ont probablement ht des dcouvertes, dont certaines ont eu des prolongements dans une utilisation pacifique.

Du point de vue politique enfin, il n'est pas douteux que la guerre ait, dans bien des cas, fortement contribu crer des tats et cimenter leur unit, au point que l'on peut considrer la guerre elle-mme comme un instrument de la politique, et c'est sous cet aspect que l'envisage surtout Karl von Clausewitz. How To Write Book. Il en dduit qu'elle doit tre faite avec toute la puissance de la nation, mais soumise aux intrts de celle-ci. L'ide que la guerre peut avoir des fonctions propres a conduit ainsi certains thoriciens en faire l'apologie. Improvisation Essay. Hegel voit en elle le moment o l'tat se ralise pleinement ; Joseph de Maistre la glorifie comme le moyen de fortifier la nature humaine ; Nietzsche trouve dans les vertus guerrires le meilleur aiguillon au dpassement de soi-mme ; plusieurs volutionnistes croient pouvoir tirer de la loi de slection naturelle une justification des pertes qu'engendre la guerre ; L. How To A Good Application. Gumplowicz voit dans la guerre la source de toutes les institutions et de la civilisation. Essay. D'autre part, les sociologues ont parfois compar la guerre la fte, en lui attribuant des fonctions analogues, notamment l'exaltation collective et le renversement des rgles habituelles.

Pourtant les arguments de divers ordres ne manquent pas contre les thories bellicistes. How To Write Application Book. On peut, l'encontre de ceux qui prnent les vertus militaires, faire d'abord tat des statistiques qui prouvent la recrudescence de la criminalit la suite des guerres. Joyce Oates Nature Essay. S'il est vrai que les grandes civilisations se sont rpandues par la force des armes, on how to a good peut aussi allguer que c'est de la mme faon qu'elles ont disparu et aux progrs techniques et conomiques raliss sous son aiguillon, on personal peut opposer un calcul des « cots » de la guerre, qui sont de plus en plus levs mesure qu'elle devient plus totale. Write. Enfin s'il est vrai que la guerre prsente bien des caractres de la fte, elle en diffre en mme temps, du fait qu'elle oppose un groupe un autre et tend plus spcifiquement la destruction. On peut donc se demander si les alternances de paix et de guerre ne constituent pas un cycle universel, inhrent la nature des socits humaines. Carol Oates Against Essay. Les doctrines pessimistes, ici, trouvent dans l'histoire une longue suite de justifications. How To A Good. Cependant, les optimistes peuvent rpondre que, dans les affaires humaines, les ncessits du pass ne sont jamais dfinitives et qu'en fin de compte les efforts pour tablir une paix assure, c'est--dire pour dgager l'humanit de cette dialectique guerre-paix, sont peut-tre maintenant la seule lutte qui vaille. Jean Cazeneuve , Guerre et Paix , 1995 Encyclopdia Universalis. Les guerres s'expliquent par le militarisme qu'encouragent certaines socits, par la tentation de rsoudre des difficults conomiques, et l'on a vu certaines d'entre elles acclrer le progrs technique ou contribuer renforcer des tats, ce qui justifie qu'elles aient trouv leurs dfenseurs ou qu'on ait [50] pu en faire un quivalent de la fte. Dissertation Sur Sartre. Pourtant la guerre a laiss partout le got de la violence et des factures o les civilisations se sont puises ; ses analogies avec la fte s'arrtent cette śuvre de discorde et de mort.

La rcurrence des guerres peut paratre ainsi [101] fatale, mais les efforts pour tablir la paix sont aujourd'hui le seul combat lgitime. On peut distinguer plusieurs causes de la guerre. How To Book. Tout d'abord, il existe des causes sociales, conomiques et dmographiques, puis techniques / et enfin politiques. Certains penseurs estiment que la guerre remplit des fonctions bnfiques et en font l'apologie. Essay. Nanmoins, tous / les arguments en sa faveur peuvent tre contredits. How To. En effet, la guerre n'est pas vertueuse mais accrot la criminalit ; / les tats se dveloppent mais surtout meurent pas elle ; elle est plus coteuse que profitable conomiquement, et loin d'tre / une fte, elle est une entreprise destructrice. La guerre n'est-elle pas cependant invitable ? Les optimistes ne le croient / pas, militant pour la paix universelle.

Vous rsumerez le texte suivant en 100 mots (± 10%) : […] la lutte entre hommes, la guerre, pour la nommer de son nom odieux, apparat tout d'abord comme un fait biologique normal, on cover letter admissions pourrait dire oblig. Write A Good. Ses atrocits marquent peu dans le total des hcatombes naturelles. Mais l'homme n'appartient pas seulement l'ensemble des tres, il appartient son espce. Joyce Carol Oates Against Essay. Elle a fait de lui un animal sociable. How To A Good Application. L'homme ne peut se passer de l'homme. Improvisation Music. Du clan aux nations, l'volution de l'humanit a rendu les humains de plus en plus solidaires. How To Write A Good Application. Un primitif pourrait survivre, vgter l'tat isol, un couple primitif se reproduire ; bien vite, priv du secours des autres, la ligne s'teindrait. Joyce Oates Against. La division du travail, l'appui mutuel qu'elle exige sont devenus des ncessits d'existence pour les civiliss.

l'quilibre gnral et anarchique des tres s'est donc ajout, substitu dans ses parties contradictoires, un quilibre particulier : l'quilibre social humain. Application. Il y eut d'abord quilibre de clans, puis de cits, de pays, enfin de nations. Essay Questions. Les premiers groupements se sont faits par suite d'une origine ou de quelques origines communes ; les suivants relvent surtout d'vnements fortuits. A Good Application. Les groupes actuels que nous nommons nations sont dus l'assemblage d'individus qu'unissent des habitudes de vie, des gots et des dispositions pareils, des souffrances supportes en commun par les anctres, un sol familial ou d'adoption, cher celui qui y est n, profitable, ou bien refuge pour l'immigrant. Improvisation Music Essay. ces liens s'ajoutent les ncessits conomiques dues au compartimentage, une somme d'intrts, bien des prjugs, enfin la contrainte des lois, l'impossibilit, pour un civilis, de n'tre pas inscrit au livre d'une nation, l'tat-civil. Write Application. Au regard de ces liens accidentels et purement sociaux, la parent persistante de sang ne joue point le rle qu'on lui attribue ; le plus souvent, elle n'est qu'un prjug vaniteux. De quelque faon qu'elles se soient constitues, les nations s'opposent les unes aux autres dans la dfense de leurs intrts, et chacune poursuit, tant en elle-mme que dans ses rapports extrieurs, la conservation de son quilibre. Hamlet. Cependant, malgr les tristes dissentiments des nations diffrentes, malgr leurs haines, leurs armes et leurs combats conomiques ou sanglants, il se fait, peu peu, lentement, un intrt gnral humain. A Good Application. Le monde habitable est connu, quelques lacunes ngligeables prs. Carol Against Essay. Sa carte politique est trace.

Les peuples non volus sont entrs dans la dpendance d'tats puissants. How To Write Application. Si les diverses nations se sparent encore par bien des traits, des habitudes, les traits, les habitudes, les biens que les hommes possdent en commun deviennent de plus en plus nombreux. Letter Admissions. Si l'humanit n'est pas devenue uniforme (et il est dsirable qu'elle n'y parvienne jamais), une solidarit gnrale, humaine, s'tablit et, au-dessus des socits diffrentes, une socit encore lche, mais relle tend englober tous les hommes. How To A Good. Un nouvel quilibre est donc en train de natre, l'quilibre gnral et artificiel humain. Que signifient les guerres au regard des divers quilibres auxquels sont assujettis les hommes ? Elles les perturbent tous, sans nul profit ni pour l'individu, ni pour la nation, ni pour l'humanit tout entire. Marginalization. Ce sont des dsquilibres brutaux dont l'amplitude est si grande que l'oscillation compensatrice tarde se produire et que la rparation souvent ne rpare rien. Notre sensibilit d'tres volus, soustraits la barbarie journalire, condamne ces luttes homicides. How To A Good Application Book. Cependant, l'argument le plus puissant contre elles n'est pas, ne peut tre un argument moral. Improvisation. La morale humaine accueille trop de prjugs. Write Book. Son pass l'en a encombr. Music Essay. Elle continue de cder des passions traditionnelles.

Amour-propre, vanit, gloire, faux semblants de justice, faux sentiments de la valeur, de la volont, de l'nergie, mauvais emploi de ces vertus, pernicieuses utilisations de l'art, des lettres, de la philosophie, de l'loquence, tous ces ingrdients dtestables souillent notre personne morale. Write A Good Application Book. Elle les reoit, s'y emptre, les subit ; elle se perd ou se complat dans leurs contradictions d'un peuple l'autre et dans chaque peuple. Marginalization. Rien attendre de forces contamines. How To Application Book. Un seul argument est valable, argument de la biologie, l'absurdit vitale des guerres, le trouble grave et inutile qu'elles portent l'quilibre particulier des nations et l'quilibre gnral de la socit humaine. La guerre n'est d'aucun profit ; la guerre ne rembourse pas.

Elle nuit la nation victorieuse autant qu' la dfaite. Against Essay. Elle sme les ruines ; elle dtruit, alors que l'intrt de l'quilibre commande qu'on n'anantisse pas le bien d'efforts coteux. How To Write Book. Jamais guerre n'amena de rsultats dfinitifs. Essay. Abattu, le peuple dfait se relve et, refait, abat son vainqueur. How To Application. Les frontires des grands tats tmoignent de ces reflux priodiques par les ruines dont chaque sicle s'enorgueillit, par le voisinage des champs de carnage, par l'affreuse illustration, parfois deux visages, de leurs noms.

Les guerres attentent donc, tout d'abord, l'quilibre des nations par l'ensemble des pertes. Personal Essay. Elles y attentent en dtruisant les lments les plus vivaces et les plus forts, les jeunes gens. Write A Good Book. Elles donnent le commandement aux vieillards. Dissertation. Un pouvoir snile est une monstruosit biologique. How To A Good Application. En mme temps, les guerres distraient les activits humaines de buts profitables. Letter Admissions Position. Nul rgne, illustr par des victoires, n'a donn de gnies bienfaisants. How To Write. Ces esprits ne lvent qu'aux champs pacifiques. Les guerres opposent leurs forces nfastes ce qui fait la sant, l'quilibre des socits : la justice qui n'en connat point d'innocente, au droit, branl dans ses fondements et qui codifie les pires inconsquences, la libert qu'on enchane, sans laquelle, physique ou spirituelle, l'organisme entier se rouille. Si les vertus, protectrices de l'quilibre, sont affectes, les mfaits destructeurs de cet quilibre trouvent, dans la guerre, des excuses et y florissent : le vol, la rapine, le meurtre, la lchet, la fourberie.

Tout attentat devient lgitime s'il est commis pour une patrie. Carol Against Nature Essay. Point d'abus, de monstruosits, que ne sanctifie une victoire. How To Write A Good Application Book. Est-il surprenant qu'aprs la guerre on letter admissions position assiste au relchement des valeurs humaines ? Cet abaissement traduit l'puisement de forces inutilement gches, le besoin de rparation, la longue convalescence ncessaire la contre-oscillation qui rtablira un quilibre, rendu, pour un temps au moins, prcaire. L'homme est dsarm devant le massacre mutuel des espces ; il ne l'a pas ordonn. How To Application. Il sait que, sans ce massacre, son existence, toutes les existences cesseraient. Marginalization Essay. Il lui faut le subir. Application Book. L'homme peut tout pour arrter les luttes entre les hommes.

Elles sont un crime pour sa conscience. Against Nature Essay. Devant sa logique, elles constituent l'erreur la plus grave ; car il n'est point de catastrophe qui mette davantage en pril l'quilibre des individus humains, des socits humaines et de la collectivit des hommes. Charles Nicolle , La Nature, conception et morale biologiques , 1934, Flix Alcan, p. How To Write Application. 108-113. Certes, la guerre participe d'abord de la lutte entre espces et de l'ordre naturel. Personal. Cependant, l'homme est / un tre sociable, qui a petit petit substitu l'quilibre naturel un quilibre social gnral entre les hommes, / que la guerre vient remettre en cause. Pour arrter les guerres, rien ne sert par consquent d'invoquer la morale ; / il faut au contraire dnoncer leur absurdit totale : par les pertes qu'elles occassionnent, elles dtruisent la sant et l' / quilibre vital des individus, des nations et de la collectivit humaine dans son ensemble, sans qu'aucun profit n'en / soit retir. Vous rsumerez le texte suivant en 100 mots (± 10%) : […] lorsque l'tat, ou lorsque la religion veut [rduire la guerre] l'tat de servante ( ancilla theologi ), elle rsiste, quelquefois elle attaque, et de l des luttes qui peuvent tre et qui souvent ont t sanglantes. A Good. Cet tat de guerre suit de la diversit essentielle des lments ; la guerre, comme la diversit des lments, est ncessaire la vie ; les combats des partis, dans les limites de la constitution donne d'un peuple politique, font la vie de ce peuple. Sur Sartre. Il en est de mme l'extrieur. How To Write A Good Application Book. Les luttes des peuples d'une poque entre eux font la vie d'une poque ; nulle ne s'est coule sans guerre, nulle ne le pouvait. La guerre a sa racine dans la nature des ides des diffrents peuples, qui tant ncessairement partielles, bornes, exclusives, sont ncessairement hostiles, agressives, tyranniques : donc la guerre est ncessaire.

Voyons maintenant quels sont ses effets. Essay. Si la guerre n'est autre chose que la rencontre violente, le choc des ides exclusives des diffrents peuples, il s'ensuit que dans ce choc l'ide qui sera plus faible sera dtruite par la plus forte , c'est--dire sera absorbe et assimile par elle ; or la plus forte ide dans une poque est ncessairement celle qui est le plus en rapport avec l'esprit mme de cette poque. How To Book. Chaque peuple reprsente une ide ; les peuples diffrents d'une mme poque reprsentent diffrentes ides ; le peuple de l'poque qui reprsente l'ide le plus en rapport avec l'esprit gnral de l'poque, est le peuple appel dans cette poque la domination. Essay. Quand l'ide d'un peuple a fait son temps, ce peuple disparat ; mais il ne cde pas facilement la place, il faut qu'un autre peuple la lui dispute et la lui arrache ; de l la guerre. How To A Good Application. Dfaite du peuple qui a fait son temps ; victoire du peuple qui a le sien faire et qui est appel l'empire, voil l'effet certain et incontestable de la guerre : donc la guerre est utile. Messieurs, je ne viens pas ici faire l'apologie de la guerre ; la philosophie n'est d'aucun parti en ce monde ; elle ne fait l'apologie de rien, comme elle n'accuse rien ; elle aspire comprendre tout. Oates Against Essay. Je ne fais pas l'apologie de la guerre, je l'explique. How To Write Application Book. Sa racine vous la connaissez, elle est indestructible ; ses effets, vous les connaissez, ils sont bienfaisants.

En effet, si ce sont les ides qui sont aux prises dans une guerre, et si celle qui l'emporte est ncessairement celle qui a le plus d'avenir, il fallait que celle-l remportt, et par consquent qu'il y ait guerre ; moins que vous ne vouliez empcher l'avenir, arrter la civilisation, moins que vous ne vouliez que l'espce humaine soit immobile et stationnaire. Oates Against Essay. L'hypothse d'un tat de paix perptuel dans l'espce humaine est l'hypothse de l'immobilit absolue. Write. Otez toute guerre, et au lieu de trois poques il n'y en aura qu'une ; car s'il n'y a pas destruction d'une poque et victoire de l'autre, il est clair que l'une ne cdera point la place l'autre, et qu'il n'y aura jamais qu'une seule et mme poque. Typical Hamlet. Bien plus, non seulement il n'y aura pas trois poques, mais mme dans une poque donne il n'y aura aucun progrs ; car les diffrences ne se fondront pas, et les diffrents peuples resteront ternellement dans l'abrutissement de l'ide exclusive qui les subjugue, et qui, bonne pour un temps, si elle ne se modifiait jamais, serait la condamnation de ce peuple une erreur perptuelle. How To Write Book. Ainsi un peuple n'est progressif qu' la condition de la guerre. Joyce Carol Oates Against Nature Essay. Ce n'est pas moi qui le dis, c'est l'histoire : la guerre n'est pas autre chose qu'un change sanglant d'ides, coups d'pe et coups de canon ; une bataille n'est pas autre chose que le combat de l'erreur et de la vrit ; je dis vrit , parce que dans une poque donne une moindre erreur est vrit relativement une erreur plus grande ou une erreur qui a fait son temps ; la victoire et la conqute ne sont pas autre chose que la victoire de la vrit du jour sur la vrit de la veille devenue l'erreur d'aujourd'hui. Aussi, messieurs, quand deux armes sont en prsence, il se passe un bien plus grand spectacle que celui dont la philanthropie dtourne les yeux.

Elle ne voit que des milliers d'hommes qui vont s'gorger, ce qui est assurment un grand malheur. Write A Good Application. Mais d'abord la mort est un phnomne qui n'a pas lieu seulement sur les champs de bataille ; et aprs tout, comme on marginalization l'a dit, la guerre change assez peu les tables de mortalit. How To Write A Good Application. Et puis, ce n'est pas la mort qui est dplorable en soi ; c'est la mort injuste, injustement donne ou reue. Sur Sartre. Que mille cśurs qui battaient tout l'heure cessent de battre, c'est un fait bien triste ; mais qu'une goutte de sang innocent soit verse, c'est plus qu'un fait pnible, c'est un mal et un mal horrible. Application Book. Un innocent qui prit doit mille fois plus exciter la douleur amre de l'humanit, que des armes de hros qui savent qu'ils vont la mort, et qui y vont librement pour une cause juste leurs yeux et qui leur est chre. Marginalization. Il n'y a point d'iniquit dans les grandes batailles, il ne peut mme y en avoir ; car ce ne sont pas les hommes ni leurs passions qui sont aux prises, ce sont des causes, ce sont les esprits opposs d'une poque, ce sont les diffrentes ides qui, dans un sicle, animent et agitent l'humanit. How To. Voil ce que la philanthropie ne voit pas, et ce qui a donn tant d'importance, tant d'intrt, tant de clbrit aux batailles. Victor Cousin , Cours de philosophie , 1840, 9e leon, p. Personal Essay. 250-253. Nul ne peut matriser la guerre, car elle dcoule de la diversit inhrente aux socits humaines. How To Write Application Book. La guerre est donc / d'abord ncessaire et elle participe la vie des peuples et des poques.

Elle est ensuite utile, car en / mettant aux prises les peuples, elle fait se combattre les ides qu'ils incarnent, en faisant triompher une vrit nouvelle, et / en permettant ainsi le progrs de l'humanit. Par consquent, si la mort d'un innocent est tragique, la mort / sur le champ de bataille au nom de la justice ne saurait tre condamne que par une philanthropie aveugle. Rsumer en 200 mots le texte suivant. Letter Admissions. Un cart de 10% en plus ou en moins sera accept. Les guerres entre clans, tribus, nations, communauts religieuses ou groupes ethniques diffrents ont t la rgle travers les poques et les civilisations, dans la mesure o elles s'enracinent dans les questions identitaires. A Good Book. Ces conflits traduisent les particularismes et ne soulvent pas de problmes idologiques ou politiques plus larges susceptibles d'intresser directement des non-participants, bien qu'ils puissent, pour des groupes extrieurs, reprsenter un sujet d'inquitude sur le plan humanitaire. Letter Admissions Position. Ces affrontements tendent tre trs violents et sanglants parce qu'ils mettent en jeu des questions fondamentales d'identit.

En outre, ils ont tendance traner en longueur ; il arrive qu'ils soient entrecoups de trves ou d'ententes, mais en gnral ces dernires ne durent pas, et les combats reprennent. Write A Good Application Book. D'autre part, en cas de victoire militaire dcisive de l'un des deux camps, les risques de gnocide sont plus levs lorsqu'il s'agit d'une guerre civile identitaire. Les conflits civilisationnels sont des conflits communautaires entre tats ou groupes appartenant des civilisations diffrentes. Joyce Carol Oates Essay. Des guerres civilisationnelles rsultent de ces conflits. How To A Good Application Book. Elles peuvent clater entre tats ainsi qu'entre groupes non gouvernementaux. Typical Hamlet. Les conflits civilisationnels au sein d'un mme tat peuvent impliquer des groupes qui sont majoritairement localiss dans des zones gographiques distinctes, auquel cas le groupe qui n'a pas le contrle du gouvernement se bat en gnral pour obtenir l'indpendance et peut ventuellement se montrer prt accepter des compromis.

Les conflits civilisationnels au sein d'un mme tat peuvent galement impliquer des groupes qui sont gographiquement mlangs, auquel cas ce sont des relations perptuellement tendues qui drapent de temps en temps vers la violence, comme cela se produit entre hindous et musulmans en Inde ou entre musulmans et Chinois en Malaisie, ou encore cela peut donner lieu des combats proprement parler, notamment lorsque ce sont la dfinition mme et les frontires d'un nouvel tat qui sont en jeu, ainsi qu' des tentatives brutales pour sparer les peuples par la force. Les conflits civilisationnels sont parfois des luttes pour le contrle des populations. How To Write Book. Mais, le plus souvent, c'est le contrle du sol qui est en jeu. Marginalization. Le but de l'un des participants au moins est de conqurir un territoire et d'en liminer les autres peuples par l'expulsion, l'assassinat ou les deux la fois, c'est--dire par la « purification ethnique ». Write. Ces conflits ont tendance tre violents et cruels, les deux camps se livrant des massacres, des actes terroristes, des viols et des tortures. Marginalization Essay. Le territoire en jeu reprsente souvent, pour l'un ou l'autre des deux camps, un symbole historique et identitaire trs marqu, une terre sacre sur laquelle ils estiment avoir des droits inalinables : ainsi la Cisjordanie, le Cachemire, le Nagorny-Karabakh, la valle de la Drina ou le Kosovo. Les guerres civilisationnelles prsentent un certain nombre de points communs avec l'ensemble des guerres communautaires. Write Book. Ce sont des conflits qui s'ternisent. Letter Admissions Position. Lorsqu'ils ont lieu au sein d'un mme tat, ils durent en moyenne six fois plus longtemps que les guerres entre tats. A Good Application Book. Comme ils mettent en jeu des questions fondamentales d'identit et de pouvoir, on music a du mal les rsoudre par des ngociations ou des compromis. Application Book. Lorsque l'on parvient un accord, il n'est pas rare que certaines des parties d’un camp donn refusent d'y souscrire.

L'accord dure alors d'autant moins longtemps. Essay. Les guerres civilisationnelles sont des guerres intermittentes qui peuvent passer de la violence la plus aigu la gurilla la plus larve et l’hostilit la plus latente, pour se rallumer ensuite brutalement. How To Book. Il est rare que les brasiers des haines communautaires soient totalement teints, sauf par le gnocide. Joyce Carol. Du fait de leur tendance traner en longueur, les guerres civilisationnelles, tout comme les autres guerres communautaires, produisent en gnral de grands nombres de victimes et de rfugis. How To. […] Nombre de ces guerres contemporaines sont simplement le dernier chapitre d'une longue histoire marque par des conflits sanglants, et la violence de cette fin de XX e sicle a rsist aux efforts pour y mettre fin de manire dfinitive. Joyce Nature. Au Soudan, par exemple, les combats ont clat en 1959, se sont prolongs jusqu'en 1972, lorsqu'on est parvenu un accord qui garantissait une autonomie relative du sud du Soudan, mais ils ont repris en 1983.

La rbellion des Tamouls au Sri Lanka a commenc en 1983 ; les ngociations de paix pour y mettre un terme se sont interrompues brutalement en 1991, mais elles ont repris en 1994, et on how to a good book est parvenu un accord de cessez-le-feu en janvier 1995. Cover Letter Admissions. Quatre mois plus tard, les Tigres insurgs ont rompu la trve et se sont retirs des pourparlers de paix, si bien que la guerre a repris avec une violence redouble. A Good. La rbellion des Moros aux Philippines a commenc au dbut des annes soixante-dix et s'est calme en 1976 aprs que l'on eut conclu un accord qui garantissait l'autonomie certaines rgions de Mindanao. Essay. Mais, en 1993, les explosions de violence n'taient pas rares et allaient en s'aggravant, aprs que les groupes insurgs ont rejet l'ensemble du processus de paix. How To. Les dirigeants russes et tchtchnes sont parvenus un accord sur la dmilitarisation en juillet 1995 afin de mettre un terme aux hostilits qui avaient commenc au mois de dcembre prcdent. Cover Admissions. La guerre s'est interrompue pour quelque temps, mais elle a repris l'occasion des attaques tchtchnes contre des personnalits dirigeantes russes et prorusses, suivies de reprsailles russes, de l'incursion tchtchne au Daghestan en janvier 1996 et de l'crasante offensive russe dbut 1996. Les guerres civilisationnelles partagent avec les autres guerres communautaires les traits suivants : longueur dans le temps, niveau de violence lev et ambivalence idologique.

Elles en diffrent toutefois deux gards. Tout d'abord, les guerres communautaires peuvent clater entre groupes ethniques, religieux, raciaux ou linguistiques. How To Write Application. Comme la religion est la principale caractristique identitaire des civilisations, les guerres civilisationnelles ont presque toujours lieu entre peuples appartenant des religions diffrentes. Personal Essay. Certains observateurs minimisent l’importance de ce facteur. How To Write A Good Application Book. Ils insistent, par exemple, sur les facteurs ethniques, la langue commune, la coexistence pacifique dans le pass et le nombre lev de mariages croiss entre Serbes et musulmans en Bosnie, et ils cartent le facteur religieux en faisant rfrence ce que Freud appelait « le narcissisme des petites diffrences ». Questions Hamlet. Toutefois, ce point de vue est naf. Book. L'histoire, depuis des millnaires, prouve que la religion n'est pas une simplement une « petite diffrence », mais la diffrence entre les peuples la plus profonde qui soit.

La frquence, l'intensit et la violence des guerres civilisationnelles sont nettement aggraves par les diffrences de foi religieuse. D'autre part, les autres guerres communautaires sont relativement localises et prsentent peu de risques de s'tendre jusqu' impliquer d'autres participants. Marginalization. En revanche, les guerres civilisationnelles clatent, par dfinition, entre groupes qui font respectivement partie d'ensembles culturels plus larges. How To. Dans un conflit communautaire ordinaire, le groupe A se bat contre le groupe B. Essay Questions Hamlet. Les groupes C, D et E n'ont aucune raison de s'impliquer, sauf si A ou B attaque directement leurs intrts. A Good Application. Inversement, dans une guerre civilisationnelle, le groupe A1 se bat contre le groupe B1, et chacun des deux tente d'tendre la guerre et d'obtenir le soutien de ses proches « parents » savoir A2, A3 et A4 d'une part, B2, B3 et B4, d'autre part. Personal Essay Endings. Ces derniers leur tour s'identifient leur « parent ». How To Write Application Book. L'extension des transports et des communications dans le monde moderne a contribu mettre en place de telles connections, et donc « internationaliser » les guerres civilisationnelles.

Les migrations ont donn naissance des diasporas dans des tierces civilisations. Letter Admissions Position. Les communications permettent plus facilement aux parties en prsence d'appeler l'aide, et leurs « proches parents » d'apprendre immdiatement ce qui arrive leurs allis. How To A Good Application Book. Le rtrcissement de la plante permet ainsi aux « groupes apparents » de fournir un soutien moral, diplomatique, financier et matriel aux parties en prsence. Samuel P. Essay Endings. Huntington , Le choc des civilisations , 1996, Quatrime partie, Chapitre X, tr. Write A Good Book. fr. Essay Questions. J.-L. Application. Fidel, G. Marginalization Essay. Joublain, P. Book. Jorland et J.-J. Dissertation Sur Sartre. Pdussaud, Odile Jacob, 2007, p. How To Write A Good Book. 375-380.

Les guerres communautaires, mettant en jeu des questions identitaires, ont toujours constitu la norme dans l'histoire de l'humanit. Essay. / Lorsque ces guerres ont lieu entre groupes appartenant des civilisations diffrentes, elles deviennent des guerres civilisationnelles. Write Application Book. / Celles-ci peuvent se drouler entre tats ou l'intrieur d'un mme tat, et ont gnralement pour but / le contrle d'un territoire symbole d'identit, par la mise en place d'une purification ethnique. Ces guerres partagent / plusieurs points communs avec les autres guerres communautaires : elles ont tendance s'terniser car rtives au compromis ; elles sont / extrmement violentes ; et enfin elles sont idologiquement ambivalentes. Nanmoins, deux caractristiques les en distinguent : premirement, dans les guerres civilisationnelles, / c'est la diffrence religieuse qui, plus que tout autre diffrence de nature culturelle, est le facteur dterminant ; et deuximement, / tandis que les guerres communautaires proprement dites se droulent localement, les guerres de civilisation ont une propension s'tendre / et prendre une dimension internationale. Letter Admissions Position. En effet, les groupes culturellement proches tendent s'identifier l'un ou / l'autre des protagonistes et rejoindre ainsi le conflit, ce que facilitent d'autant plus les nouveaux moyens de / communication. Vous rsumerez le texte suivant en 100 mots (± 10 %). Vous indiquerez imprativement le nombre total de mots utiliss et vous aurez soin d'en faciliter la vrification en mettant un trait vertical tous les vingt mots. How To. Des points de pnalit seront soustraits en cas de non-respect du nombre total de mots ± 10 % utiliss.

La guerre n'est rien d'autre qu'un duel amplifi. Position. Si nous voulons saisir comme une unit l'infinit des duels particuliers dont elle se compose, reprsentons-nous deux combattants : chacun cherche, en employant sa force physique, ce que l'autre excute sa volont ; son but immdiat est de terrasser l'adversaire et de le rendre ainsi incapable de toute rsistance. La guerre est un acte de violence engag pour contraindre l'adversaire se soumettre notre volont. Pour affronter la violence, la violence s'arme des inventions des arts et des sciences. How To A Good Book. Elle se fixe elle-mme, sous le nom de lois du droit naturel, des restrictions imperceptibles, peine notables, qui l'accompagnent sans affaiblir fondamentalement sa force. Questions. La violence, c'est--dire la violence physique (car il n'en existe pas de morale en dehors des notions d'tat et de loi), est donc le moyen . Write Application. Imposer notre volont l'ennemi en constitue la fin . Oates Against Nature Essay. Pour atteindre cette fin avec certitude nous devons dsarmer l'ennemi. A Good Application. Lui ter tout moyen de se dfendre est, par dfinition, le vritable objectif de l'action militaire. Hamlet. Il remplace la fin et l'carte en quelque sorte comme n'appartenant pas la guerre elle-mme. Ainsi les mes philanthropiques pourraient-elles facilement s'imaginer qu'il existe une manire artificielle de dsarmer ou de terrasser l'adversaire sans causer trop de blessures, et que c'est l la vritable tendance de l'art de la guerre. Write A Good. Il faut pourtant dissiper cette erreur, aussi belle soit-elle.

Car, dans une entreprise aussi dangereuse que la guerre, les erreurs engendres par la bont sont prcisment les pires. Cover Admissions Position. Puisque l'utilisation de la violence physique dans toute son ampleur n'exclut en aucune manire la coopration de l'intelligence, celui qui se sert de cette violence avec brutalit, sans pargner le sang, l'emportera forcment sur l'adversaire qui n'agit pas de mme. How To Write. Il dicte par l sa loi l'autre. Joyce Oates Nature Essay. Tous deux se poussent ainsi mutuellement jusqu' une extrmit qui ne connat d'autre limite que le contrepoids exerc par l'adversaire. C'est ainsi qu'il faut envisager les choses, et c'est un effort vain, absurde mme, que d'carter la nature de l'lment brutal en raison de la rpugnance qu'il inspire.

Si les guerres des peuples cultivs sont bien moins cruelles et destructrices que celles des peuples incultes, cela tient la situation sociale de ces tats, aussi bien entre eux que chacun d'entre eux. Book. La guerre rsulte de cette situation et des conditions qu'elle impose : celle-ci la dtermine, la limite et la modre. Typical Questions Hamlet. Mais ces aspects ne font pas essentiellement partie de la guerre, ils n'en sont que les donnes. A Good Book. Il est donc impossible d'introduire dans la philosophie de la guerre un principe de modration sans commettre une absurdit. Le combat entre les hommes se compose en ralit de deux lments distincts : le sentiment hostile et l' intention hostile . Personal Endings. Nous avons choisi le dernier de ces deux lments comme caractristique de notre dfinition car il est le plus gnral. A Good Book. Mme l'emportement de haine le plus sauvage, le plus proche de l'instinct, n'est pas concevable sans intention hostile. Typical Essay Hamlet. En revanche, la plupart des intentions hostiles ne sont jamais, ou rarement, domines par l'hostilit des sentiments. Write Application Book. Chez les peuples sauvages prdominent les intentions appartenant au domaine du cśur, chez les peuples civiliss, celles qui relvent de l'entendement. Hamlet. Cette diffrence ne tient cependant pas la sauvagerie et la civilisation en elles-mmes, mais aux circonstances concomitantes, aux institutions, etc. How To Write Book. Elle n'est donc pas ncessairement prsente dans chaque cas particulier, mais elle l'emporte dans la majorit d'entre eux.

En un mot, mme les peuples les plus civiliss peuvent se dchaner l'un contre l'autre, enflamms par la haine. On voit par l combien il serait faux de ramener la guerre entre les nations civilises uniquement un acte rationnel de leurs gouvernements, et d'imaginer qu'elle se libre toujours davantage des passions : au point d'en arriver se passer des masses physiques des forces armes au profit de leurs seuls rapports thoriques, en une sorte d'algbre de l'action. La thorie commenait s'engager dans cette direction lorsque les vnements des dernires guerres en montrrent une meilleure. Joyce Carol Nature. Si la guerre est un acte de violence, la passion en fait aussi ncessairement partie. A Good. Si la guerre n'en procde pas, elle y ramne pourtant plus ou moins. Dissertation Sur Sartre. Et ce plus ou moins ne dpend pas du degr de culture, mais de l'importance et de la dure des intrts antagonistes. Lorsque nous voyons que les peuples civiliss ne mettent pas leurs prisonniers mort et ne ravagent pas villes et campagnes, cela est d la place croissante que prend l'intelligence dans leur conduite de la guerre.

Elle leur a appris un emploi de la violence plus efficace que cette manifestation sauvage de l'instinct. L'invention de la poudre, le dveloppement continu des armes feu montrent suffisamment qu'en progressant la civilisation n'a absolument pas entrav ou dtourn la tendance sur laquelle le concept de la guerre, celle d'anantir l'ennemi. Nous ritrons notre thse : la guerre est un acte de violence, et l'emploi de celle-ci ne connat pas de limites. Write. Chacun des adversaires impose sa loi l'autre. Essay. Il en rsulte une interaction qui, selon la nature de son concept, doit forcment conduire aux extrmes. Clausewitz , De la guerre , 1832, Chapitre 1, § 2 et 3, tr. How To Application Book. fr. Essay. Nicolas Wacquet, Rivages poche, Petite Bibliothque, p. How To Write Application. 19-22. La guerre prend la forme d'une lutte collective dont le but est, par la violence, de vaincre l'adversaire / afin de le dominer. Ds lors, il est vain de vouloir faire la guerre par la seule intelligence, en limitant / ainsi la violence, car on cover letter admissions sera dfait par un ennemi sans scrupules. Toute guerre implique une intention hostile, / qui dcoule soit d'un sentiment d'hostilit, soit de motifs rationnels.

Cependant, la guerre civilise, quoique moins cruelle, ne s'oppose pas / pour autant la guerre sauvage. Write A Good Application Book. Non seulement la civilisation n'a fait que rendre plus efficace la violence, mais / elle n'empche pas [par ailleurs] les dchanements de haine. Rsumer en 100 mots le texte suivant. Essay Endings. Un cart de 10% en plus ou en moins sera accept. La guerre est une lutte arme entre units politiques organises, la guerre civile est une lutte arme au sein d'une unit politique (remise en question de ce fait). How To. La caractristique essentielle d'une arme est d'tre un moyen de provoquer la mort physique d'tres humains. Dissertation. l'exemple du mot ennemi , le mot lutte doit tre entendu ici dans son sens original et existentiel. How To A Good Application. Ce n'est pas une simple concurrence que ce mot dsigne, ni la lutte purement intellectuelle de la discussion, ni cette lutte symbolique dans laquelle finalement chaque homme est de quelque manire engag tout instant puisque les choses sont ainsi faites, et que la vie humaine tout entire est un combat et tout homme un combattant. Cover Letter Admissions. Les concepts d'ami, d'ennemi, de combat tirent leur signification objective de leur relation permanente ce fait rel, la possibilit de provoquer la mort physique d'un homme. How To A Good Application Book. La guerre nat de l'hostilit, celle-ci tant la ngation existentielle d'un autre tre. Dissertation. La guerre n'est que l'actualisation ultime de l'hostilit. Application. Ceci n'implique pas qu'elle soit chose courante, chose normale, ni d'ailleurs que l'on y voie une solution idale ou dsirable ; elle reste nanmoins prsente ncessairement sous forme d'une possibilit du rel tant que la notion d'ennemi garde son sens.

Les choses ne se prsentent donc nullement comme si l'existence politique n'tait qu'une guerre sanglante et chaque acte politique une opration militaire, comme si sans cesse chaque peuple face chaque autre peuple tait accul de faon permanente l'alternative ami ou ennemi, comme si la dcision politiquement bonne ne pouvait pas tre celle qui prcisment vite la guerre. Sur Sartre. La dfinition que nous donnons ici du politique n'est ni belliciste, ni militariste, ni imprialiste, ni pacifiste. How To Write. Elle n'est pas davantage une tentative de prsenter la guerre victorieuse ou la rvolution russie comme un idal social, car la guerre ou la rvolution ne sont ni un fait social, ni un fait idal. Joyce Against. Quant au combat militaire considr en lui-mme, il n'est pas la poursuite de la politique par d'autres moyens, pour rappeler la faon, d'ailleurs inexacte, dont on write a good cite habituellement le mot clbre de Clausewitz ; il a, en tant que guerre, son optique et ses rgles propres, stratgiques, tactiques et autres, qui supposent cependant toutes que la dcision politique, celle qui dsigne l'ennemi, est un fait donn pralable. Oates Nature Essay. Dans une guerre, les adversaires s'affrontent en gnral ouvertement comme tels, ils se distinguent mme normalement par leur uniforme, et de ce fait la discrimination de l'ami et de l'ennemi n'est plus un problme politique que le soldat au combat aurait rsoudre. How To Write A Good Book. D'o la justesse de cette remarque d'un diplomate anglais, qui prtend que l'homme politique est mieux entran au combat que le soldat parce que l'homme politique se bat toute sa vie, alors que le soldat ne le fait qu'exceptionnellement. Joyce Carol Against. La guerre est loin d'tre l'objectif, la fin, voire la substance du politique, mais elle est cette hypothse, cette ralit ventuelle qui gouverne selon son mode propre la pense et l'action des hommes, dterminant de la sorte un comportement spcifiquement politique. C'est pourquoi le critre qui consiste en la discrimination de l'ami et de l'ennemi ne signifie nullement non plus qu'un peuple donn sera ternellement l'ami ou l'ennemi d'un autre peuple donn, ou qu'une neutralit n'est pas chose possible, qu'elle est un non-sens politique. Write A Good. Simplement, comme tout concept politique, le concept de neutralit, lui aussi, reste subordonn l'hypothse dernire, celle de la possibilit effective d'un regroupement en amis et ennemis ; et s'il n'y avait plus sur terre que de la neutralit, ce serait la fin, non seulement de toute guerre, mais aussi celle de la neutralit elle-mme, tout comme c'est la fin de toute politique, y compris celle d'une politique visant viter le combat, ds lors que l'ventualit concrte du combat disparat.

Les seuls facteurs dterminants sont l'ventualit de la situation dcisive, c'est--dire celle du combat rel, et l'acte de dcider si cette situation est donne ou non. Or, le caractre exceptionnel de cette situation, loin d'en annuler l'importance dterminante, fonde prcisment celle-ci. Dissertation Sur Sartre. Si, de nos jours, les guerres ne sont plus aussi nombreuses et aussi communes que jadis, en revanche, l'emprise totale et l'normit de leur puissance de choc s'est accrue dans la proportion o elles se sont faites moins frquentes et moins banales, et peut-tre plus encore. How To Application Book. Le cas de guerre est rest, jusque dans le prsent, l'preuve dcisive par excellence. Essay. En cette occasion comme en beaucoup d'autres, on how to write application peut dire que c'est la situation d'exception qui revt une signification particulirement dterminante, rvlatrice du fond des choses. Essay. Car il faut qu'il y ait lutte relle pour que se manifeste la logique ultime de la configuration politique qui oppose l'ami et l'ennemi. A Good Book. C'est dans la perspective de cette ventualit extrme que la vie des hommes s'enrichit de sa polarit spcifiquement politique.

Un monde d'o l'ventualit de cette lutte aurait t entirement carte et bannie, une plante dfinitivement pacifie serait un monde sans discrimination de l'ami et de l'ennemi et par consquent un monde sans politique. Improvisation Music Essay. Ce monde-l pourrait prsenter une diversit d'oppositions et de contrastes peut-tre intressants, toutes sortes de concurrences et d'intrigues, mais il ne prsenterait logiquement aucun antagonisme au nom duquel on how to pourrait demander des tres humains de faire le sacrifice de leur vie et donner certains le pouvoir de rpandre le sang et de tuer d'autres hommes. Carl Schmitt , La notion de politique , 1932, tr. Personal. Steinhauser, Champs Flammarion, 1992, p. Write A Good Application. 70-73. La guerre est une lutte arme entre ennemis, qui a lieu entre ou au sein de groupes politiques, et qui / pousse l'hostilit son stade ultime, savoir anantir l'autre physiquement. Bien que possdant ses rgles propres, elle / est un phnomne essentiellement politique, ce qui ne signifie pas qu'elle soit un idal politique, mais seulement que tout / pouvoir politique doit l'envisager comme un moyen parfois incontournable de parvenir ses fins. Par consquent, un monde sans / guerre, autrement dit o rgnerait une stricte neutralit, serait en ralit un monde sans ennemis et donc apolitique.

Vous rsumerez le texte en 100 mots (+ ou - 10 %) . Si l’on peut comparer la guerre un jeu, c’est parce qu’elle est d'abord une comptition, / dans laquelle les hommes se reconnaissent comme des gaux, et o la victoire est plus recherche pour la gloire / qu’elle procure que pour ses bnfices conomiques ou politiques. Une guerre ne se dfinit donc pas par le seul / usage de la violence, car toute guerre contient un lment ludique, associ des rgles, et un lment de brutalit. Dissertation Sur Sartre. / Il est vrai nanmoins que nous courons dsormais le risque, avec les guerres contemporaines, de voir disparatre l’aspect ludique / au profit de la seule violence.

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Free Online Strategy Innovation Training | The PEST analysis is a useful tool for understanding market growth or decline, and as such the position, potential and write a good application book direction for a business. Table of contents. PEST analysis method and examples, with free PEST template. The PEST analysis is a useful tool for understanding market growth or decline, and as such the position, potential and direction for joyce carol against nature, a business. How To Application Book? A PEST analysis is dissertation a business measurement tool. PEST is an how to application, acronym for hamlet, Political, Economic, Social and how to write a good book Technological factors, which are used to assess the market for personal, a business or organizational unit. The PEST analysis headings are a framework for reviewing a situation, and write a good can also, like SWOT analysis, and dissertation sur sartre Porter's Five Forces model, be used to how to a good application book review a strategy or position, direction of a company, a marketing proposition, or idea. Completing a PEST analysis is very simple, and is a good subject for workshop sessions. PEST analysis also works well in oates nature brainstorming meetings meetings.

Use PEST analysis for write a good application, business and strategic planning, marketing planning, business and product development and research reports. You can also use PEST analysis exercises for team building games. PEST analysis is similar to SWOT analysis - it's simple, quick, and carol nature essay uses four key perspectives. As PEST factors are essentially external, completing a PEST analysis is helpful prior to completing a SWOT analysis (a SWOT analysis - Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats - is based broadly on half internal and half external factors). The PEST model, like most very good simple concepts, has prompted several variations on how to a good, the theme.

For example, the PEST acronym is sometimes shown as STEP, which obviously represents the same factors. Stick with PEST - nearly everyone else does. More confusingly (and some would say unnecessarily) PEST is also extended to seven or even more factors, by essay adding Ecological (or Environmental), Legislative (or Legal), and Industry Analysis, which produces the PESTELI model. Other variations on the theme include STEEP and PESTLE, which allow for a dedicated Ethical section. STEEPLED is write a good book another interpretation which includes pretty well everything except the kitchen sink: Political, Economic, Social and cover admissions Technological - plus Ecological or Environmental, Ethical, Demographic and Legal. It's a matter of personal choice, but for most situations the original PEST analysis model arguably covers all of the 'additional' factors within the original four main sections. Write A Good Application? For example Ecological or Environmental factors can be positioned under any or all of the marginalization essay, four main PEST headings, depending on book, their effect. Legislative factors would normally be covered under the Political heading since they will generally be politically motivated. Demographics usually are an aspect of the larger Social issue. Industry Analysis is typical essay questions effectively covered under the Economic heading. Ethical considerations would typically be included in the Social and/or Political areas, depending on the perspective and how to write a good application book the effect.

Thus we can often see these 'additional' factors as 'sub-items' or perspectives within the cover letter admissions position, four main sections. Keeping to four fundamental perspectives also imposes a discipline of considering strategic context and effect. Write A Good Application? Many potential 'additional' factors (ethical, legislative, environmental for personal essay, example) will commonly be contributory causes which act on one or some of the a good, main four headings, rather than be big strategic factors in their own right. The shape and simplicity of a four-part model is also somehow more strategically appealing and easier to manipulate and convey. Ultimately you must use what version works best for you, and importantly for others who need to understand you, which is another good reason perhaps for sticking with PEST, because everyone knows it, and typical essay questions you'll not need to application book spend half the presentation explaining the meaning of STEEPLED or some other quirky interpretation. If you have come across any other weird and wonderful extended interpretations of PEST I'd love to marginalization essay see them. On which point (thanks D Taylor) I am informed of one such variation, which featured in some 2010 coursework: PEST LIED. How To Application Book? The PEST element represents the usual factors - Political, Economic, Social and essay Technological. The LIED add-on stands for Legal, International, Environment and a good application book Demography.

Suggestions of origin gratefully received, and any other variations of the PEST model. A PEST analysis most commonly measures a market ; a SWOT analysis measures a business unit, a proposition or idea . Generally speaking a SWOT analysis measures a business unit or proposition, whereas a PEST analysis measures the market potential and situation, particularly indicating growth or decline, and thereby market attractiveness, business potential, and typical essay questions hamlet suitability of access - market potential and write a good 'fit' in other words. PEST analysis uses four perspectives, which give a logical structure, in oates nature this case organized by the PEST format, that helps understanding, presentation, discussion and write book decision-making. The four dimensions are an extension of a basic two heading list of personal, pro's and con's (free pro's and con's template here). PEST analysis can be used for marketing and business development assessment and decision-making, and the PEST template encourages proactive thinking, rather than relying on how to, habitual or instinctive reactions. Here the typical essay questions hamlet, PEST analysis template is presented as a grid, comprising four sections, one for each of the PEST headings: Political, Economic, Social and Technological.

As previously explained, extended variations of PEST (eg., PESTELI and STEEP, etc) include other factors, such as Environmental, Ethical, Legal or Legislative, etc., however in most situations you will find that these 'additional' factors are actually contributory causes or detailed perspectives which then manifest or take effect in the form or one or several of the original four main PEST factors. For example, Ethical and Environmental factors will always tend to produce an effect in at write a good application book least one of the main four headings (Political, Economic, Social, Technological), but it will tend not to work the other way. Hence why the basic PEST model is often the most powerful - it puts more pressure on admissions position, strategic appreciation and how to analysis than a longer list of headings. When you next see a PESTELI or a STEEPLED analysis ask yourself (or the cover letter, author): Okay, I understand that customers tend to a good book be more ethically minded now, but what does that mean in terms of the basic four PEST factors - what's the effect going to be. Letter? or: Okay we know that carbon emissions is an issue, but tell me where in the main four PEST factors will it impact. You will gather I am not a fan nor a particular advocate of extending the PEST model.

It works great as it is - why make it more complicated and less specific? If you are worried about missing or forgetting a crucial point of ethics or legislation (or anything else) keep a reference list of these headings, and only build them into how to write application the model if you are sure that doing so will make it work better as a strategic tool. The free PEST template below includes sample questions or prompts, whose answers are can be inserted into the relevant section of the PEST grid. The questions are examples of discussion points, and obviously can be altered depending on the subject of the PEST analysis, and how you want to use it. Make up your own PEST questions and prompts to suit the issue being analysed and the situation (ie., the people doing the work and admissions the expectations of them).

Like SWOT analysis, it is important to clearly identify the subject of a PEST analysis, because a PEST analysis is four-way perspective in relation to how to write a good application book a particular business unit or proposition - if you blur the focus you will produce a blurred picture - so be clear about the joyce oates against nature essay, market that you use PEST to analyse. A market is how to write application defined by what is letter position addressing it, be it a product, company, brand, business unit, proposition, idea, etc, so be clear about how you define the market being analysed, particularly if you use PEST analysis in workshops, team exercises or as a delegated task. The PEST subject should be a clear definition of the market being addressed, which might be from any of the following standpoints: a company looking at a good its market a product looking at its market a brand in dissertation sur sartre relation to its market a local business unit a strategic option, such as entering a new market or launching a new product a potential acquisition a potential partnership an application, investment opportunity. Be sure to describe the subject for the PEST analysis clearly so that people contributing to the analysis, and those seeing the finished PEST analysis, properly understand the purpose of the PEST assessment and implications. Other than the four main headings, the questions and issues in the template below are examples and not exhaustive - add your own and essay amend these prompts to suit your situation, the experience and how to write skill level of whoever is completing the analysis, and what you aim to produce from the analysis. Ensure you consider the marginalization essay, additional PESTELI/STEEPLED headings, and how to application book any others you feel are relevant, but avoid building these into the final analysis model unless you gain some strategic planning or presentation benefit from letter admissions position, doing so. If helpful refer to a list of these other 'headings', for example: Ecological/ Environmental, Legislative/or Legal, Demographic, Ethical, Industry Analysis. Apply some strategic consideration and pressure to the points you list under these 'additional' headings. Ask yourself what the effects of each will be on the 'big four' (Political, Economic, Social, Technological).

Often your answers will persuade you that the original four-part PEST model is write a good book best and joyce against essay that using a more complex series of write, headings makes it more difficult to improvisation music complete the analysis fully and strategically. The analysis can be converted into how to write book a more scientific measurement by scoring the items in each of the sections. There is cover position are established good or bad reference points - these are for you to decide. Scoring is particularly beneficial if more than one market is how to write a good application book being analysed, for the purpose of comparing which market or opportunity holds most potential and/or obstacles. This is useful when considering business development and cover admissions investment options, ie, whether to develop market A or B; whether to concentrate on write a good application, local distribution or export; whether to typical hamlet acquire company X or company Y, etc. If helpful when comparing more than one different market analysis, scoring can also be weighted according to the more or less significant factors. (insert subject for PEST analysis - market, business, proposition, etc.) ecological/environmental issues current legislation home market future legislation international legislation regulatory bodies and processes government policies government term and change trading policies funding, grants and initiatives home market lobbying/pressure groups international pressure groups wars and conflicts.

home economy situation home economy trends overseas economies and trends general taxation issues taxation specific to product/services seasonality/weather issues market and a good application book trade cycles specific industry factors market routes and distribution trends customer/end-user drivers interest and exchange rates international trade/monetary issues. lifestyle trends demographics consumer attitudes and opinions media views law changes affecting social factors brand, company, technology image consumer buying patterns fashion and role models major events and influences buying access and trends ethnic/religious factors advertising and publicity ethical issues. competing technology development research funding associated/dependent technologies replacement technology/solutions maturity of technology manufacturing maturity and capacity information and communications consumer buying mechanisms/technology technology legislation innovation potential technology access, licencing, patents intellectual property issues global communications. more on the difference and relationship between PEST and SWOT. PEST is joyce against useful before SWOT - not generally vice-versa - PEST definitely helps to identify SWOT factors. There is overlap between PEST and SWOT, in that similar factors would appear in each. Write Book? That said, PEST and SWOT are certainly two different perspectives: PEST assesses a market, including competitors, from the essay endings, standpoint of a particular proposition or a business. SWOT is an assessment of a business or a proposition, whether your own or a competitor's.

Strategic planning is not a precise science - no tool is mandatory - it's a matter of pragmatic choice as to a good application book what helps best to joyce against identify and write a good book explain the issues. PEST becomes more useful and relevant the larger and more complex the business or proposition, but even for a very small local businesses a PEST analysis can still throw up one or two very significant issues that might otherwise be missed. The four quadrants in PEST vary in significance depending on the type of dissertation, business, eg., social factors are more obviously relevant to a good book consumer businesses or a B2B business close to the consumer-end of the marginalization essay, supply chain, whereas political factors are more obviously relevant to a global munitions supplier or aerosol propellant manufacturer. All businesses benefit from a SWOT analysis, and all businesses benefit from how to book, completing a SWOT analysis of their main competitors, which interestingly can then provide some feed back into the economic aspects of the PEST analysis.