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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. William James is social injustice considered by many to be the most insightful and stimulating of American philosophers, as well as the second of the three great pragmatists (the middle link between Charles Sanders Peirce and term papers John Dewey). As a professor of psychology and of philosophy at injustice, Harvard University, he became the most famous living American psychologist and apush example later the most famous living American philosopher of his time. Avoiding the logically tight systems typical of European rationalists, such as the German idealists, he cobbled together a psychology rich in philosophical implications and a philosophy enriched by his psychological expertise. Injustice Essay! More specifically, his theory of the self and his view of human belief as oriented towards conscious action raised issues that required him to turn to philosophy. There he developed his pragmatic epistemology, which considers the meaning of ideas and the truth of beliefs not abstractly, but in terms of the practical difference they can make in people’s lives. He explored the implications of this theory in areas of religious belief, metaphysics, human freedom and moral values, and social philosophy. His contributions in these areas included critiques of long-standing philosophical positions on such issues as freedom vs. determinism, correspondence vs. coherence, and dualism vs. materialism, as well as a thorough analysis of a phenomenological understanding of the self and consciousness, a “forward-looking” conception of truth (based on validation and revisable experience), a thorough-going metaphysical pluralism, and term china a commitment to a full view of agency in connection with communal and social concerns. Thus he created one of the last great philosophical systems in social, Western thought, even if he did not live quite long enough to complete every aspect of it. The combination of his provocative ideas and his engaging writing style has contributed to the enduring impact of his work. Born in New York City on January 11, 1842, William James was the kidney stones oldest of the five children of Henry James, Sr., and Mary Walsh James.
His oldest brother, Henry James, Jr., the renowned writer of fiction, was followed by two other brothers and a sister. The family frequently moved between America and essay Europe, the father having inherited an amount of apush example money sufficient to allow him to enjoy the life of an les miserables social essay, intellectual. While growing up, William had a passion for drawing. Since he wanted to become a painter, the family moved to Newport, Rhode Island in 1860, where William studied with the leading American portraitist, William Morris Hunt. Although he had talent, he gave up this career goal in less than a year. He had decided that it was insufficient for locke on the law of nature text, him to do first-rate work. All this is essay indicative of essays law of nature three things: the family’s remarkable support for his aspirations; his own quest to achieve excellence; and les miserables social injustice his restless, indecisive difficulty in remaining committed to a career path.
In 1861, the American Civil War erupted. In response to paper china, President Lincoln’s call for volunteers, James committed himself to a short-term enlistment. However, already in delicate health, he left when it expired after three months. (His younger brothers Wilky and Bob served in the Union Army.) He then enrolled in social essay, the Lawrence Scientific School at Harvard University, his family moving to Boston. Nature Text! There he studied chemistry and then physiology, prior to his entering Harvard’s Medical School in les miserables social injustice, 1863. A couple of years later, he took a year off to join a scientific expedition to Brazil, led by Louis Agassiz. But bad health eventually forced him to quit the expedition, and he returned to medical school (the James family moving from Boston to arguments essay, Cambridge, Massachusetts). Again he left, this time to study physiology and medicine in Germany and to recover his health. He failed to find a cure for his curious back pains, but returned to Harvard, passed his medical exams, and received his medical degree in 1869.
Nevertheless, he did not plan to practice medicine and seemed lost as to what to les miserables, do with the rest of his life. By the apush essay example end of that same year, James’s neurological symptoms had become worse. His training in hard science was making it impossible for him to believe in les miserables essay, human freedom and, thus, in the value of struggling for moral ideals; the despair of materialism was leading him to essay on why study, the depression of determinism. In a barely disguised case history in his Varieties of Religious Experience , he tells of visiting an asylum while he was a medical student, and seeing an epileptic patient whose condition had reduced him to an idiotic state. James could not dispel the realization that if universal determinism prevails, he could likewise sink into such a state, utterly incapable of preventing it ( Varieties, pp.
135-136) . Injustice! His dread over the sense of life’s absolute insecurity pushed him to become a virtual invalid in his parents’ home. He considered suicide. By the spring of debt financing term papers 1870, when James was twenty-eight years old, he experienced a critical moment while reading a treatment of human freedom by the French neo-Kantian Charles Renouvier. He discovered the solution to his problem in the voluntaristic act of will whereby he could commit himself to believing in his own freedom despite any lack of objective evidence. He started down the road to recovery, though the remainder of his life would be plagued by seemingly psychosomatic troubles (serious eye strain, mysterious back pains, digestive problems, and periods of exhaustion, as well as chronic mood swings, including times of brooding depression). Unfortunately, he still lacked a constructive career goal. In 1872, one of James’s former chemistry professors, now Harvard’s President, offered him a job teaching physiology. He accepted and began his career of more than a third of a century as a faculty member there. The next year, he became an instructor of anatomy and social injustice physiology.
By the mid-eighteen-seventies, he was teaching psychology there, using the physiological approach he had learned in Germany and establishing the first psychology laboratory in America. He met a schoolteacher named Alice Howe Gibbens, whom he married in 1878. Like his parents, they had five children, naming the first two Henry and William. Alice was adept at handling his neurotic obsessions and emotional moodiness, and they seem to have had a good marriage, living comfortably in Cambridge. The year they married, James agreed to write a psychology textbook; however, by then he was already drifting away from psychology into vs equity financing term papers philosophy. Social Essay! He was a member of a Metaphysical Club that included Oliver Wendell Holmes, who taught law at Harvard and would go on apush to serve on the U. S. Supreme Court, and essay Charles Sanders Peirce, a philosopher of research paper science, who would become the founder of American pragmatism. In 1879, James began teaching philosophy at Harvard, becoming an assistant professor of philosophy the social essay next year. He published “The Sentiment of Rationality,” his first important article in his new discipline. Term China! As he got deeper into philosophy, he developed a negative attitude towards psychology. After becoming a full professor of philosophy in les miserables social, 1885 and apush example of psychology in 1889, he published his Principles of Psychology in 1890.
It had taken him close to twelve years to finish it, and, though it would be extremely successful, he was dissatisfied with it and social injustice disgusted with psychology ( Letters , vol. 1, pp. Apush Essay Example! 294, 296, vol. 2, pp. 2-3). Nevertheless, he agreed to les miserables social, prepare an abridged version, which was published two years later as Psychology: Briefer Course ; it too would be widely used and help to establish his reputation as the foremost living American psychologist.
He resigned his directorship of essay on why study Harvard’s psychology lab and committed himself to teaching and writing philosophy. In 1897, James’s first philosophical book, The Will to Believe and Other Essays in Popular Philosophy , was published, dedicated to Charles Sanders Peirce. The following year, at the University of California at social injustice essay, Berkeley, he delivered a lecture, “Philosophical Conceptions and paper china Practical Results,” which helped to les miserables injustice, launch pragmatism as a nationwide philosophical movement. Term Paper China! In 1899, his Talks to les miserables injustice, Teachers on Psychology and to Students on Some of Life’s Ideals was published. Overworked at Harvard and jeopardizing his fragile health, he suffered a physical breakdown that same year. While recovering his health, he studied a wide range of accounts of religious experience and prepared his Gifford Lectures, which he delivered at the University of Edinburgh in 1901-02. Kidney Stones! These were published as The Varieties of Religious Experience in 1902 and proved to be quite successful, although James himself was displeased, believing them to social injustice essay, contain too much reporting on facts and too little philosophical analysis. For the remainder of his life, James focused on the development of his own philosophy, writing essays and lectures that would later be collected and term paper china published in four books. In the spring of 1906, he took a leave of absence from Harvard to take a visiting professorship at Stanford University, though his lecture series in California was interrupted by the great San Francisco earthquake.
In late 1906 and early 1907, he delivered his lectures on Pragmatism in Boston and at Columbia University, publishing them in the spring of 1907. Social Essay! That was also the year he resigned from Harvard, worried that he might die before being able to complete his philosophical system, as he was suffering from essay, angina and shortness of breath. He delivered the Hibbert Lectures in England in les miserables social, 1908, published the next year as A Pluralistic Universe , aimed at combating the neo-Hegelian idealism that was then prevalent in apush, Great Britain. Meanwhile, he was under intellectual assault by mainstream philosophers for his pragmatic treatment of truth, which he defended in a collection of essays published in 1909 as The Meaning of Truth . By the next year, James’s heart trouble left him so plagued by fatigue that normal activities became quite difficult. He was attempting to complete his textbook on Some Problems of Philosophy , but died on August 26, 1910. In 1911, his textbook, edited by his son Henry, and his Memories and social injustice essay Studies were posthumously published. Term Paper! In 1912, his Essays in social injustice, Radical Empiricism was published, followed, in 1920, by some of his Collected Essays and Reviews and The Letters of William James , edited in two volumes by his son Henry. His writings have survived in part because of the provocative honesty of his ideas, but also because of the vibrant, sometimes racy, style in which he expressed them. In A Pluralistic Universe , he castigates philosophers who use technical jargon instead of clear, straightforward language. He practiced the spontaneous thinking and freshness of expression he advocates there ( Universe , pp. 129-130).
It has been said (by the on why history novelist Rebecca West) that, while Henry James wrote fiction as though it were philosophy, his older brother, William, wrote philosophy in les miserables social, a colorful style typical of fiction. By the early 1890s, when James published his two books on psychology, the discipline was in the process of kidney stones research paper splitting off from philosophical speculation (“psychology” literally means “the study of the soul”) to establish itself as an les miserables social injustice, empirical social science. Despite impatience with the process of that development, he contributed significantly to moving it along, regarding psychology as the science of our mental phenomena or states of consciousness, such as thoughts, feelings, desires, volitions, and so forth. a. The Stream of Consciousness and the Self. In analyzing what can broadly be termed human thinking, James delineates five generic characteristics: (1) all thought is owned by locke essays on the, some personal self; (2) all thought, as experienced by human consciousness, is constantly in flux and never static; (3) nevertheless, there is an ongoing continuity of thought for every thinker, as it moves from les miserables social, one object to another (like the alternating times of flight and perching in a bird’s life), constantly comprising shifting foci and the contextual fringes within which they are given; (4) thought typically deals with objects different from and law of nature independent of consciousness itself, so that two minds can experience common objects; and (5) consciousness takes an interest in particular objects, choosing to les miserables social injustice essay, focus on term paper china them rather than on injustice others ( Principles , vol. 1, pp. 224-226, 236-237, 239, 243, 258-259, 271-272, 284; Psychology , pp.
152-154, 157-160, 166-167, 170). The self can be viewed as an object of thought or as the subject of term china thought. The former is the empirical self or “me,” while the latter is the pure ego or “I.” The dimensions of the empirical self (“me”) include the “material” self (comprised of one’s body and les miserables social injustice such extensions of arguments essay it as one’s clothing, immediate family, and home), the “social” self (or significant interpersonal relations), and the “spiritual” self (one’s personality, character, and defining values). The pure ego (“I”), identifiable with the soul of traditional metaphysics, cannot be an les miserables injustice, object of essay on why study science and should not be assumed to be a substance ( Principles , vol. 1, pp. 291-294, 296, 319, 343-344, 348, 350; Psychology , pp. 176-181, 194, 196, 198, 200, 202-203, 215-216). b. Sensation, Perception, Imagination, and Belief. James states that if we track the dynamic of les miserables essay mental activity, we discern a standard pattern from stones, sensation to perception to imagination to belief.
Through sensation, we become acquainted with some given fact. This can, but need not, lead to knowledge about that fact, achieved by perceiving its relations to les miserables essay, other given facts. Both sensation and perception involve an paper, immediate intuition of some given objects. Imagination, less immediate, retrieves mental copies of past sensations and les miserables social perceptions, even when their external stimuli are no longer present. Belief is the sense or feeling that ideas or propositions formed in essay on why history, the imagination correspond to reality. Every proposition can be analyzed in terms of its object and whether that object is believed. The object of a proposition comprises a subject (such as my horse), a predicate (wings), and les miserables essay a relation between them (my horse has sprouted wings). The belief is the psychic attitude a mind has towards that object (for example, I believe it or deny it or am in doubt about it) ( Principles , vol. Example! 2, pp. 1-3, 44, 76-77, 82-83, 283-284, 287-290; Psychology , pp. Les Miserables Social Injustice! 12-14, 302, 312, 316-317).
Like other animals, we have primitive instincts, such as fear, some desires, and certain forms of sympathy, which do not require being taught them or consciously focusing on ends. However, we also have emotions that are learned behavior and do involve such a focus—for example, a fear of failure and the desire for an academic degree. Instincts and emotions thus overlap, the latter tending to cover a broader range of objects than the former. China! We tend to assume that perceptions trigger emotional responses, eventuating in bodily expressions—that we suddenly see a bear, become frightened, and then tremble and run away. Social! But James thinks the actual sequence is perception, followed by bodily expressions, followed by emotional feeling—that we see the paper bear, tremble and run away, then feel those physical events as what we call fear. The idea that emotions ultimately have physical causes emphasizes the intimate relationship between our bodies and our mental life ( Principles , vol. 2, pp. Les Miserables Injustice! 383, 410, 442, 449-453, 467; Psychology , pp. 391, 375-376, 378-381). The human will is crucial for deliberately acting on our beliefs and emotions. Arguments! Sometimes we consider alternative courses of social action and seem to select one among them, as if making a voluntary decision.
James maps out five sorts of debt vs equity financing term decision-making: (1) the reasonable sort, whereby we accede to les miserables injustice essay, rational arguments; (2) the sort that is triggered by locke essays law of nature text, external circumstances, such as overhearing a rumor; (3) the sort that is prompted by our submission to something within ourselves, such as a habit formed by past actions; (4) the sort that results from a sudden change of mood such as might be caused by les miserables injustice, a feeling of grief; and (5) the rare sort that is a consequence of our own voluntary choice, which will be identified as the “will to believe.” Whether we have free will or not is a metaphysical issue that cannot be scientifically determined ( Principles , vol. 2, pp. 486-488, 528, 531-534, 572-573; Psychology , pp. 415, 419-420, 428-434, 456-457). Even if philosophically interesting matters such as freedom vs. determinism cannot be scientifically resolved, some sort of epistemological methodology is needed if we are to avoid arbitrary conclusions. Whatever approach is chosen, it is essays on the law of text clear that James repudiates rationalism, with its notions of a priori existential truths. He is particularly hostile to German idealism, which he identifies especially with Hegel and les miserables social essay which he attacks in many of his essays (this identification leads him to be remarkably unfair to Kant, an earlier German idealist). As he makes clear in “The Sentiment of on the law of Rationality,” the personality of the would-be knower and various practical concerns are far too relevant to allow for such abstract intellectualism. The tradition of modern empiricism is essay more promising, yet too atomistic to allow us to move much beyond the knowledge of apush essay acquaintance to les miserables essay, genuine comprehension ( Will , pp. 63-67, 70, 75-77, 82-86, 89, 92).
Fortunately, James had already learned about the pragmatic approach from Peirce. James’s book of lectures on Pragmatism is arguments essay arguably the most influential book of American philosophy. Essay! The first of its eight lectures presents pragmatism as a more attractive middle ground between the pro euthanasia arguments essay two mainstream approaches of European philosophy. The “tender-minded” approach tends to be rationalistic, intellectualistic, idealistic, optimistic, religious, committed to freedom, monistic, and injustice dogmatic; by contrast, the “tough-minded” approach tends to be empirical, grounded in sensations, materialistic, pessimistic, irreligious, fatalistic, pluralistic, and skeptical. It is difficult to identify many pure types of either of vs equity papers these in the history of philosophy, and social essay some thinkers (such as Kant) are deliberately mixed, as is James himself. He thinks that most of us want a philosophical method that is firmly anchored in empirical facts, while being open to, rather than dismissive of, moral and religious values. Kidney Research Paper! He offers pragmatism as a philosophy that coherently meets both demands. James’s second lecture is les miserables social essay committed to showing how the pragmatic method helps us establish meaning by making it a function of practical consequences (the word “pragmatic” means having to apush essay example, do with action and is etymologically related to our English word “practical”). Social! Before we invest much time or effort in seeking the meaning of anything, we should consider what practical difference it would make if we could find out. Providing an example to illustrate his point, James refers to debt, the Hegelian notion of God as the all-encompassing Absolute Spirit.
How should we decide whether this is what we should mean by God? Consider the social practical consequences for a believer: on the one hand, it would provide us with the optimistic, comforting assurance that everything will work out for the best; but, on stones the other, it also undermines the values of injustice essay human individuality, freedom, and responsibility. Term Paper China! From that pragmatic perspective, James rejects the Hegelian notion. Undoubtedly, philosophy provides us with only one legitimate approach to belief, as he observes in his fifth lecture, others being common sense (with its basic concepts derived from experience) and science. However, these others are impotent in dealing with questions of freedom and les miserables value ( Pragmatism , pp. 10-13, 18, 26-28, 30-38, 79-80, 83-85). It seems that anything knowable must be true. But what does it mean to call a proposition or belief “true” from the locke on the law of nature text perspective of pragmatism? This is the subject of James’s famous sixth lecture. He begins with a standard dictionary analysis of truth as agreement with reality. Les Miserables Injustice Essay! Accepting this, he warns that pragmatists and intellectualists will disagree over how to interpret the concepts of “agreement” and essay example “reality,” the latter thinking that ideas copy what is les miserables social injustice essay fixed and independent of locke essays on the law of text us.
By contrast, he advocates a more dynamic and practical interpretation, a true idea or belief being one we can incorporate into our ways of thinking in les miserables, such a way that it can be experientially validated. For James, the “reality” with which truths must agree has three dimensions: (1) matters of fact, (2) relations of essays nature text ideas (such as the eternal truths of mathematics), and les miserables social injustice (3) the entire set of other truths to which we are committed. Pro Euthanasia! To say that our truths must “agree” with such realities pragmatically means that they must lead us to useful consequences. He is injustice essay a fallibilist, seeing all existential truths as, in theory, revisable given new experience. They involve a relationship between facts and our ideas or beliefs.
Because the example facts, and our experience of them, change we must beware of les miserables social injustice regarding such truths as absolute, as rationalists tend to do ( Pragmatism , pp. 91-97, 100-101). This relativistic theory generated a firestorm of criticism among mainstream philosophers to which he responded in The Meaning of Truth . c. The Pragmatic Approach to study history, Belief. Western philosophers have traditionally viewed knowledge as justified, true belief. So long as the idea of truth is les miserables social injustice essay pragmatically analyzed and given a pragmatic interpretation of justification, James seems to accept that view. His entire philosophy can be seen as fundamentally one of productive beliefs. Locke Essays On The Law Of! All inquiry must terminate in belief or disbelief or doubt; disbelief is merely a negative belief and doubt is the true opposite of both. Les Miserables Social Injustice! Believing in paper china, anything involves conceiving of it as somehow real; when we dismiss something as unreal (disbelief), it is typically because it somehow contradicts what we think of as real. Some of les miserables essay our most fundamental and valuable beliefs do not seem sufficiently justified to be regarded as known. These “postulates of rationality” include the convictions that every event is caused and that the locke essays nature world as a whole is rationally intelligible ( Principles , vol. 2, pp.
283-284, 288-290, 670-672, 675, 677). As he holds in “The Sentiment of Rationality,” to say that such beliefs, however crucial, are not known, is to admit that, though they involve a willingness to injustice essay, act on term them, doubt as to their truth still seems theoretically possible. Les Miserables Social Injustice Essay! He identifies four postulates of rationality as value-related, but unknowable, matters of belief; these are God, immortality, freedom, and moral duty ( Will , pp. 90, 95). He proceeds to deal with each of them individually. James is arguments arguably the most significant American philosopher of religion in intellectual history, and les miserables injustice essay many of his writings, in addition to the obligatory “Will to Believe” essay and on why his book on The Varieties of Religious Experience , offer provocative insights into that area. Because we do not naturally experience the supernatural, James, the radical empiricist, thinks of faith in injustice essay, God as falling short of knowledge. Yet such faith is pragmatically meaningful to many people, and it is reasonable to wonder whether, how, and to apush, what extent it can be justified.
For James, the logical philosopher trained in science, both logic and science have limits beyond which we can legitimately seek the sentiment of rationality. His notorious “Will to Believe” essay is les miserables injustice designed to apush essay example, be a defense of les miserables social injustice essay religious faith in pro euthanasia arguments, the absence of conclusive logical argumentation or scientific evidence. It focuses on social injustice essay what he calls a “genuine option,” which is a choice between two hypotheses, which the believer can regard as “living” (personally meaningful), “forced” (mutually exclusive), and “momentous” (involving potentially important consequences). Whether an option is “genuine” is thus relative to the perspective of a particular believer. James acknowledges that in stones research paper, our scientific age, there is something dubious about the voluntaristic view that, in les miserables social injustice, some circumstances, we can legitimately choose to believe in the absence of any objective justification. However, he claims we naturally do so all the time, our moral and political ideas being obvious examples. When you believe that your mother loves you or in the sincerity of your best friend, you have no conclusively objective evidence. In addition, you will never be able to secure such evidence.
Yet it often seems unreasonable to refuse to commit to believing such matters; if we did so, the pragmatic consequences would be a more impoverished social life. Indeed, in some cases, believing and debt financing term acting on that belief can help increase the chances of the belief being true. Now let us apply this argument to religious belief. What does religion in general propose for les miserables injustice, our belief? The two-pronged answer is essays on the text that ultimate reality is most valuable and that we are better off if we believe that.
Committing to social essay, that two-pronged belief is meaningful, as is the refusal to locke on the law of, do so. At any given moment, I must either make that two-pronged commitment or not; and les miserables injustice how I experience this life, as well as prospects for a possible after-life, may be at stake. Whether one makes that commitment or not, pragmatic consequences can be involved. Nor should we imagine that we could avoid having to locke essays on the text, make a choice, as the les miserables social injustice commitment not to commit is itself a commitment ( Will , pp. 1-4, 7-9, 11-14, 22-30; see also Problems , pp. 221-224).
b. The Varieties of Religious Experience. If religious faith is not to be reduced to arbitrary whimsy (the “will to make believe”), it must rest on some sort of personal experience. As psychologist and apush essay philosopher, James deliberately defines “religion” broadly as the experiences of human individuals insofar as they see themselves related to whatever they regard as divine. This definition indicates that religion does not require faith in a transcendent, monotheistic God, and les miserables injustice essay that it does not mandate the paper china social dimension of religious community. Les Miserables Injustice! James distinguishes between “healthy-mindedness” and the “sick soul” as two extreme types of religious consciousness, the former being characterized by optimistic joy and the latter by a morbid pessimism. In between these extremes are “the divided self” and the stable, well-integrated believer. James develops lengthy analyses of religious conversion, saintliness, and mysticism.
In going beyond these, he considers what philosophy might contribute to establishing “over-beliefs” regarding the existence and nature of the divine. He critically considers traditional arguments for God—the cosmological argument, the argument from design, the moral argument, and kidney stones research paper the argument from popular consensus—finding none of them particularly cogent, but exhibiting the essay most respect for the argument from design. He likewise weighs in the balance and finds wanting arguments for metaphysical and moral divine attributes, finding the latter of more pragmatic relevance to on why history, human values, choices, and social essay behavior than the former. In his final lecture, he draws conclusions regarding three beliefs that experience finds in religions in general: (1) that our sensible world is term paper part of and social injustice derives its significance from a greater spiritual order; (2) that our purpose is fulfilled by achieving harmonious union with it; and (3) that prayer and arguments essay spiritual communion are efficacious. Les Miserables Social Injustice Essay! Furthermore, religions typically involve two psychological qualities in their believers: (1) an energetic zest for living; and (2) a sense of security, love, and peace. Given that thought and feeling both determine conduct, James thinks that different religions are similar in feeling and conduct, their doctrines being more variable, but less essential. Most generally, these doctrines attempt to stones, diagnose a fundamental uneasiness about our natural state and to les miserables, prescribe a solution whereby we might be saved ( Varieties , pp. 42, 83, 121, 124, 137, 142, 145-147, 330, 334-341, 367, 380-383). Although James is somewhat vague regarding his own religious “over-beliefs,” they can be pieced together from various passages. He believes there is more to term china, reality than our natural world and that this unseen realm generates practical effects in les miserables injustice essay, this world.
If we call the supreme being “God,” then we have reason to think the interpersonal relationship between God and humans is dynamic and that God provides us with a guarantee that the stones paper moral values we strive to realize will somehow survive us. James describes himself as a supernaturalist (rather than a materialist) of les miserables social injustice essay a sort less refined than idealists and as unable to pro euthanasia arguments, subscribe to popular Christianity. He is unwilling to assume that God is one or infinite, even contemplating the polytheistic notion that the divine is a collection of godlike selves ( Varieties , pp. 384-386, 388-390, 392-393, 395-396). In “The Dilemma of Determinism,” James depicts his image of God with a memorable analogy, comparing God to a master chess player engaged in a give-and-take with us novices. We are free to les miserables social injustice essay, make our own moves; yet the master knows all the pro euthanasia arguments moves we could possibly make, the odds of our choosing one over the others, and how best to respond to any move we choose to make. This indicates two departures from the traditional Judeo-Christian concept of God, in that the master is les miserables social essay interacting with us in time (rather than eternal) and does not know everything in the future, to the extent that it is freely chosen by us. In “Reflex Action and Theism,” James subscribes to a theistic belief in a personal God with whom we can maintain interpersonal relations, who possesses the example deepest power in reality (not necessarily omnipotent) and a mind (not omniscient). We can love and respect God to the extent that we are committed to the pursuit of common values. In “Is Life Worth Living?” James even suggests that God may derive strength and energy from our collaboration ( Will , pp.
181-182, 116, 122, 141, 61). Elsewhere, rejecting the Hegelian notion of les miserables God as an all-encompassing Absolute, he subscribes to a God that is finite in knowledge or in power or in both, one that acts in time and has a history and an environment, like us ( Universe , pp. Term Paper China! 269, 272; see Letters , vol. 2, pp. 213-215, for James’s responses to a 1904 questionnaire regarding his personal religious beliefs). In contrast to monists such as Hegel, James believes in essay, multiple worlds, specifying seven realms of reality we can experience: (1) the realm that serves as the touchstone of reality for debt financing papers, most of us is the social world of arguments physical objects of sense experience; (2) the world of science, things understood in terms of physical forces and laws of nature, is available to the educated; (3) philosophy and les miserables mathematics expose us to a world of abstract truth and term paper china ideal relations; (4) as humans, we are all subject to the distortions of commonplace illusion and prejudices; (5) our cultures expose us to the realms of mythology and fiction; (6) each of us has his or her own subjective opinions, which may or may not be expressed to les miserables social injustice, others; and (7) the world of madness can disconnect us from the debt vs equity term papers reality in which others can readily believe.
Normally we can inhabit more than one of essay these and essay example be able to discriminate among them. What we take to be real must connect with us personally because we find it interesting and/or important, which emphasizes elements of les miserables both subjectivity and pragmatic relevance ( Principles , vol. Essay Study History! 2, pp. 292-299). b. The Philosophical Importance of Metaphysics. Part of what makes James a great philosopher in the grand tradition is that, unlike so many post-Hegelian Western philosophers, he advocates the pivotal importance of metaphysics. The theory of reality in general provides a crucial foundational context for philosophy of human nature, philosophy of religion, ethics, social philosophy, and so forth. Philosophy essentially is an intellectual attempt to come to grips with reality, as he says on the first page of Pragmatism . In its third lecture, James approaches four standard metaphysical issues using his pragmatic method, those of (1) physical and spiritual substance, (2) materialism vs. theism as explanations of our world, (3) whether the natural world indicates intelligent design, and (4) freedom vs. Les Miserables! universal determinism. For each of these, we cannot conclusively establish where we should stand based merely on what experience discloses about the past, but can take reasonable positions based on pragmatic anticipated future consequences. Essay! As modern philosophy demonstrates, we can never directly and immediately experience any sort of substance; however, we do experience physical qualities and mental events and can best make sense of them by attributing them to bodies and minds.
The world is what it is, regardless of whether it is the result of divine activity or of the random interactions of les miserables social essay atoms moving in space; whether or not it was intelligently designed in the distant past has no bearing on the fact that we experience it as we do. But a world intelligently designed by a deity pragmatically involves the kidney stones research possibility of les miserables social a promising future, whereas one resulting from unconscious physical forces promises nothing more than a collapse into meaningless obliteration. On the one hand, if everything we may do or fail to do is determined, why bother doing anything? On the other hand, if we are free to locke on the nature text, choose at least some of our actions, then effort can be meaningful. In the fourth lecture, James states that our world can be viewed as one (monism) or as an irreducible many (pluralism). Les Miserables Essay! There are certain ways in which we humans generate a unity of the objects of our experience, yet the debt financing papers absolute unity to les miserables social essay, which monism is committed remains a perpetually vanishing ideal. In his seventh lecture, James identifies three dimensions of reality: (1) the objects of factual experience; (2) relationships between our sensations and our ideas and among our ideas; and essay (3) the entire network of truths to which we are committed at any given time.
Again, we see here a combination of subjectivity and pragmatic relevance that views reality as a process of development, which he calls “humanism” ( Pragmatism , pp. 7, 43-55, 62-69, 71, 73-74, 110-111, 115-116; see also Truth , pp. 100-101). James intended Some Problems of Philosophy to be largely a textbook in metaphysics, which he defines in terms of the ultimate principles of reality, both within and beyond our human experience. Much of it concerns the issue of the one and the many, which is arguably the oldest problem of Western philosophy and les miserables social injustice essay represents the split between collective monism (such as Hegel’s) and study history distributive pluralism (such as James himself advocates). Essay! Monism, pursued to its logical extreme, is deterministic, setting up a sharp dichotomy between what is necessary and what is impossible, while pluralism allows for possibilities that may, but need not, be realized. The former must be either optimistic or pessimistic in its outlook, depending on history whether the future that is social injustice essay determined is on why study history seen as attractive or unattractive. In contrast, pluralism’s possibilities allow for a “melioristic” view of the future as possibly better, depending on choices we freely make. Pluralism need not specify how much unnecessary possibility there is in the world; by contrast, monism must say that everything about the future is locked in from all eternity—to which pluralism says, “Ever not quite.” James is advocating what he calls the possibility of “novelty” in the world.
Pluralism, being melioristic, calls for our trusting in and cooperating with one another in order to realize desirable possibilities that are not assured ( Problems , pp. 31, 114, 139-143, 205, 228-230). In his Essays in Radical Empiricism , James attempts to distance himself from the les miserables philosophical dualism that sees physical reality (bodies) and spiritual reality (minds) as essentially distinct. Essay Example! He claims that the “philosophy of pure experience” is more consonant with the theory of novelty, indeterminism, moralism, and humanism that he advocates, though it is less than clear why. We never experience mind in separation from body, and he dismisses as an illusion the notion of consciousness as substantial; however, he does not want to social, reject the reality of mind as a materialist might do. So after years of opposing monism, he adopts an admittedly vague sort of neutral (neither materialistic nor idealistic) monism that sees thoughts and essay on why things as fundamentally the social same stuff, the further definition of which eludes us ( Empiricism , pp. 48, 115-117, 120). In the eighth lecture of Pragmatism , James sees monism as tending to a passive sort of vs equity term quietism rather than to les miserables social injustice, a vital life of china active effort.
By contrast, pluralistic pragmatism emphasizes the possibilities that may be if we work to les miserables injustice, realize them. Monism determines the future optimistically as working out for the best, whatever we do, or pessimistically as working out for the worst, whatever we do. Term China! By contrast, pluralistic meliorism holds that it can get better if we freely try to make it so. Whether we embrace the option of freedom and les miserables social essay moral responsibility or not is ultimately a matter of personal faith rather than one of objective logic or scientific evidence ( Pragmatism , pp. 125, 127-128, 132). Like God and kidney stones paper human immortality, the possibility of which James defends without firmly committing himself to les miserables injustice, believing in it ( Immortality , pp. 3, 6-7, 10-18, 20, 23-24, 28-31, 35-37, 39-41, 43-45), freedom is a postulate of rationality, an unprovable article of faith.
James wrote an essay on the topic, called “The Dilemma of Determinism.” After admitting that human freedom is an old and shopworn topic about which we may suspect that nothing new can be said, and that he will not pretend to be able to prove or disprove, he launches a pragmatic justification for believing in it. Indeterminism, the belief in freedom, holds that there is some degree of possibility that is not necessitated by the rest of essay reality, while determinism must deny all such possibilities. These beliefs constitute exhaustive and mutually exclusive alternatives, so that if we reject either, we logically should accept the other. Let us consider a commonplace example such as walking home from campus. Before the fact neither the determinist nor the indeterminist can infallibly predict which path will be taken, but after the fact the determinist can irrefutably claim that the path taken was necessary, while the indeterminist can irrefutably claim that it was freely chosen.
Thus far, there is no advantage on les miserables injustice essay either side. But now consider the vs equity example of a man gruesomely murdering his loving wife. We hear the awful details recounted and naturally regret what the wicked man did to her. Now, what are we to injustice, make of that regret from the perspective of text determinism? What sense can it make to regret what had to occur? From that perspective, we logically must embrace pessimism (all of reality is social injustice essay determined to be bad) or optimism (everything is essays nature text destined to work out for the best) or subjectivism (good and evil are merely subjective interpretations we artificially cast on things). All of these can be logically coherent positions, but each of them minimizes the les miserables social essay evil we experience in the world and trivializes our natural reaction of regret as pointless. From a practical (as opposed to a logical) point of view, can we live with that? James deliberately puts the point quite personally.
Though thoughtful and reflective pessimists, optimists, and subjectivists can live with it, he would not, because its pragmatic implications would render life not worth living. In that sense, determinism, though logically tenable, is pragmatically unacceptable, and pro euthanasia James commits to indeterminism ( Will , pp. Les Miserables Social Injustice! 145-146, 150-152, 155-156, 160-161, 175-176, 178-179). In addition to God, immortality, and freedom, moral duty is on why study history a fourth postulate of rationality. James offers us one remarkable essay on the topic, entitled “The Moral Philosopher and the Moral Life.” He addresses three questions: (1) the les miserables essay psychological one, regarding the origins of essay example our moral values and judgments, (2) the metaphysical one, regarding the grounds of meaning for our basic moral concepts, and (3) the casuistic one, regarding how we should order conflicting values.
First, our human nature comprises a capacity for les miserables, an intuitive moral sense, but this must be developed in a context of values that socially evolve. Second, our basic moral concepts of good and bad, right and wrong, and so forth, are all person-relative, grounded in the claims people make on their environment. Third, when values conflict, those which would seem to satisfy as many personal demands as possible, while frustrating the fewest, should have priority regardless of the pro euthanasia arguments essay nature of les miserables essay those demands. This represents a pragmatic form of moral relativism, in which no action can be absolutely good or evil in term paper china, all conceivable circumstances. Finally, James distinguishes between “the easy-going mood” that tries to avoid conflict, and “the strenuous mood” that strives to achieve ideals, apparently preferring the les miserables essay latter ( Will , pp. Essays! 185-186, 190, 194-195, 197, 201, 205, 209, 211).
In answering the question of what is the les miserables primary objective of human life, James maintains that a natural answer is happiness. It is this, which motivates us to act and endure. Evolution is often seen as a progressive advance towards happiness ( Varieties , pp. Debt Term Papers! 76, 85). The person who seems incapable of achieving it may well wonder whether life is worth living; suicide deciding that it is not. For James there is no absolute answer, and it is relative to the life being lived. A human life involves an ongoing series of possibilities. Some of these “maybes” may be realized if we believe in our own capacity to realize them; others will not be, either because we do not try or because we try and fail.
Life can become worth living if we believe that it is and act on les miserables social that belief, our commitment giving it meaning ( Will , pp. 37, 59-62). Our happiness seems to require that we have ideals, that we strive to achieve them, and that we think we are making some progress towards doing so ( Talks , pp. 185-189). a. Debt Vs Equity! Individuals and social injustice essay Their Communities. James’s philosophy is so individualistic that it does not allow for a robust theory of locke essays community. Still, he offers us some interesting insights and one great paper. “Great Men and Their Environment” views one’s society as not only a context in which great individuals emerge, but even as playing a selective role in allowing their greatness to develop. In turn, that social environment is affected by them. Les Miserables Social Essay! Whether or not an term china, individual will be able to have an impact is, to some extent, determined by society. Les Miserables Social Injustice! Thus socially significant individuals and their communities have a dynamic, correlative relationship. In a follow-up article, “The Importance of Individuals,” he maintains that agents of social change, beyond being gifted in some way(s), tend to essay study, take greater advantage of given circumstances than more ordinary persons do ( Will , pp.
225-226, 229-230, 232, 259). In the last decade of his life, following the Spanish-American War, in social injustice essay, which Theodore Roosevelt, his former student, was the hero, James gave a talk at the banquet of the Universal Peace Congress. Regarding human nature as essentially antagonistic, he warns against our permanent tendencies to mass violence and the romantic idealization of war. China! We have to forever be on our guard to resist those dangerous, destructive tendencies; however, he doubts that humanity will ever be able to achieve universal disarmament and peace. What we can and should do is work to minimize conflicts and to resolve them non-violently. The great paper James wrote in the area of les miserables social essay social relations, written just a few years before the outbreak of World War I and study first published the les miserables essay month he died, is “The Moral Equivalent of War.” In it he warns of the extreme challenge of suppressing our martial tendencies. Warfare has become so costly, in terms of treasure and debt vs equity term papers carnage, thanks to modern technology, that we need to find some way of rechanneling the injustice essay primitive tendencies inherited from our ancestors.
How can we create an atmosphere in which peace is the norm rather than that interim period between wars? Identifying himself as a “pacifist,” he nevertheless admits that there are desirable human qualities—such as patriotism, loyalty, social solidarity, and national vigor—that have traditionally been nurtured by war and the preparation for conducting it. The question at hand is whether a “moral equivalent” might be found that would generate such martial virtues without involving the horrible destructiveness of war. Paper! Since wars are the results of human choices rather than fatalistically determined, he anticipates a time when they will be formally outlawed among civilized societies. Les Miserables Essay! But then how can these martial virtues still be nurtured?
His answer is that we should draft young adults into national service, as opposed to military service, fighting against adverse natural conditions rather than against locke essays law of text fellow human beings, working for a time in coal mines, on constructing roads, and so forth. Thus they could cultivate those desirable qualities by serving society in a way that would yield good consequences rather than more suffering ( Studies , pp. Social Essay! 300-301, 303-306, 267, 269, 275-276, 280, 283, 286-292). c. Pro Euthanasia Arguments Essay! Democratic Tolerance and Social Progress. In “What Makes a Life Significant,” James advocates the les miserables injustice essay move towards mutual non-interference with people who are not threatening us with violence.
Tolerance of others is an locke nature, antidote to cruelty and injustice. Les Miserables Injustice! He maintains that the trend of social evolution is in locke law of nature text, the direction of democratic progress. Yet this trend requires effort, and its continuation poses challenges for essay, us, including that of striving for debt vs equity financing, a more equitable distribution of wealth ( Talks , pp. 170, 178, 189). His commitments to individual freedom, mutual respect, peaceful interrelationships, and les miserables social injustice essay tolerance converge to point us in the direction of progressing towards what he calls “the intellectual republic” ( Will , p. Essay! 30).
This is the pragmatically beneficial ideal towards which social progress can take us, if we have faith in it and commit ourselves to acting on that belief.
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Les Mis rables - Wikipedia
A CRITICAL STUDY OF THE SYMPHONIES OF BEETHOVEN. Social Essay. Translated by Michel Austin. Some thirty six or seven years ago, Beethoven’s works, which at the time were completely unknown in debt vs equity papers France, were tried out at the Opera’s concerts spirituels . Today it would be hard to believe the storm of injustice essay, criticism from the majority of musicians that greeted this wonderful music. It was described as bizarre, incoherent, diffuse, bristling with harsh modulations and wild harmonies, bereft of melody, over the top, too noisy, and vs equity financing papers, horribly difficult to play. To satisfy the demands of the men of good taste who at the time held sway at the Academie royale de musique , M. Habeneck, who later organised and directed with such care the performance of the symphonies at the Conservatoire, found himself obliged to make monstrous cuts in them, of a kind that would only be tolerated in a ballet by Gallemberg or an les miserables injustice essay opera by Gaveaux. Without such corrections Beethoven would not have been granted the honour of appearing on the programme of the concerts spirituels between a solo for bassoon and a flute concerto. At the first hearing of those passages that had been marked with a red pencil, Kreutzer took to flight blocking his ears, and he had to summon all his courage to steel himself to listen at the other rehearsals to on why study, what was left of the symphony in D major (no. 2).
Let us not forget that M. Kreutzer’s opinion on Beethoven was shared by ninety nine per cent of musicians in Paris at the time, and that without the persistent efforts of the tiny fraction who took the opposite social injustice essay view, the apush example greatest composer of modern times would probably still be largely unknown today. The mere fact that fragments of Beethoven were performed at the Opera was therefore of considerable significance, and we can state this with good reason, since without this the Societe des concerts du Conservatoire would probably not have been founded. The credit for this noble institution belongs to this small group of les miserables social injustice, intelligent men and to the public. The public – I mean the true public, which does not belong to any particular clique – is guided by its own feelings and not by narrow ideas or any ridiculous theories it may have conceived on essays on the law of nature text art. That public, which is often mistaken in its judgments, since it frequently changes its mind, was struck at the outset by some of Beethoven’s salient qualities. It did not ask whether this particular modulation was related to another, whether certain harmonies were acceptable to pundits , nor whether it was admissible to use certain rhythms which were as yet unknown. All it noticed was that these rhythms, harmonies and modulations, adorned with noble and passionate melodies, and enhanced by powerful orchestral writing, exerted on it a strong impression of injustice essay, a completely novel kind. Term. Nothing more was needed to stimulate its applause. Only at rare intervals does our French public experience the keen and incandescent emotion that the art of music can generate; but when its emotions are truly stirred, nothing can equal its gratitude for the artist who caused this, whoever he may be.
Thus from its first appearance, the famous allegretto in A minor of the seventh symphony, which had been inserted in the second to les miserables social injustice essay, make the rest palatable , was judged at term its true worth by the audience at the concerts spirituels . A loud clamour arose for the piece to be repeated, and at the second performance the first movement and scherzo of the symphony in D (no. 2), which at injustice first hearing had made little impression, scored an almost comparable success. Locke Law Of Nature. The obvious interest in Beethoven that the public began to show from then on doubled the energy of his defenders and reduced to inaction, if not to social essay, silence, the majority of his detractors. Little by little, thanks to these glimmerings of dawn which tell the clear-sighted on which side the sun is paper, about to rise, the les miserables social core of supporters increased in size and example, the result was the foundation, almost entirely for Beethoven’s sake, of the magnificent Societe du Conservatoire , which nowadays has scarcely a rival in the world. We will attempt to analyse the symphonies of this great master, starting with the first symphony which the Conservatoire performs so rarely. Les Miserables Injustice Essay. Through its form, melodic style, and the spareness of its harmonic and orchestral writing, this work is quite different from the other compositions of Beethoven which followed. In writing this symphony the composer was evidently under the influence of Mozart’s ideas, which he has throughout imitated ingeniously and at vs equity financing papers times magnified. But in the first and second movements one can notice from les miserables essay time to apush essay, time certain rhythmic patterns which the author of Don Giovanni has admittedly used, but very rarely and in a much less striking way. The first allegro has a six bar theme, which though not very distinctive in itself, acquires interest subsequently through the skilful way in which it is treated.
It is followed by a transitional melody of a rather undistinguished style. A half-cadence which is repeated three or four times leads to a passage for wind instruments with imitations at the fourth above. It is all the more surprising to find this here, as it was often used before in several overtures to French operas. The andante includes a soft accompaniment for timpani which nowadays seems rather commonplace, but which can nevertheless be seen as the forerunner of the striking effects which Beethoven was to produce later with this instrument, which his predecessors had in general used to little or no purpose. Les Miserables. This piece is full of charm; the theme is graceful and lends itself well to fugal developments, through which the composer has been able to exploit it in ingenious and witty ways.
The scherzo is the first born in this family of essay history, delightful musical jests (scherzi), a form invented by Beethoven who established its tempo. In almost all his instrumental works it takes the place of the les miserables injustice essay minuet of Mozart and Haydn, which is only half the speed of the essays nature scherzo and very different in character. This one is delightful in its freshness, nimbleness, and charm. Injustice. It is the only really novel piece in this work, in which the poetic idea, which plays such a large and rich part in locke essays nature the majority of les miserables social essay, works which followed, is completely absent. This is admirably crafted music, clear, alert, but lacking in strong personality, cold and sometimes rather small-minded, as for example in stones research the final rondo, which has the character of a musical amusement. In a word, this is not Beethoven.
We are about to les miserables social injustice essay, meet him. Everything in vs equity papers this symphony is noble, energetic and proud; the introduction ( largo ) is a masterpiece. The most beautiful effects follow in quick succession, always in unexpected ways but without causing any confusion. The melody has a touching solemnity; from the very first bars it commands respect and essay, sets the apush example emotional tone. Rhythms are now more adventurous, the orchestral writing richer, more sonorous and varied. This wonderful adagio leads to an allegro con brio which has a sweeping vitality. The grupetto in the first bar of the theme played by violas and cellos in unison is subsequently developed it its own right, either to essay, generate surging crescendo passages or to bring about imitations between wind and strings, all of them at once novel and lively in character. In the middle comes a melody, played by clarinets, horns and bassoons for the first half, and rounded off as a tutti by the rest of the orchestra; it has a masculine energy which is further enhanced by the felicitous choice of accompanying chords. The andante is not treated in the same way as that of the kidney paper first symphony; instead of a theme developed in canonical imitation it consists of a pure and innocent theme, presented at first plainly by the strings, then exquisitely embellished with delicate strokes; they faithfully reproduce the tender character of the main theme. This is the enchanting depiction of innocent joy, scarcely troubled by passing touches of melancholy.
The scherzo is as openly joyful in its capricious fantasy as the andante was completely happy and calm. Everything in this symphony smiles, and even the martial surges of the first allegro are free from any hint of violence; they only speak of the youthful ardour of a noble heart which has preserved intact the most beautiful illusions of life. The author still believes in immortal glory, in love, in devotion… What abandonment in his joy, what wit, what exuberance! The various instruments fight over particles of a theme which none of them plays in full, yet each fragment is coloured in a thousand different ways by being tossed from injustice one instrument to the other. To hear this is like witnessing the enchanted sport of Oberon’s graceful spirits. The finale is of the debt term same character: it is a scherzo in double time, perhaps even more delicate and witty in its playfulness. It is a serious mistake to truncate the title which the composer provided for the symphony. It reads: Heroic symphony to les miserables social essay, commemorate the memory of a great man . As will be seen, the subject here is not battles or triumphal marches, as many, misled by the abbreviated title, might expect, but rather deep and serious thoughts, melancholy memories, ceremonies of imposing grandeur and sadness, in locke essays on the law of text short a funeral oration for les miserables social essay, a hero. I know few examples in music of a style where sorrow has been so unfailingly conveyed in forms of papers, such purity and such nobility of social essay, expression.
The first movement is in triple time and in a tempo which is almost that of a waltz, yet nothing could be more serious and more dramatic than this allegro . The energetic theme on which it is papers, built is not at les miserables injustice essay first presented in its complete form. Contrary to normal practice, the composer has initially provided only a glimpse of his melodic idea, which is only revealed in its full power after a few bars’ introduction. Kidney. The rhythmic writing is extremely striking in the frequent use of syncopation and, through the les miserables essay stress on study history the weak beat, the social insertion of bars in duple time into bars in triple time. When to this irregular rhythm some harsh dissonances are added, as we find towards the middle of the development section, where the first violins play a high F natural against an E natural, the study history fifth of the chord of A minor, it is difficult not to shudder at this depiction of indomitable fury. This is the voice of les miserables social injustice, despair and almost of rage. Yet one wonders, Why this despair, Why this rage?
The reason for it is not obvious. Then in the next bar the orchestra suddenly calms down, as though, exhausted by its own outburst, its strength was abruptly deserting it. A gentler passage follows, which evokes all the most painful feelings that memory can stir in the mind. It is impossible to describe or merely to indicate the apush example multiplicity of melodic and les miserables injustice, harmonic guises in which Beethoven presents his theme. We will only stones research mention an extremely odd case, which has caused a great deal of argument.
The French publisher corrected it in his edition of the score, in the belief it was an engraving error, but after further enquiry the passage was reinstated. The first and second violins on les miserables social injustice their own are playing tremolando a major second (B flat, A flat), part of the chord of the seventh on the dominant of E flat, when a horn gives the impression of having made a mistake by coming in four bars too soon, and rudely intrudes with the beginning of the main theme which consists only of the stones research notes E flat, G, E flat, B flat. The strange effect produced by this melody built on injustice the three notes of the tonic chord against the two discordant notes of the dominant chord can easily be imagined, even though the distance between the parts greatly softens the clash. But just as the ear is about to protest against this anomaly, an energetic tutti cuts off the horn, ends piano on the tonic chord and gives way to the entry of the cellos which then play the arguments essay complete theme with the social injustice essay appropriate harmony. Taking a detached view it is paper, difficult to find a serious justification for this musical caprice*.
But it is said that the author attached much importance to social, it. Research. It is even related that at the first rehearsal of the injustice essay symphony, M. Ries who was present stopped the orchestra and exclaimed: Too early, too early, the kidney research paper horn is wrong!. As a reward for his indiscretion, he was roundly taken to injustice essay, task by on why study history, a furious Beethoven. *However you look at it, if that was really what Beethoven wanted, and if there is essay, any truth in the anecdotes which circulate on the subject, it must be admitted that this whim is an absurdity. Essay On Why Study. There is no comparable oddity in the rest of the score. The funeral march is a drama in its own right. It is like a translation of Virgil’s beautiful lines on the funeral procession of the young Pallas: Multaque praeterea Laurentis praemia pugnae. Adgerat, et longo praedam jubet ordine duci. Post bellator equus, positis insignibus, Aethon. It lacrymans, guttisque humectat grandibus ora.
The ending in particular is deeply moving. The theme of the march returns, but now in a fragmented form, interspersed with silences, and only accompanied by les miserables essay, three pizzicato notes in the double basses. When these tatters of the sad melody, left on their own, bare, broken and lifeless, have collapsed one after the other onto the tonic, the wind instruments utter a final cry, the on why last farewell of the warriors to their companion in arms, and the whole orchestra fades away on a pianissimo pause. Following normal practice the third movement is entitled scherzo . In Italian the word means play, or jest. At first sight it is hard to see how this kind of music can find a place in this epic composition. It has to les miserables social injustice essay, be heard to be understood. The piece does indeed have the rhythm and tempo of a scherzo ; these are games, but real funeral games, constantly darkened by thoughts of death, games of the kind that the warriors of the Iliad would celebrate around the kidney research tombs of their leaders. Even in his most imaginative orchestral developments Beethoven has been able to preserve the serious and sombre colouring, the deep sadness which of course had to predominate in such a subject. The finale is just a continuation of the same poetical idea. There is a very striking example of orchestral writing at les miserables social injustice the beginning, which illustrates the on the law of nature kind of effect that can be produced by juxtaposing different instrumental timbres. The violins play a B flat, which is les miserables injustice, immediately taken up by flutes and oboes as a kind of echo.
Although the sound is played at the same dynamic level, at the same speed and with the same force, the dialogue produces such a great difference between the notes that the nuance between them might be likened to the contrast between blue and purple . Such tonal refinements were completely unknown before Beethoven, and it is to him that we owe them. For all its great variety this finale is term china, nevertheless built on a simple fugal theme. Besides a profusion of injustice, ingenious details the composer develops on top of it two other themes, one of which is exceptionally beautiful. The melody is as it were derived from a different one, but its shape conceals this. On the contrary it is much more touching and expressive, far more graceful than the original theme, which has rather the character of a bass line and serves this function very well.
This melody returns shortly before the arguments essay end, in a slower tempo and with different harmonies which further enhance its sad character. Les Miserables Social Injustice Essay. The hero costs many a tear. After these final regrets devoted to his memory the apush essay poet abandons the elegiac tone and intones with rapture a hymn of glory. Though rather brief this conclusion is very brilliant and provides a fitting crown to the musical monument. Beethoven may have written more striking works than this symphony, and several of his other compositions make a greater impact on the public. But it has to be admitted that the Eroica symphony is so powerful in its musical thought and execution, its style so energetic and les miserables social essay, so constantly elevated, and paper, its form so poetic, that it is the les miserables social equal of the composer’s very greatest works.
Whenever this symphony is performed I am overcome with feelings of deep and as it were antique sadness; yet the public seems hardly moved. One must feel sorry for the predicament of the artist: though fired with such enthusiasm he has not managed to make himself intelligible even to an elite audience and make it rise it to the level of his own inspiration. Debt Vs Equity Financing Term. This is all the more regrettable as in other circumstances this same audience warms up to the composer and shares his emotion and tears. It is fired with an ardent and genuine passion for some of his compositions, which may be equally worthy of admiration but are nevertheless no more beautiful than this work. It appreciates at its true worth the allegretto in essay A minor of the seventh symphony, the allegretto scherzando of the eighth, the finale of the fifth, the scherzo of the ninth. It even appears to be deeply moved by the funeral march of this symphony – the Eroica . But as far as the stones first movement is concerned, there is no escaping the truth, and les miserables injustice essay, I have observed this for more than twenty years: the public listens to it with composure, regards it as a well crafted and quite powerful piece, but beyond that … nothing.
There is no point in philosophising. It is china, no good saying to oneself that the social same has always been true everywhere for example, all artistic creations of an elevated kind, that the springs of poetic emotion are hidden and difficult to fathom, that the feeling for beauty which some individuals possess is social essay, completely absent from the masses, even that it cannot possibly be otherwise… None of debt vs equity term papers, this provides any consolation or can appease the anger – call it instinctive, involuntary, even absurd if you like – which fills one’s heart at the sight of a misunderstood masterpiece, of social, a composition of such nobility which the crowd observes but does not see, listens to pro euthanasia essay, but does not hear, and allows to pass by with hardly a sideways glance, as though dealing with something mediocre or ordinary. It is dreadful to have to say to les miserables injustice, oneself with total certainty: what I find beautiful is term paper, beauty itself for essay, me, but may not be so for my best friend. Someone who normally feels the same way as I do will be affected in quite a different way. It may be that the work which sends me into raptures, makes me shiver, and moves me to nature text, tears, leaves him cold, or even annoys and irritates him… The majority of les miserables social, great poets have no feeling for music and only enjoy melodies of a trivial or childish character. Many intelligent people, who think they like music, have no idea of the emotions it can stir. These are painful truths, but they are tangible and obvious, and only a peculiar kind of locke on the law of nature, obstinacy prevents one from recognising them. I have seen a bitch howling with pleasure on hearing a major third played in double stopping on a violin, yet her pups have never reacted in a similar way, whether you play them a third, a fifth, a sixth, an octave, or any other consonant or discordant chord. Whatever the composition of the public, it always reacts to great musical conceptions in les miserables injustice essay the same way as that bitch and her pups. There are nerves that react to locke essays nature text, certain vibrations, but this ability to respond, incomplete as it is, is not equally disseminated and is subject to les miserables, innumerable variations.
It follows that it is arguments, virtual lunacy to les miserables social, rely on some artistic means rather than others to affect it and stones research, that the best a composer can do is to remain blindly true to les miserables social injustice, his own feelings and resign himself in advance to all the whims of fortune. One day I was walking out locke law of, of the Conservatoire with three or four dilettanti after a performance of the Choral symphony. Les Miserables Social Injustice. – How do you find this work? one of them asked me. – Immense! magnificent! overwhelming! – That is strange, I was bored stiff. And what about you? he added, turning to an Italian… – Well, I find this unintelligible, or rather intolerable, there is no melody… But here are some papers talking about it, and let us see what they say: – Beethoven’s Choral symphony is the kidney stones pinnacle of modern music; art has yet to produce anything comparable for the nobility of its style, the les miserables injustice essay grandeur of the essay design and the finish of the details. Essay. (Another paper) – Beethoven’s Choral symphony is a monstrosity. (Another paper) – This work is not completely barren of apush essay, ideas, but they are poorly presented and the sum total is incoherent and devoid of charm. (Another paper) – Beethoven’s Choral symphony has some wonderful passages, but the composer was obviously short of inspiration. As his exhausted imagination let him down he had to les miserables injustice, devote his energies, sometimes to arguments, good effect, to making up through craftsmanship what he was lacking in inspiration. The few themes found in the work are superbly treated and set out in a perfectly clear and logical sequence.
In short, it is a very interesting work by a tired genius . Social Injustice Essay. Where is the truth, and where is the error? Everywhere and kidney research, nowhere. Everybody is right. What to someone seems beautiful is not so for someone else, simply because one person was moved and the other remained indifferent, and the former experienced profound delight while the latter acute boredom. What can be done about this?… nothing… but it is dreadful; I would rather be mad and believe in absolute beauty. Beethoven forsakes here completely the tones of epic and elegy to return to the less elevated, less sombre, though perhaps no less difficult style of the second symphony. The tone of this score is generally lively, alert, and joyful, or of a heavenly gentleness. Leaving aside the brooding adagio which serves as an introduction the first movement is almost wholly dedicated to joy. Social Injustice Essay. The theme in detached notes with which the allegro begins is locke law of text, no more than a canvas on which the composer lays out subsequently other more substantial melodies, and what looked at the start of the les miserables injustice essay movement like the principal theme is made to debt vs equity papers, appear of secondary importance.
Though it leads to unusual and interesting results, this device had already been used by Mozart and Haydn with comparable success. Injustice Essay. But in the second part of the same allegro a really new melody is introduced, the first bars of which arrest the listener’s attention, draw him into paper china its mysterious developments then surprise him with its unexpected conclusion. This is what happens. After a fairly vigorous tutti, the first violins break the opening theme into fragments which they turn into a dialogue pianissimo with the second violins. This leads to held notes on the dominant seventh of the key of B natural, each of which is separated by two bars of silence, filled only by a soft tremolo on the timpani on social the note B flat, the enharmonic major third of the fundamental F sharp.
The passage is arguments, repeated, then the timpani fall silent and leave the strings murmuring gently other fragments of the theme, and social essay, a new enharmonic modulation leads to a six-four chord of B flat. Essay On Why History. The timpani re-enter on les miserables the same note, now the genuine tonic and not as before the kidney paper leading note, and continue with the tremolo for les miserables social essay, some twenty bars. The tonal force of apush essay example, this B flat hardly registers initially, but gradually increases as the tremolo is prolonged. Les Miserables. Then the other instruments intersperse their forward momentum with short and term paper china, incomplete fragments under the continuous rumble of the timpani, and this leads to a general forte where the perfect chord of B flat is finally established in all its majesty in the full orchestra. This astonishing crescendo is one of the happiest inspirations we know in music. The only passage that could be compared is the conclusion of the famous scherzo of the symphony in C minor, though despite its overwhelming impact it is les miserables injustice, not conceived on such a vast scale, as it starts from piano to reach the final explosion but without departing from the home key, whereas the crescendo we have just described starts mezzo forte , disappears for a while in a pianissimo under harmonies of constantly vague and apush example, indeterminate colour, then reappears with chords in a more defined tonality, and only bursts out when the cloud obscuring this modulation has completely dissipated. It is injustice essay, like a river whose peaceful flow vanishes suddenly from sight and only re-emerges from its underground course to law of text, come crashing down in a foaming waterfall. As for the adagio , it defies analysis… So pure are the forms, so angelic the expression of the melody and so irresistibly tender, that the prodigious skill of the craftsmanship is social injustice, completely hidden from view.
From the very first bars one is gripped by emotion which by the end has reached an unbearable pitch of intensity. Vs Equity Papers. It is les miserables social injustice, only among one of the giants of poetry that it is possible to find something to compare to this sublime movement from the giant of music. Nothing resembles more the impression made by this adagio than the pro euthanasia arguments essay feelings one experiences when reading the touching episode of Francesca di Rimini in the Divina Commedia , the narrative of which Virgil cannot hear without bursting into les miserables injustice essay tears, and which at pro euthanasia arguments essay the last verse causes Dante to fall, just as a dead body collapses . This movement seems to injustice essay, have been breathed by the archangel Michael when, seized with a fit of melancholy, he contemplated the universe, standing on the threshold of the example empyrean. The scherzo consists almost entirely of phrases in two beats that are forced to les miserables injustice, fit into term papers the framework of bars in triple time. Beethoven has used this device frequently and it imparts considerable vitality to the music. Melodic endings become as a result more incisive and unexpected; in any case, these cross-rhythms have in themselves real charm, though it is difficult to explain why. There is special pleasure in seeing the beat dislocated in this way yet coming together again at the end of each period, and the musical logic though temporarily suspended eventually reaching a satisfactory conclusion and a complete solution.
The melody of the trio , played by the wind section, has exquisite freshness. The tempo is slower than that of the rest of the scherzo , and its simplicity gains extra elegance from the teasing little phrases delightfully tossed by the violins over the harmonic texture. The finale is joyful and alert and restricts itself to normal rhythmic forms. It consists of a jingle of injustice, scintillating notes in study a continuous chatter, sometimes interrupted by essay, a few raucous and wild chords, another example of those angry outbursts to essay on why, which we have already drawn attention with this composer. This, without doubt the les miserables most famous of the symphonies, is also in our opinion the first in which Beethoven gave wings to his vast imagination without being guided by or relying on any external source of inspiration. In the first, second and kidney paper, fourth symphonies, he has more or less enlarged already existing forms, suffusing them with all the les miserables social essay poetry his youthful vigour was capable of adding in terms of brilliant and passionate inspiration. In the third (the Eroica ) the forms are admittedly broadened and the musical thought rises to great heights, yet there is vs equity financing, no mistaking the influence of one of those divine poets whom the les miserables social essay great artist had long worshipped in vs equity his heart. Les Miserables Social Injustice. Beethoven, faithful to the precept of Horace: «Nocturna versate manu, versate diurna», regularly read Homer, and in his magnificent musical epic, inspired, it is said rightly or wrongly, by a contemporary hero, the memories of the ancient Iliad self-evidently play a wonderfully beautiful part. By contrast the essay on why C minor symphony seems to les miserables essay, arise directly and solely from Beethoven’s own genius. In it he develops his own intimate thoughts, it is about his secret suffering, his concentrated anger, his dreams full of apush example, such sad despair, his nocturnal visions, his outbursts of enthusiasm.
The forms taken by melody, harmony, rhythm and the orchestral writing are as substantially individual and novel as they are powerful and noble. The first movement depicts those turbulent feelings which move a great soul seized with despair – not the social calm and concentrated despair which has an paper air of les miserables social essay, resignation, nor the sombre and silent despair of Romeo learning of the death of Juliet, but rather the terrifying fury of Othello when he hears from the mouth of Iago the vs equity financing term poisonous calumnies which convince him of Desdemona’s crime. At times the mood is one of frenzied delirium which breaks out in terrifying cries, at others one of exaggerated despair which can express nothing but regret and self-pity. Listen to those orchestral hiccoughs, the chords exchanged between wind and strings which grow fainter as they come and go, like the social injustice essay painful breathing of a dying man, then give way to a violent gesture, where the paper china orchestra seems to social, rise again revived by a flash of anger. See how this quivering orchestral mass hesitates for a moment before plunging headlong, divided into two fiery unisons like two streams of paper china, lava. Can you deny that this passionate style of writing is les miserables social injustice, beyond and above everything that had been written before in orchestral music? There is a striking example in this movement of the effect produced by the occasionally excessive doubling of parts and of the raw character of the chord of papers, a fourth on the supertonic, in other words the second inversion of the dominant. It occurs frequently without preparation or resolution, and once even without the social injustice essay leading note and on a pause: the low D is in all the string voices, while there is term, a bare and dissonant G on top in some wind parts. The character of the adagio is rather reminiscent of the allegretto in A minor of the seventh symphony and of the slow movement in E flat of the fourth. It has the social injustice solemn melancholy of the former, and locke essays law of nature, the touching grace of the latter. The theme played first by the cellos and violas in les miserables social injustice essay unison, with a simple pizzicato accompaniment in the double basses, is followed by a passage for wind instruments which keeps returning in identical form and in the same key from beginning to end of the movement, whatever the successive changes undergone by essay, the first theme.
This persistent repetition of the identical phrase, constantly repeated with the same simple and deep sadness, gradually stirs in the mind of the listener an indescribable feeling, without doubt the most intense of its kind that we have experienced. Among the most daring harmonic effects in les miserables social essay this sublime elegy we may mention: 1 0 the term paper china high note held by flutes and clarinets on the dominant E flat while the strings are active lower down and progress through the chord of the sixth, D flat, F, B flat, which has no connection with the high pedal note; 2 0 the episodic passage played by les miserables social essay, a flute, an oboe and two clarinets in contrary motion, which occasionally results in unprepared dissonances of the second, between the leading note G and F, the major sixth of A flat. This third inversion of the chord of the leading seventh is forbidden by the majority of theorists, as is the kidney paper high pedal we have just mentioned, yet the result is altogether delightful. There is also at the last entry of the first theme a canon in unison at an interval of les miserables injustice essay, one bar , between the kidney research violins and flutes, the clarinets and bassoons, which would give added interest to the melody treated in this way if the imitation by the wind instruments could be heard; unfortunately the whole orchestra is playing loud at the same moment and makes it almost inaudible. The scherzo is a strange composition. The first bars, which in themselves have nothing that should alarm, provoke that inexplicable emotion experienced under the magnetic gaze of some individuals. Everything here is mysterious and sombre; the orchestral effects, all more or less sinister in character, seem to belong to the world of thought of the famous scene of Blacksberg in Goethe’s Faust . Les Miserables Social Injustice. The prevailing dynamics are piano and mezzo forte . The central section (the trio) is taken up by a passage for the basses, bowed with full vigour, the ponderous roughness of essays, which rattles the feet of the music stands and sounds rather like the antics of an les miserables social exhilarated elephant… But the stones paper monster moves away, and the sound of its wild frolics gradually fades. The theme of the scherzo reappears pizzicato ; gradually silence is social injustice, established, and only a few lightly plucked notes are heard from the violins together with the strange clicking sounds produced by the high A flat of the bassoons clashing with G, the octave of the tonic of the dominant minor ninth.
The strings then break the sequence and settle gently on on why history a bowed chord of social essay, A flat on essay which they doze off. The timpani using sponge-headed sticks keep the rhythm going on les miserables injustice essay their own with light strokes which stand out kidney stones research paper, faintly against the general somnolence of the rest of the orchestra. These timpani notes are Cs; the piece is in injustice essay C minor, but the chord of A flat, long held by the other instruments, seems to be introducing a different key; for its part the solitary pulsing of the timpani on arguments essay C tends to preserve the feeling of the original key. The ear hesitates… where will this harmonic mystery end?… and then the essay soft throbbing of the timpani gradually increase in volume, joined by the violins which have started to move again, changing the harmony. This leads to the dominant seventh chord of G, B, D and F while the timpani continue to play obstinately the tonic C. The whole orchestra, reinforced by the trombones which have not yet appeared, explodes now in locke law of nature the major in a triumphal march and the finale begins. The electrifying effect of this passage is well known, and there is no need to elaborate for the reader.
Critics have nevertheless sought to diminish the composer’s merit by asserting that he had merely resorted to a commonplace device in making the les miserables social brilliance of the major mode follow the pro euthanasia darkness of a pianissimo in a minor key, that the triumphal theme was lacking in injustice essay originality, and that interest flagged as the movement progressed instead of increasing. We would answer: is it because the transition from piano to locke on the law of text, forte , and from minor to les miserables social injustice, major , are known devices that there is less genius in creating such a work?… How many other composers have not tried to achieve this same effect? And how can their efforts compare with the gigantic hymn of victory, in which the soul of the poet musician, liberated from earthly shackles and suffering, seems to soar radiantly to heaven?… It is true that the first four bars of the march are not of striking originality; but there is pro euthanasia arguments, a limit to what can be done with the les miserables social injustice essay genre of the fanfare, and we do not believe it possible to invent new types of fanfare without giving up completely its simple, grandiose and festive character. Beethoven wanted for the start of his finale a fanfare-like entry; in the rest of the movement, in fact even in the continuation of the principal theme, he quickly reverts to the lofty and original style that is his hallmark. As for the criticism that he failed to sustain interest through the end of the movement, one might answer that in the present state of the art of music it is impossible to produce a more shattering effect than the transition from the scherzo to the triumphal march, and it was therefore not possible to intensify that effect any further. To remain at kidney stones such a height is already a prodigious feat; despite the breadth with which Beethoven develops his material, he nevertheless brings it off. Les Miserables. But this consistency of level from the beginning to the end is vs equity term papers, enough to give the impression of a fall-off; so great has been the initial impact on the listener, whose emotional response has been raised to the highest pitch, that it is all the more difficult to sustain it subsequently at the same level. In a long row of columns of the same height perspective suggests that the more distant ones are actually smaller. It could be that our inadequate constitutions would adapt better to a more laconic ending such as Gluck’s Our general is calling you back : the audience would thus not have the time to cool down, and the symphony would be over before fatigue prevented the audience from following in the composer’s footsteps. Les Miserables Injustice. But this remark only essay history applies so to speak to the way the work is presented; it does not disqualify this finale from being in itself of les miserables social, a magnificence and richness next to which very few pieces could stand comparison without being obliterated. Locke Essays Nature. This astonishing landscape could have been designed by Poussin and drawn by Michelangelo.
The author of Fidelio and of the Eroica symphony sets out to depict the tranquillity of the social countryside and the shepherds’ gentle way of vs equity financing term, life. But let us be clear: we are not dealing here with the picture-postcard and prettified shepherds of M. de Florian, still less those of M. Lebrun, who wrote the Rossignol [The Nightingale], or those of J.-J. Rousseau, the composer of the Devin du Village [The Village Soothsayer]. We are dealing here with real nature. The title given by the composer to his first movement is Gentle feelings stirred by the sight of a beautiful landscape . The shepherds begin to move about nonchalantly in the fields; their pipes can be heard from a distance and injustice, close-by. Exquisite sounds caress you like the scented morning breeze. A flight or rather swarms of twittering birds pass overhead, and the atmosphere occasionally feels laden with mists.
Heavy clouds come to hide the sun, then suddenly they scatter and paper china, let floods of dazzling light fall straight down on the fields and the woods. Social Injustice Essay. These are the images that come to mind when I hear this piece, and despite the vagueness of instrumental language I suppose that many listeners have probably reacted in the same way. Essay On Why Study History. Further on there is social injustice essay, a Scene by the brook . Contemplation… The composer probably created this wonderful adagio lying on his back in term the grass, his eyes turned to heaven, his ear listening to les miserables essay, the wind, fascinated by countless reflections of sound and light, observing and listening at once to the white ripples of the river as they break gently on the stones of the bank. This is delightful. There are some who vehemently criticise Beethoven for wanting to reproduce at the end of the adagio the song of three birds, at first in succession and then together. In my view the normal test of the appropriateness or absurdity of such attempts is whether they come off or not. On this point I would therefore say to Beethoven’s critics that they are right as far as the nightingale is concerned: the imitation of its song is no more successful here than in M. Lebrun’s well-known flute solo, for vs equity, the very simple reason that since the nightingale only emits indistinct sounds of indeterminate pitch it cannot be imitated by instruments with a fixed and precise pitch. Les Miserables Injustice Essay. But it seems to me that the case is different with the quail and the cuckoo, whose cry involves either one or two real notes of apush essay example, fixed pitch, and can therefore be fully imitated in a realistic way.
Now if the composer is criticised for introducing a childishly literal imitation of bird-song in a scene where all the quiet voices of heaven, earth and water must naturally find their place, I would say in reply that the same objection could be made when in les miserables the storm he also imitates faithfully the gusts of wind, the essay study flashes of lightning and the bellowing of social essay, animals. And heaven knows that no one has ever dreamed of criticising the storm of the term paper pastoral symphony! But let us proceed. Injustice. The poet now brings us in the midst of a Joyful gathering of peasants. The dancing and laughter are restrained at stones research paper first; the oboe plays a cheerful refrain accompanied by a bassoon that can only manage to produce two notes.
Beethoven’s intention was probably to suggest in this way an old German peasant, sitting on a cask with a decrepit old instrument, from which all he can draw are the two principal notes of the les miserables key of F, the dominant and the tonic. Every time the oboe plays its naive and jolly tune like a girl in her Sunday clothes, the old bassoon blows his two notes. When the melody modulates to a different key the bassoon falls silent and quietly counts his rests, until the original key returns and he is able to interject again unruffled his F, C and F. Essay. This burlesque effect is wonderfully apt but the public seems to miss it almost completely. The dance gets more animated and essay, becomes wild and noisy. A rough theme in duple time signals the arrival of essay history, mountaineers with their heavy clogs. The first section in triple time is repeated, but even more animated. The dancers mingle excitedly, the women’s hair flies loose over their shoulders, the social essay mountaineers add their noise and essays nature, intoxication, there is clapping, shouting and running, and les miserables injustice, the scene goes wild and furious… Then suddenly a distant clap of thunder strikes terror in the midst of term paper, this rustic ball and scatters the dancers. Storm, lightning . I despair of being able to convey an idea of this prodigious piece.
It has to be heard to understand how realistic and injustice essay, sublime imitative music can become in essay example the hands of someone like Beethoven. Listen to the gusts of injustice essay, wind gorged with rain, the dull growl of the basses, the shrill hissing of piccolos announcing the arguments essay fearful storm that is les miserables injustice essay, about the break out. The hurricane approaches and increases in intensity. A huge chromatic scale, starting in the upper instruments, plunges to the depths of the orchestra, picks up the basses on the way, drags them upwards, like a surging whirlwind that sweeps everything in its way. The trombones then burst out, the thunder of the timpani intensifies in violence; this is locke essays nature, no longer rain and essay, wind but a terrifying cataclysm, a universal deluge and study, the end of the social injustice world. In truth the paper china piece induces dizziness, and essay, there are many who on arguments hearing this storm are not sure whether the emotion they experience is one of pleasure or of pain.
The symphony concludes with the Thanksgiving of the peasants after the les miserables essay return of fine weather . Everything smiles again, the shepherds come back and answer each other on the mountain as they call their scattered flocks. The sky is clear, the torrents gradually dry out, calm returns and with it the rustic songs with their gentle tones. They soothe the mind, shattered as it was by the awesome splendour of the preceding tableau. Is it really necessary after this to write of the stylistic oddities to be found in this mighty work – the groups of five notes on the cellos clashing with passages of four notes in the double-basses, which grind together without being able to blend into a genuine unison? Must one mention the horn call which plays an arpeggio on the chord of C while the strings hold that of F?… In truth I cannot. To do this one has to think rationally, and how can you avoid being intoxicated when in pro euthanasia the grip of such a subject!
Far from it – if only one could sleep and go on sleeping for months on end, and social essay, inhabit in one’s dreams the unknown sphere which for arguments, a moment genius has allowed us to glimpse. After such a concert should one have the les miserables injustice misfortune to have to see some comic opera, attend a soiree of fashionable songs and a flute concerto, one would have a look of stupefaction. Should someone ask you: – How do you find this Italian duet? You would reply in history all seriousness. – And these variations for clarinet? – And the injustice essay finale of the new opera? And some distinguished artist who has heard your answers but does not know why you are so preoccupied, will point at you and say: Who is this idiot? How the ancient poems, for debt vs equity financing term papers, all their beauty and the admiration they evoke, pale before this marvel of modern music! Theocritus and les miserables injustice, Virgil were great landscape artists; lines like the following are music to the ears: «Te quoque, magna Pales, et te, memorande, canemus.
Pastor ab Amphryso; vos Sylvae amnesque Lycaei.» especially when they are not recited by barbarians like us French, who pronounce Latin in such a way that it could be mistaken for a peasant dialect… But Beethoven’s poem!… these long periods so full of colour!… these speaking images!… these scents!… this light!… this eloquent silence!… these vast horizons!… these magic hideouts in the woods!… these golden harvests!… these pink clouds like wandering specks in paper the sky!… this vast plain dozing under the midday sun!… Man is absent!… nature alone reveals herself glorying in her splendour… And the deep rest of everything that lives! And the wonderful life of les miserables social, everything that rests!… The little stream that pursues its murmuring course towards the river!… the river, the term source of all water, which descends towards the ocean in majestic silence!… Then man appears, the man from the countryside, robust and full of religious feeling… his joyful play interrupted by the storm… his fears… his hymn of les miserables social, thanksgiving… Hide your faces, poor great poets of pro euthanasia arguments essay, antiquity, poor immortals. Your conventional language, so pure and harmonious, cannot compete with the art of injustice, sound. You are vanquished, no doubt with glory, but vanquished all the same! You have not experienced what nowadays we call melody, harmony, the combination of different timbres, instrumental colour, modulations, the skilful clashes of conflicting sounds which fight and then embrace, the sounds that surprise the ear, the kidney research paper strange tones which stir the innermost recesses of the soul. The stammering of the childish art which you referred to as music could not give you any idea of this. For cultured minds you alone were the great melodists, the masters of harmony, rhythm, and expression. But these words had a very different meaning in your vocabulary from social what we give them now.
The art of sound in its true meaning, independent of anything else, was only born yesterday. It has scarcely reached manhood, and is barely twenty years old. It is beautiful and all-powerful: it is the Pythian Apollo of modern times. We owe to it a world of emotion and feeling which was closed to you. Yes, great venerated poets, you are vanquished: Inclyti sed victi . The seventh symphony is famous for its allegretto *. It is not that the essay three other movements are less worthy of admiration – far from it. Social Injustice Essay. But the public usually judges a work on the effect it produces, and only measures that effect by the volume of the applause. Consequently the pro euthanasia arguments movement that always receives the loudest applause is invariably thought to be the most beautiful (even though there is a certain kind of priceless beauty that is essay, not liable to excite noisy approval).
And then, to enhance even further the object of such partiality everything else is sacrificed to it. In France at least that is pro euthanasia, invariably the custom. Les Miserables Essay. That is why when talking of debt term papers, Beethoven one refers to the Storm of the pastoral symphony, the finale of the symphony in C minor, the andante of the symphony in A, etc., etc. *Which is always referred to as the adagio or andante . It has apparently not been established whether this work was composed after the Pastoral and the Eroica , and a number of people believe on the contrary that it preceded them by some time. If this opinion is well founded, then the number which identifies it as the seventh would only les miserables injustice essay be that of its sequence in the order of publication. The first movement opens with a broad and majestic introduction where melody, modulations and the orchestral writing successively hold the listener’s attention. Debt Vs Equity Term. It begins with one of those instrumental effects of which Beethoven is indisputably the creator. The whole orchestra plays a loud and sharp chord, and the ensuing silence reveals the slender voice of an exposed oboe, whose entry was disguised by the orchestral tutti and now develops the melody on its own.
There could hardly be a more original way of starting. Les Miserables Social Injustice Essay. At the end of the stones research introduction the note E, the dominant of injustice essay, A, returns after a series of excursions into neighbouring keys and forms the subject of a series of exchanges between violins and flutes, similar to the effect found in the opening bars of the finale of the Eroica symphony . The E comes and goes for on the text, six bars without accompaniment, changing its appearance every time it passes from social essay strings to wind. Finally it is taken over by flute and oboe and serves as bridge between the introduction and the allegro : it becomes the first note of the main theme, whose rhythmic outline it gradually sketches. I have heard this theme ridiculed for its rustic simplicity. Essay. Had the composer written in large letters at the head of this allegro the words Dance of peasants , as he has done for les miserables injustice essay, the Pastoral symphony, the charge that it lacks nobility would probably not have been made. This shows that while some listeners do not like to be forewarned of the study subject treated by the composer, there are others on the contrary who are inclined to react unfavourably to any theme that comes in an unfamiliar guise, if the les miserables social injustice essay explanation for apush essay, the anomaly is not provided in advance. Given the impossibility of deciding between such conflicting views the best course for les miserables social injustice, a composer in stones research such circumstances is to follow his own instinct instead of pursuing the social injustice essay vain delusion of universal approval. This theme has a strongly characterised rhythm, which permeates the harmony and shows up in a multitude of forms without ever interrupting the forward momentum of the music up to the end of the movement. The use of an ostinato rhythmic pattern has never been attempted so successfully. The ample developments of the allegro constantly revolve around the same idea, and so incredible is the skill with which it is written, so frequent and ingenious the variations in tonality, so novel the chordal progressions and their grouping, that the movement is over before the attention and warm response generated in term china the listener can lose any of their keenness.
The harmonic effect which champions of academic rigour criticise most vehemently is also the happiest: the resolution of the dissonance in the six-five chord on the subdominant of the social injustice key of E natural. This dissonance of a second on a very loud tremolo in the upper parts between the pro euthanasia arguments first and second violins is resolved in a completely novel way. One might have sustained the les miserables essay E and raised the F sharp to G, or sustained the F and brought the E down to D: but Beethoven did neither, and without changing the bass he merged the two dissonant parts into an octave on F natural, by moving the apush essay example F sharp a semitone lower and the E down by a major seventh. The chord of a fifth and social essay, major sixth thus becomes a minor sixth without the fifth which has dissolved into vs equity term F natural. The sudden transition from forte to piano at the exact point in this unusual harmonic transformation gives it an even stronger character and enhances its charm. Before passing on to the following movement let us not omit to mention the striking crescendo through which Beethoven brings back his favourite rhythm which he had momentarily left aside. This is done by means of a two bar phrase (D, C sharp, B sharp, B sharp, C sharp) in les miserables social injustice the key of A major, which is repeated eleven times in the lower register by the basses and violas, while the wind instruments sustain an E at the top, bottom and middle of the on why study range in quadruple octaves, and the violins sound a bell-like phrase, the three notes E, A, E, C, repeated in increasingly fast figuration and combined in such a way as to present always the dominant when the basses play D or B sharp, and the tonic or its third when they play C. Les Miserables Social. This is completely novel, and fortunately no imitator has tried, I believe, to vs equity term, squander this beautiful invention. As in the first movement though in a different form, a simple rhythm is again the social essay principal cause of the essay extraordinary effect produced by the allegretto . The rhythmic pattern consists merely of a dactyl followed by a spondee played relentlessly, either in three parts, or in les miserables social essay only one, then in all parts together. Sometimes it serves as an accompaniment, but frequently it focuses attention on itself, and also provides the starting point for a small fugal episode with two subjects played by the strings. It appears first in the lower strings – violas, cellos, double-basses – played piano , then is repeated soon after in a pianissimo full of melancholy and mystery.
From there it passes to the second violins while the cellos sing a kind of lament in the minor mode. The rhythmic pattern rises from octave to octave, reaches the first violins who then pass it in history a crescendo to the wind instruments at the top of the orchestra, where it bursts out in its full force. Sounded with even greater vehemence the melody now assumes the character of an anguished lament. Conflicting rhythms clash painfully with each other; these are tears, sobs and supplications, this is the expression of limitless grief and all-consuming suffering… But a ray of hope appears: these heartbreaking sounds are followed by a transparent melody, pure, simple, gentle, sad and resigned like patience smiling to suffering . The basses continue on their own with their inexorable rhythm under this melodic rainbow; to borrow yet another quotation from les miserables social essay English poetry, « One fatal remembrance, one sorrow, that throws. Its black shade alike o'er our joys and locke essays on the law of nature, our woes. » After a similar alternation of anguish and resignation, the orchestra, as though drained by such a painful struggle, plays only fragments of the main theme and les miserables essay, collapses in exhaustion. Flutes and oboes pick up the theme in a dying voice, but do not have the strength to finish it, which the violins do with a few barely audible pizzicato notes. At this point the wind instruments, reviving like the example flame of a candle on the point of extinction, utter a deep sigh on an unresolved harmony and… the les miserables social injustice rest is silence . This mournful cry, which begins and ends the andante , is produced by a six-four chord, which always tends to resolve itself onto another one. Ending on an unresolved harmony is the only way to conclude, by leaving the essay study listener in suspense and thereby increasing the impression of social injustice, dreamy sadness into which everything that came before must have plunged him. The theme of the study scherzo modulates in a very novel way. It is in F major, and instead of concluding at the end of the first phrase in C, B flat, D minor, A minor, A flat, or D flat, like the majority of pieces of this kind, the modulation reaches the key of A major, a major third above the les miserables injustice tonic. The scherzo of the Pastoral symphony , also in F, modulates to D major, a third below.
There is some similarity of colour in these key sequences; but other resemblances can also be observed between the two works. Arguments. The trio of the seventh symphony ( presto meno assai ), in which the violins hold the les miserables social essay dominant almost continuously, while oboes and clarinets play underneath a bright rustic melody, is very much in the spirit of landscape painting and the idyll. Yet another new type of crescendo can be found there, played in the lower register by the second horn, who repeats softly the on why study history notes A and G sharp in social injustice duple time, though the main beat is in triple time, with emphasis on the G sharp though A is the real note. The public always seems taken by surprise on hearing this passage. The finale is at least as rich as the preceding movements in apush essay new combinations, incisive modulations and social, delightful flights of fantasy. The theme has some similarities with that from Gluck's overture to Armide , though only in the disposition of the opening notes, and these are more obvious to the eye than to the ear: in performance the two themes could hardly be more different. The freshness and paper, elegance of Beethoven’s theme, very different from the chivalrous dash of that of les miserables social injustice, Gluck, would make a greater impression if the chords played in the high register by the wind instruments did not cover so much the first violins playing in the middle range, while second violins and violas underneath accompany the melody with a tremolo in double-stopping.
Throughout this finale Beethoven has achieved effects as graceful as they are unexpected with the sudden transition from the financing papers key of C sharp minor to that of D major. Among his most daring and felicitous harmonic inventions is without doubt the long pedal on the dominant E, decorated with a D sharp of equal value as the main note. The chord of the seventh is sometimes brought about in the upper part, with the result that the D natural of the upper parts coincides precisely with the D sharp of the basses. One might imagine that the result would be a dreadful dissonance, or at les miserables essay least a lack of harmonic clarity; yet this is not the case, and the tonal thrust of term paper china, this dominant is such that the D sharp does not disfigure it in any way, and that only the buzzing E registers. Beethoven did not write music for the eyes . The coda, launched by this threatening pedal, has extraordinary brilliance, and is fully worthy of bringing this work to les miserables social essay, its conclusion – a masterpiece of apush, technical skill, taste, imagination, craftsmanship and inspiration. This symphony is social injustice, also in locke essays nature text F, like the Pastoral , though it is designed on a more modest scale than the preceding symphonies. Yet though it hardly exceeds the first symphony (in C major) in the breadth of its forms, it is at least far superior to it in three respects – instrumental writing, rhythm and melodic style. The first movement has two themes, both of them gentle and peaceful in social essay character. The second and in our view the more striking of the two always seems to china, avoid the perfect cadence, by modulating first in a completely unexpected way (the phrase begins in D major and ends in les miserables social essay C major), and then dissipating itself inconclusively on the diminished seventh chord of the subdominant. This capricious turn in the melody gives the locke essays on the nature text listener the injustice essay feeling that the composer, inclined at first towards gentle feelings, has suddenly been distracted by arguments essay, a sad thought which interrupts his joyful song. The andante scherzando is one of those creations for which there is neither model nor counterpart: it drops from heaven complete into the composer’s imagination; he writes it at a single stretch and we are amazed to hear it.
The role of the wind instruments is here the opposite of their normal one: they accompany with repeated chords, played pianissimo eight times in les miserables social injustice every bar, the airy dialogue a punta d’arco between violins and basses. This has a gentle innocence which is delightful in its nonchalant manner, like the song of two children picking flowers in a field on a fine spring morning. The main theme consists of two sections of three bars each, the debt financing term symmetry of which is broken by the silence which follows the basses’ reply; as a result the first section ends on the weak beat and the second on the strong. Social Injustice. The harmonic ticking of the oboes, clarinets, horns and bassoons so captivates the listener that he does not notice the lack of symmetry in vs equity term the strings’ melody which results from the les miserables social injustice additional silent bar. The function of example, this bar is evidently to leave exposed for longer the delightful chord over which the lively melody flutters. This example shows once more that the law of symmetry can sometimes be broken to good effect.
But it is hard to believe that this exquisite idyll should end with the commonplace which Beethoven disliked most, namely the Italian cadence. At the les miserables social essay moment when the instrumental dialogue of the two small orchestras of wind and strings is at essay history its most enchanting, the composer, as though suddenly obliged to stop, makes the violins play tremolo the four notes G, F, A, B flat (sixth, dominant, leading note, tonic), repeat them several times in a hurry, exactly as when the Italians sing Felicita , and then come to an abrupt halt. I have never been able to make sense of injustice essay, this musical joke. At this point a minuet, similar in design and research paper, tempo to those of Haydn, takes the place of the scherzo in les miserables social essay triple time which Beethoven invented and which he has used in all his other symphonic works in such an ingenious and striking way. In truth this is a rather ordinary piece, and the old-fashioned form seems to have stifled musical thought. The finale by research paper, contrast sparkles with wit; the musical material is brilliantly original and richly developed.
It has diatonic progressions in two parts and in contrary motion, through which the composer achieves a crescendo of huge dimension which brings the work to a most effective conclusion. The harmonic writing does however contain a few rough edges caused by passing notes which are not resolved quickly enough on the right notes and which sometimes even pause on a silence. At the social injustice essay cost of some violence to the letter of musical theory it is easy to explain away these passing dissonances, but in china performance they always grate on the ear to a greater or lesser degree. But consider the high pedal held by the flutes and oboes on F, while the les miserables timpani underneath repeat the same note in octaves at the return of the theme, and the violins play the notes C, G and B flat from the dominant seventh chord, preceded by the third F, A from the tonic chord. This sustained high note may not be allowed by theory, since it does not always fit into the harmony, but it does not cause any offence. On the contrary, thanks to the skilful layout of the instruments and the character of the musical phrase, the result of this bunching of sounds is excellent and remarkably smooth. Before concluding we cannot omit mentioning an apush essay orchestral effect which perhaps more than any other takes the listener by surprise when this finale is les miserables essay, performed: the note C sharp played very loud by the mass of the study orchestra in unison and in octaves after a diminuendo which has faded out in the key of C major.
The first two times this rasp is immediately followed by the return of the theme in F, and it becomes clear that the C sharp was simply an social essay enharmonic D flat, the flattened sixth of the locke essays on the nature text main key. But the third appearance of this strange entry has a very different character. The orchestra, after modulating to C as before now plays a real D flat followed by a fragment of the theme in social D flat, then a real C sharp, followed by another fragment of the theme in C sharp minor, and finally repeats this C sharp three times over with increased force, and the whole theme now returns in F sharp minor . The note which initially played the role of a minor sixth becomes on its last appearance successively the flattened major third , the sharpened minor third , and finally the dominant . This is essay, very striking. To analyse such a work is difficult and daunting task which we have long hesitated to undertake. The excuse for such a foolhardy venture can only lie in our persistent efforts to see the les miserables work through the composer’s eyes, to penetrate its intimate meaning, to experience its impact, and to study the impressions it has made so far on stones paper a few who are gifted with exceptional sensitivity, as well as on the general public. Among the many diverse views that have been expressed on this score there can hardly be two that are in agreement. Some critics regard it as a monstrous insanity ; others can only social see in it the fading glimmers of a dying genius ; more cautiously a few declare they find it at the moment completely unintelligible, but do not despair of achieving at pro euthanasia arguments least an approximate understanding of it later; the majority of artistically minded people regard it as an extraordinary conception, though some of its parts nevertheless remain unexplained or without apparent purpose. A small number of musicians who are temperamentally inclined to examine carefully anything that might enlarge the realm of art, and who have thought deeply about the general layout of the Choral symphony after studying the score and listening to it attentively on several occasions, assert that this work seems to them the most magnificent expression of Beethoven’s genius: we believe we have said at some earlier point that this is the opinion we share. Without enquiring what purely personal ideas the composer might have wanted to express in this vast musical poem – a subject wide open to individual conjecture – let us see whether the novelty of the form is not justified in this case by an intention that is quite independent of any philosophical or religious thought, which might seem equally reasonable and social, beautiful to anyone, be he a fervent Christian, a pantheist or an debt vs equity papers atheist, in short by an intention of a purely musical and social essay, poetic kind. Beethoven had already written eight symphonies before this one. Locke Essays On The Nature. To progress beyond the les miserables injustice point he had already reached solely with the resources of orchestral instruments, what further means were available?
The answer is the vs equity papers addition of voices to instruments. But in order to observe the law of crescendo , and enhance in social the work itself the power of the additional resource he wanted to provide to the orchestra, it was surely necessary to allow the instruments to figure on their own in the first section of the locke essays nature text musical canvas he intended to display… Granted this premise, it is easy to see that he must have been led to search for a mixed musical genre to serve as link between the two major articulations of the symphony. The instrumental recitative was the bridge he had the audacity to throw between the injustice essay chorus and essays on the law of text, the orchestra, over which the instruments crossed to go and join the voices. The transition once established the composer must have wanted to announce and motivate the fusion that was about to take place. That is the point where speaking through the social chorus leader, he exclaimed, to the sound of the instrumental recitative he had just introduced: Friends! No more sounds like these, but let us intone more pleasant songs, more filled with joy!
That is, so to speak, the treaty of alliance concluded between chorus and pro euthanasia arguments essay, orchestra; the same theme of the recitative, used by social essay, both orchestra and chorus, seems to constitute the oath formula. Thereafter it was up to the composer to select the papers text for his choral composition: for this Beethoven turned to Schiller and les miserables social injustice essay, took over locke essays text the Ode to Joy . Injustice. He coloured it with countless nuances which poetry on its own could never have conveyed, and it progresses to the end acquiring ever more splendour, grandeur and brilliance. Such is the rationale, it may be suggested more or less plausibly, for the general scheme of this immense work; let us now study its individual parts in term detail. The first movement has a sombre majesty and is like no other piece written by Beethoven before. The harmony is at times excessively daring: the injustice most original patterns, the arguments most expressive gestures crowd in and criss-cross in social essay every direction, but without causing any obscurity or congestion. On the essay contrary the result has perfect clarity, and the numerous orchestral voices that plead or threaten, each in its own way and its own special style, seem to form a single voice, such is the emotional charge that drives them. This allegro maestoso , written in D minor, begins nevertheless on the chord of A without the third, in other words on the notes A and E sustained as a fifth, and played as an arpeggio above and les miserables social injustice essay, below by the first violins, violas and double-basses. The listener is therefore not sure whether he is hearing the chord of A minor, or of term, A major, or that of the dominant of D. This prolonged tonal ambiguity gives great power and character to les miserables social, the entry of the full orchestra on the chord of D minor. At the end of the movement there are moments that move the soul to its depths. Debt Term. It would be hard to les miserables, hear anything more profoundly tragic than the song of the wind instruments beneath which a chromatic phrase played tremolo by the strings swells and rises gradually, like the roar of the sea before an approaching storm.
This is a passage of magnificent inspiration. On several occasions in this work we will be drawing attention to clusters of notes which cannot possibly be described as chords, and pro euthanasia, we will be forced to admit that the reason for these anomalies escapes us completely. For example on page 17 of the wonderful movement we have been describing there is a melodic passage for clarinets and bassoons, which is accompanied as follows in the key of C minor: the bass plays first an F sharp supporting a diminished seventh, then an A flat supporting a third, fourth and augmented sixth, and finally G over which flutes and oboes play the notes E flat, G, C which gives a six-four chord. This would be an excellent resolution of the previous chord if the second violins and violas did not add to social injustice essay, the harmony the two notes F natural and A flat which disfigure it and cause a most unpleasant confusion which fortunately is of short duration. This passage is lightly scored and completely free from any roughness; I cannot therefore understand this quadruple dissonance which is debt term papers, so strangely introduced and completely unmotivated. One might suppose there is an engraving error, but a careful inspection of social essay, these two bars and those that precede dispels all doubts and one remains convinced that this is really what the composer intended. The scherzo vivace which follows contains nothing of the same kind. Admittedly there are a number of pedal notes on the tonic in debt financing the upper and social injustice, middle voices which are sustained through the kidney research paper dominant chord. Les Miserables Essay. But I have already stated my position on these pedal notes that are foreign to the harmony, and financing term, this new example is not needed to demonstrate the excellent use they can be put to when they arise naturally from the musical logic. It is particularly through the use of rhythm that Beethoven has managed to make this delightful banter so interesting. Les Miserables Social Essay. The theme with its fugal response four bars later is full of vitality, and sparkles with wit when the response then comes a bar earlier and follows a ternary instead of the initial binary rhythm.
The central part of the scherzo is taken up with a presto in duple time full of rustic joy. The theme is deployed over an intermediary pedal note which is either the apush example tonic or the dominant, accompanied by a counter-subject which harmonises equally well with either of the held notes, the dominant and the tonic . The melody is finally brought back by a phrase of delightful freshness in les miserables injustice the oboe; after staying poised for pro euthanasia arguments, a moment over les miserables social the dominant major chord of D it finally blossoms in the key of F natural in a way that is as graceful as it is unexpected. This is another echo of the gentle impressions that Beethoven loved so much, impressions that are aroused by the sight of a radiant and peaceful landscape, pure air and the first rays of dawn in spring. In the adagio cantabile the principle of unity is so little observed that one might think of it as two separate movements rather than one. The first melody in B flat in quadruple time is debt term, followed by a completely different melody in D major in triple time. The first theme, slightly altered and varied by the first violins, appears for the second time in the original key and leads to the return of the melody in triple time, unchanged and les miserables social injustice essay, without embellishments but in the key of G major. Essay. After this the first theme finally establishes itself and no longer allows the rival theme to compete for the listener’s attention. Repeated hearings of this wonderful adagio are needed to get completely used to such a peculiar design.
As for the beauty of all these melodies, the infinite grace of the ornaments which decorate them, the feelings of sad tenderness, passionate despair and religious reverie they express, if only injustice essay my words could give even an approximate idea of them, then music would have found in history the written word a rival which even the greatest of poets will never be able to oppose to it. It is an immense movement, and once the listener has succumbed to its powerful charm, the only answer to the criticism that the composer has violated here the law of unity has to be: so much the worse for the law! We are now close to the moment when the voices are about to join the orchestra. Cellos and double-basses intone the recitative we mentioned above, after a passage for the wind instruments as harsh and violent as a cry of injustice, anger. The chord of the major sixth, F, A and D, with which this presto begins, is essay history, altered by an appogiatura on B flat, played simultaneously by flutes, oboes and clarinets; the sixth of the key of D minor grinds dreadfully against the dominant and les miserables social injustice, produces an excessively harsh effect. This does indeed express fury and rage, but here again I cannot see what motivates such feelings, unless the composer, before making the chorus leader sing the words: Let us intone more pleasant songs , had wanted in a strangely capricious way to vilify the orchestral harmony. Yet he seems to regret it, since in apush essay between each phrase of the recitative of the basses, he repeats, like so many memories that are dear to essay, his heart, fragments of the three preceding movements. Locke On The. What is more, after this first recitative, he puts in the orchestra, in the midst of exquisitely chosen chords, the beautiful theme which is about to les miserables, be sung by all the voices on paper Schiller’s ode. This theme, gentle and calm in character, becomes increasingly animated and brilliant as it moves from the basses which play it first to the violins and the wind instruments. After a sudden interruption, the whole orchestra plays again the furious ritornello mentioned above which now introduces the vocal recitative. The first chord is again built on an F which is supposed to social injustice essay, carry the third and the sixth and does indeed do so, but this time the composer not content with the appogiatura of B flat adds those of G, E and term china, C sharp, with the result that ALL THE NOTES OF THE MINOR DIATONIC SCALE are played at once and produce the hideous assembly of notes: F, A, C sharp, E, G, B flat, D. Forty years ago, the French composer Martin, known as Martini, wanted to produce in his opera Sapho a similar howl for the orchestra, and les miserables, did so by using at once all the diatonic, chromatic and essays text, enharmonic intervals of the les miserables social injustice essay scale at the moment when Phaon’s mistress hurls herself into the sea – but he did not ask himself whether his attempt was appropriate and whether it enhanced or assaulted the dignity of art, though admittedly there could be no mistaking his intentions.
But in this case my efforts at discovering Beethoven’s purpose are completely in vain. I can see a formal intention, a deliberate and calculated attempt to produce a double discordance, both at the point which precede the appearance of the financing recitative, instrumental at first and later vocal. I have searched hard for the reason for this idea, and I have to admit that it is unknown to me. The chorus leader, after singing his recitative on words by Beethoven himself, as we have mentioned, introduces on his own the social injustice theme of the Ode to Joy , with a light accompaniment of two wind instruments and apush essay, the strings playing pizzicato . This theme recurs to the end of the symphony and is always recognisable, though its appearance keeps changing. A study of these diverse transformations is les miserables essay, all the more absorbing as each of them brings out a new and distinctive nuance in essays on the law of nature text the expression of a single feeling, that of joy. At first this joy is full of social essay, gentleness and peace; it becomes somewhat livelier when the voice of women is heard. The beat changes; the theme, sung initially in quadruple time, returns in 6/8 time in syncopated style and now takes on a more robust and research paper, agile character that has a martial quality. This is the song of a departing hero who is les miserables, confident of term, victory; you can almost imagine his shining armour and hear the rhythmic tread of his step.
A fugal theme in which the original melody can be recognised, serves for a while as subject for a lively orchestral development, which recalls the bustling activity of a crowd full of ardour… But the chorus soon re-enters and sings energetically the joyful hymn in its original simplicity, supported by chords of the wind instruments which shadow the melody, and criss-crossed by a diatonic passage played by the whole mass of strings in unison and octaves. The andante maestoso which follows is a kind of chorale intoned first by the tenors and basses of the chorus, in injustice unison with a trombone, the cellos and double-basses. Joy here assumes a religious dimension and becomes solemn and immense. The chorus falls briefly silent then resumes less emphatically its spacious chords, after a passage of great beauty for orchestra alone which has an organ-like quality. The imitation of the majestic instrument of vs equity papers, Christian churches is produced by flutes in the lower register, clarinets in the chalumeau register, the les miserables lower notes of the bassoons, the violas divided into two parts, upper and lower, and the cellos playing on their open strings G and D, or the low C (open string) and stones research paper, the C in the middle range, always in double-stopping. This piece starts in G, moves to C, then to F, and ends on a pause on the dominant seventh of D. There follows a great allegro in 6/4 where from the start are combined the beginning of the first theme, already used frequently with such variety, and the chorale of the les miserables preceding andante . The contrast between these two ideas is made even more striking by a fast variation of the joyful theme, on top of the long notes of the chorale, played not only by the first violins but also by essay, the double-basses. Social Injustice. Now it is impossible for double-basses to perform a succession of notes at pro euthanasia essay that speed, and social, once again it is hard to on the law of text, understand how a composer as familiar as Beethoven with the art of orchestration could have committed such a lapse in writing a passage like this for this unwieldy instrument. There is less fire and les miserables social essay, grandeur, and greater lightness in the style of the following piece: its keynote is that of innocent joy, expressed first by four solo voices and then given greater warmth through the addition of the chorus. Moments of tenderness and religious feeling alternate twice with the joyful melody, then the kidney stones research paper tempo becomes increasingly precipitate.
The whole orchestra bursts out, the percussion instruments – timpani, cymbals, triangle, bass drum – strike emphatically the strong beats of the bar. Joy resumes her sway, a popular and tumultuous joy which might look like an orgy if at the end the les miserables injustice voices did not pause once more on kidney research paper a solemn rhythm to send, in an ecstatic cry, their final greeting of love and respect for religious joy. The orchestra ends on its own, but not without interspersing its headlong rush with fragments of the first theme which the listener cannot get tired of. Social. A translation as accurate as possible of the German poem set by study, Beethoven will convey to the reader the stimulus for this profusion of musical combinations, masterly supports of unceasing inspiration and obedient tools of a powerful and tireless genius * . « Joy! Fair spark of the gods, daughter of les miserables injustice, Elysium, we enter your sanctuary intoxicated with your fire! Your magic power unites again those whom earthly customs have forcibly separated. All men will be brothers again under your gentle wing. « Who has had the good fortune to apush, be the social injustice essay friend of apush example, a friend, who has won a noble wife, let him mingle his joy with ours! Yes, any who can call even one soul on earth his own.
But who cannot, let him steal away in tears from this gathering. « All beings drink joy on the breast of nature; all good and all evil men follow a path strewn with roses. She gave us kisses and vintage, a friend who is les miserables social essay, true unto death. The worm receives the locke essays nature text joy of life and the cherub stands before God! « Glad like the suns that fly through the glorious fields of heaven, hurry, brothers, on your way, joyful like a hero hastening to victory. « Millions, be embraced! This kiss to the whole world! Brothers, above the starry heaven, a dear father must have his dwelling. « You fall prostrate, o you millions? World, do you sense the creator?
Seek him above the starry heaven! He must dwell over the stars! « Joy! Fair spark of the les miserables injustice gods, daughter of Elysium, we enter your sanctuary intoxicated with your fire! « Daughter of Elysium, joy, fair spark of the gods!! » Of all the composer’s symphonies this is the most difficult to perform; it requires patient and repeated study, and in particular a good conductor. It also requires a body of singers all the larger since evidently the chorus must cover the orchestra in many places. In addition, the way the music is written for the words and research paper, the excessive height of some of the choral parts make voice production very difficult and reduce considerably the volume and injustice essay, power of the sound.
Be that as it may, when Beethoven had finished his work and pro euthanasia arguments, could contemplate the majestic dimensions of the monument he had just built, he must have said to les miserables injustice essay, himself: «Death may come now, but my task is accomplished.» * Note: the following is our own translation of Schiller's German text. The Hector Berlioz Website was created by Michel Austin and Monir Tayeb on 18 July 1997;
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cliff notes essay M ercaptans and other volatile sulfur compounds in wine. Printable version is available here. An article on volatile sulfur compounds in wine isn’t likely to les miserables social injustice, turn many heads. In truth, it’s the sort of topic that gets filed away as ‘worthy but dull’, and only ever gets read by people who are swotting up for their diploma or MW, and then gets promptly forgotten. Aware of this, I’m willing to strike a deal with my readers. Financing Papers! If I try my best to cover this otherwise fiercely dull and technical wine science piece in a manner that is both readable and doesn’t require any specialist science knowledge, will you try to venture below the first paragraph? Volatile sulfur compounds, and specifically mercaptans, are a hot topic in injustice essay wine at the moment, so it’s worth learning a bit about debt financing term, them. These are the les miserables social injustice essay compounds largely responsible for the olfactory defect known as ‘reduction’. And there’s a lot of ignorance and misinformation appearing about them, even in print.
My aim in this piece is to present a step-by-step guide to these molecules in wine, bringing in some of the latest research and providing an accessible introduction to the subject without skimping on the meaty bits. There are around 100 volatile sulfur compounds that have been identified in wine, but only a few are significant enough to be included in our story here. Law Of Text! What do you need to know about them? First and foremost, they are smelly. Injustice Essay! Thus even at low concentrations they can have a sensory impact on example the wine.
Second, they are chemical chameleons, able to subtly change their form depending on the wine environment they are in: this is significant because if they are below detection threshold in one less smelly form, they may suddenly become noticeable in another more smelly form. Les Miserables Essay! Third, they aren’t all bad: recent research has shown that they are important contributors to varietal character in many wines, so winemakers should be careful not to just eliminate them randomly. ‘Reduction’ is the term used to describe the presence of volatile sulfur compounds in wine. It’s actually a bit of a misnomer. Let me try to locke law of nature text, explain why. Reduction and oxidation are two different chemical processes that complement each other. Social Essay! In a chemical reaction, electrons change hands, and as one compound is term paper oxidized another is les miserables social essay reduced. If there is apush plenty of oxygen around, then chemical components in a wine will be gradually oxidized (the electrons are transferred from the chemical components in the wine to the oxygen). The end result is an oxidized wine. Les Miserables Social Essay! During fermentation the yeasts need oxygen, and in the early stages of red wine development a little oxygen is pro euthanasia arguments essay helpful because it allows the oxidation of some ethanol to acetaldeyde (also known as ethanal) which can then help with the social injustice development of tannins and pigmented polymers that are important in building structure and term china, colour (this is the theory behind microoxygenation).
But after this, wine development is largely reductive: that is, it occurs best in the relative absence of oxygen. This is social injustice essay where we will need to get to grips with a chemical term: redox potential. This is a measure of term paper china how oxidative or reductive a system, such as a wine in social injustice barrel or bottle is, and it is measured in millivolts (mV)—the higher the reading, the less reductive. Law Of Nature! Typically, an aerated red wine will have a redox potential of 400–450 mV, whereas storage in the absence of air for social injustice, some time will reduce this to debt vs equity term papers, 200–250 mV. If levels get as low as 150 mV then there is a danger that reduction problems can occur. Exposure to oxygen through winemaking practices such as racking, topping up barrels and filtering, increases the level of dissolved oxygen in the wine and increases the redox potential, which will then return to 200–300 mV. Les Miserables Social Essay! In white wines, this redox level will change much more rapidly than red wines, because red wines have a higher concentration of phenolic compounds such as tannins which are able to interact with oxygen, and act as buffers.
Another variable here is the level of free sulfur dioxide in the wine, which will act protectively by on why reacting with the products of oxidation. Yeast lees also scavenge oxygen and protect the wine in a similar fashion, helping to lower the redox potential and create a more reductive environment. In modern winemaking, reductive conditions are encouraged: the injustice essay protection of debt term wines from oxygen by les miserables social essay the use of stainless steel tanks and pro euthanasia arguments essay, inert gases helps to preserve fresh fruit characters. These r eductive conditions—those in which oxygen is more or less excluded—can also favour the les miserables social development of smelly forms of sulfur compounds. This is where thee term ‘reduced’ comes from, and locke law of, if this ‘reduction’ occurs before bottling, addition of les miserables social oxygen may correct the fault. But it is important to note that these sulfur compounds can develop in wine even in non-reductive conditions, at essay, which stage further oxygen exposure may result in turning a smelly wine into a smelly oxidized wine. Equating the term ‘reduced’ with the presence of volatile sulfur compounds is therefore an oversimplification. In fact, when people use ‘reduction’, they are actually referring to the presence of sulphur compounds. The use of this term is essay quite unhelpful, because it is nature text scientifically imprecise and can be misleading. ‘ Reduction is les miserables social injustice essay a simplification, a language abuse,’ says Dominique Delteil, scientific director of the apush essay ICV in the south of France. ‘As often occurs in wine vocabulary, tasters have been willing to link sensory sensations to chemical or physical states, without being sure they are real or not. Reduction is typical of this.’ Delteil continues, ‘I prefer to call this concept sulfur flavours rather than reduction.’ Now that we’ve spelt this out, I hope that no one will object to me continuing to les miserables essay, use reduction as a shorthand for these sulfur flavours.
Volatile sulfur compounds: a quick tour. So what are the characteristics of reduction? These can be quite variable, and this is probably why there’s some confusion on essay the subject. Table 1 summarizes some of the commonly encountered sulfur flavours in wine. TABLE 1 Some of the volatile sulfur compounds in wine. Rotten eggs, sewage.
This is the main baddy, made by yeasts when they use one of the sulfur-containing amino acids as a nitrogen source. Stress also encourages its formation. Mercaptans (also known as thiols) This is a large group of very smelly sulfur compounds. Terms such as cabbagey, rubbery, struck flint or burnt rubber are used as descriptors. If hydrogen sulfide isn’t removed quickly, it can result in mercaptan production. This is a big worry for injustice, winemakers. burnt match, sulfidy, earthy. Often negative, but can be positive in the right wine environment at certain levels.
methyl mercaptan (methanethiol) rotten cabbage, cooked cabbage, burnt rubber, stagnant water. One of the pro euthanasia compounds implicated in screwcap reduction. Cooked vegetables, cooked corn, canned tomato at essay, high levels; blackcurrant drink concentrate at lower levels. Quince, truffle. Sweet, ethereal, slightly green, sulfidy. Vegetal, cabbage, onion-like at kidney stones research, high levels. garlic, burnt rubber. 4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one (4MMP), 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol (3MH), 3-mercaptohexyl acetate (3MHA) Tropical fruit/passion fruit at low levels; cat’s urine at higher levels.
These are the polyfunctional thiols that are common in Sauvignon Blanc but also found in red wines where they can contribute to les miserables, the blackcurrant fruit aroma. On Why! An example of sulfur flavours that can be positive in injustice essay the right environment. Can be positive in the right context and at the right levels. Where do these sulfur compounds come from in the first place? It’s mainly from yeasts. In particular, if yeasts are having a hard time finding enough nitrogen in the musts, they’ll make use of the amino acid cysteine as a nitrogen source. Cysteine contains sulfur, and this sulfur is essay recombined chemically by the yeast metabolism to form the social smelly sulfur compounds that are the subject of essay this piece. It is of great importance, therefore, for winemakers to make sure that their yeasts are happy and les miserables injustice, have an adequate nitrogen supply. ‘Yeast assimable nitrogen’ is the technical term that’s used here.
But even where the yeasts are relatively happy, some formation of sulfur compounds during fermentation seems inevitable. And these compounds need careful handling by winemakers if they aren’t to turn into problems. Why sulfur compounds in wine is officially a hot topic. Volatile sulfur compound chemistry is example a hot topic in wine for two reasons. First of all, the closures debate has pointed the finger at screwcaps in les miserables essay sealing wines so tightly that the resulting wine environment has a low redox potential that in turn encourages reduction.
Secondly, one of the apush high-end discussions among wine makers is whether reduction is always a bad thing. Recent work has shown that some of the volatile sulfur compounds are important components of the varietal character of Sauvignon Blanc. They may also be important for other wine styles, too, and have also been isolated from wines made with Gewrztraminer, Riesling, Colombard, Petit Manseng, Semillon, Cabernet Sauvignon and Merlot, among others. Social Injustice! And there’s some interesting evidence that ‘reduction’ at a low level, in china the right wine contexts, may be an important complexing factor. Could it even be that what we think of as minerality in wine, which we attribute to les miserables social injustice, the soil—terroir, if you will—could all be about volatile sulfur compounds? Now there’s a thought. Let’s first correct a popular misconception, though. Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) is debt vs equity financing term not a volatile sulfur compound, and les miserables social essay, is not really part of the ‘reduction’ syndrome. SO 2 is added to wine in order to provide microbiological stability, and perhaps more importantly to locke on the text, prevent oxidation.
Actually, it’s a little more complicated than that. SO 2 splits into les miserables essay, various molecular forms in wine, of which only the debt vs equity papers free SO 2 has any protective activity. It reacts with oxygen only slowly, so in actual fact its role is to bind up the products of oxidation in wine so that the oxidation isn’t apparent, even though oxidation of the wine components will already have occurred. This is a complicated, but important story, but it isn’t terribly relevant to our discussions here. Now the social injustice essay really controversial bit. Can you believe it?
Sulfur compounds in wine—‘reduction’—has been in the national press in the last few weeks. The Daily Telegraph carried a story titled ‘Screwcaps blamed for tainting wine’ on 19th September, which was also picked up by other news outlets. Paper! This was prompted by les miserables injustice essay the results of the faults clinic from the 2006 International Wine Challenge (IWC). ‘In a number of arguments cases the IWC chairmen validated a link between screw cap use and a unfavourable vegetal/rubber flavoured compound—presumed to be a complexed sulfide’, reports Sam Harrop MW, who was one of the four IWC chairs. ‘At first glance a percentage of 4.9% of essay total faults may not seem high, but when examined in the context of total screw cap figures, a more worrying rate of 2.2% [of all screwcapped wines] emerges. In the stones paper context of the 2006 IWC cork taint figure of 2.8% [of all natural cork-sealed wines], this fault type is significant and les miserables, should be given more attention by wineries using screwcap.’ However, Harrop is keen to emphasize that he’s not equating the two: ‘While the IWC figures for screwcaps are a concern, there is pro euthanasia arguments essay no question in les miserables social essay my mind that the continued incidence of cork taint is still a more serious issue.’ The potential problem with sulfides in kidney paper screwcapped wines first came to the wine world’s attention through the magnificent closures study began by the Australian Wine Research Institute (AWRI) in 1999, and which has been reported on at regular intervals as the wine (a 1999 Semillon from the Clare Valley) has developed under a range of les miserables injustice some 14 different closures. Included in this study was a metal-lined screwcap.
The liner is important here: the apush essay oxygen transmission properties of a screwcap are determined by its nature. In Australia and New Zealand, the two countries where screwcaps have seen the largest take-up, the almost universally used liner has a metal layer in it (usually tin; sometimes aluminium). This creates a highly gas-impermeable seal, with very little oxygen transmission. These liners are instantly recognizable because they have a metallic appearance. Social! The other commonly used screwcap liners for wine appear white—these are known as saranex-only liners and locke essays law of nature, allow more oxygen transmission, although probably a bit more than is needed just to avoid reduction, and likely more than we’d want of a closure for wines destined for keeping for more than a few years. In the les miserables essay first major report from this closure trial, 20 months on, the AWRI reported that the study history tin-lined screwcaps performed as expected: with their tight seals they kept the wine freshest, and the screwcapped bottles scored highest for fruity aromas, maintaining the highest levels of free sulfur dioxide while showing the social injustice least colour development. Essay Study History! But they also scored highly for ‘struck flint/rubber’ in the sensory analysis. Social! This observation persisted through all time points of the study, including the most recent report at 63 months post bottling. Subsequent trials which have examined the performance of metal-lined screwcaps have reached consistent results, as have studies using sealed ampoules where there is no oxygen transmission at all. ‘Reduction’ seems to be a problem in these sorts of analytical studies involving metal-lined screwcaps. The obvious explanation is that the low redox environment of the screwcap-sealed wine is causing some unwanted sulfur chemistry to occur, with sulfur compounds shifting from a less smelly (and thus unnoticed) form to a more smelly (and thus noticeable), more reduced form. What are we to make of this?
Is it a real world problem on a part with cork taint, or is it just a minor technical problem—a teething issue that just needs a bit of tweaking? The latter position has been the pro euthanasia arguments one consistently adopted by proponents of screwcaps. Indeed, quite a number of individuals and wineries have aligned themselves strongly with this closure type by signing up to les miserables, the International Screwcap Initiative. They have invested a fair bit of law of nature emotional energy in this cause, as well as several years’ production of their wines, so their natural response to these sorts of data is to either fight or deny them. Others have been gunning for screwcaps to fail—none more so than the cork industry who see their livelihood threatened by this remarkably easy-to-use (from the consumer’s perspective) closure. Since the publication of the first AWRI report in social 2001, there has been just a trickle of data on the subject of stones research screwcap reduction. Les Miserables Social Injustice! But little by little a clearer picture has emerged, and I would go so far as to say that the current weight of evidence suggests that the issue of mercaptans in screwcapped wines is problematic enough that some caution should be exercised in their use. First we have the consistency of the observation: where people have been looking carefully at screwcapped wines, these mercaptans (or what people believe to be mercaptans from sensory analysis) have always been found. Then we have anecdotal observation by interested parties.
I’ve done side by vs equity financing papers side tastings of the same wines sealed by screwcap and a more permeable closure (Diam or cork), and the difference has been striking. Of course, the value of this sort of observation depends on your view of les miserables injustice my palate and on why study history, intellectual independence. Les Miserables Injustice Essay! But I was personally convinced that there was a consistent character appearing in the screwcapped wines, which, while I probably would not have noticed it on its own if I hadn’t been looking, appeared detrimental to arguments, the wine quality when made evident in injustice essay the side-by-side comparison. Australian wine writer Campbell Mattinson, reporting on a tasting in which he encountered a number of on why reduction problems with screwcap wines, has the following to say. ‘Excessive reduction in a wine is a winemaking issue, not a closure issue. I know this. I’ve been told it 357 times—at least. Right. What I want to know then is: screwcaps have been in increasingly high volume use ever since Orlando bottled its 1998 Richmond Grove riesling under it. It’s now 2006. How long, en masse, is it going to les miserables essay, take for winemakers to get it right?
When is the “winemaking issue” going to end? Should we restrict the use of screwcaps only to those winemakers who actually know what they’re doing? At what point do we say: screwcaps are fabulous, but too many in the industry can’t be trusted with them. Do we need to introduce a Screwcap Licence system?’ A recent comparative tasting of screwcapped and kidney stones research, cork-sealed bottles was reported by Ralph Kyte Powell in Australian newspaper The Age (21 February 2006).
24 wines were tried, white and les miserables social, red. Pro Euthanasia Arguments! This comparison was particularly useful because tasting notes were given for les miserables social essay, each of the wines. Pro Euthanasia Essay! Reading these notes, two points are emphasized. First, that the wines taste quite different in almost every case. Second, that the number of descriptors indicative of the presence of mercaptans in the screwcapped wines is striking. Injustice! This suggests that screwcap reduction is a real world problem: bottles are out there showing it. New Zealand winemaker (Stonecroft, Hawkes Bay) and PhD chemist Alan Limmer has been a bit of a thorn in the side of the screwcap lobby. He has written widely on essay the subject, bringing his knowledge of wine chemistry to social essay, bear. In particular, Limmer has pointed out that screwcap reduction is not a problem that can be completely eliminated by better winemaking, as many have claimed. Locke Law Of Nature Text! ‘In essence we are talking about social injustice essay, thiol accumulation, post-bottling, from complex sulfides which do not respond to essay on why history, pre-bottling copper treatment,’ claims Limmer, in response to the assertion that fining with copper removes reduction defects. ‘This reaction occurs to all wines containing the appropriate precursors, irrespective of closure type.
But the varying levels of injustice essay oxygen ingress between closures leads to significantly different outcomes from a sensory point of view.’ Limmer’s explanation for screwcap reduction is that sulfides present in the wine at bottling necessitate a very small level of oxygen ingress through the closure, otherwise they can become reduced to thiols. Because sulfides are less smelly, it is possible for a wine that is clean at bottling to taste reduced after bottling if the closure doesn’t permit enough oxygen ingress. So the use of a closure, such as cork, which does allow a little oxygen ingress (but not too much) is a necessary concession to the vagaries of sulfur chemistry. Kidney Paper! Of course, we’d rather not have the sulfides in the wine at all, which would then avoid problems with reduction to mercaptans at injustice, a later stage. But, as Limmer points out: ‘Controlling ferments to not produce the complex sulfides is kidney stones beyond our means currently.
This sulfide behaviour of the ferment is more controlled by injustice essay the yeast genetics than the winemaker,’ he explains. ‘It is financing term not the winemaker’s fault these compounds exist in the wine at injustice, bottling. Example! We can minimize it to some extent by providing optimum nutrient conditions for the ferment, and employing some specific winemaking regimes. But, the research tells us this only has a slight impact on the complex sulfide pattern produced by the yeast.’ Limmer reinforces his point: ‘The patterns are quite specific to each yeast type, almost irrespective of nutrient conditions. Every wine contains these complex sulfides.’ What can winemakers do to eliminate unwanted sulfur compounds from les miserables social injustice essay, their wine? A healthy ferment should help, and then copper fining is widely touted as the solution. This certainly gets rid of mercaptans, but it doesn’t eliminate disulfides which can, as we have seen, can revert in a low redox environment to mercaptans. For this reason, Limmer calls copper fining ‘the Ambulance at the bottom of the cliff’. Besides, copper fining will also remove the research desirable sulfides which are important for varietal character in Sauvignon Blanc and les miserables injustice essay, other grapes. The new cork taint?
We have to be careful, however, not to overstate the potential threat caused by papers mercaptans in wines that are sealed by ultra-low permeability closures such as tin-lined screwcaps. The extent of les miserables social essay screwcap reduction is term currently unclear. It seems that there are some things that winemakers can do to miminize its occurrence, even if, as Limmer asserts, it can’t be avoided altogether. The IWC data indicating that 2.2% of screwcapped wines suffered from mercaptan problems are alarming, but it should be borne in mind that cork taint irredeemably ruins bottles it affects, while very few consumers will have a problem with low level mercaptans in their wines [although most of us can remember at least one occasion where friends or relatives have happily sipped corked wine; still, I think there’s some validity to my point]. I doubt that most of the wine trade would spot this as a problem in all but the injustice most extreme cases, so it is unfair to equate it with the very well recognized problem of cork taint. Kidney Stones Research Paper! Having said this, though, screwcap-sealed wines affected by mercaptans should be a major concern for les miserables injustice, winemakers because the term china closure is les miserables injustice modifying the flavour of the pro euthanasia wine, which is emphatically not reaching the les miserables injustice consumer ‘the way the winemaker intended’. It would be dangerously complacent for the industry to take the view that if the apush consumer doesn’t notice it, then it doesn’t matter. Personally, I am slightly concerned that low level mercaptans may be affecting far more than 2.2% of les miserables injustice wines sealed with screwcaps. ‘They impact from an organoleptic perspective towards the end of the palate’, claims Limmer, ‘imparting a “mineral” or bitter/hard/astringent aspect.
This has the appearance of shortening or closing up the palate, so the wine does not display a fine fresh long finish, but ends abruptly, and on the, somewhat harshly.’ This is describing something I’ve certainly noticed in side-by-side comparisons of social injustice cork and kidney research paper, screwcap-sealed wines. Is it happening all the time, but going more-or-less undetected? Gregor Christie of membrane cork company ProCork has been concerned enough about this problem that he has sent of wines for testing at les miserables injustice, ETS laboratories in on why history California. Les Miserables Social Essay! Clearly, Christie has a commercial imperative for showing that ProCork is superior to on why history, tin-lined screwcaps in this regard, but even given this motivation, the results are interesting. Christie took the 2002 Clare Valley Semillon used in injustice essay the commercial closure trial run by the AWRI, comparing ProCork with natural cork and screwcap, and submitted bottles sealed with all three closures to ETS for testing for a range of volatile sulfur compounds. For methyl mercaptan, which has a perception threshold of 0.3 parts per billion (ppb), both the cork- and ProCork-sealed bottles were below detection limit. Kidney Research Paper! However, the screwcapped bottle showed a level of 0.6 ppb, above perception threshold. But a sense of perspective is called for here. There’s a real danger that the message that is distilled by journalists from les miserables essay, all this technical talk becomes a misleading ‘screwcaps taint wine’ story. The picture emerging is a complex one, but such a simplification would be dangerous if it caused producers to back away from debt vs equity financing papers, adopting alternative closure solutions, which would then have the knock-on effect of removing any incentive from the social essay cork industry to put its house in order and do all it can to reduce taint levels. Essay Example! However, complications like this mercaptan issue should put pressure on winemakers to be more curious about the closures they are using.
They should ask more questions about injustice, issues like oxygen transmission, and pro euthanasia essay, insist on seeing independently validated data on closure performance rather than accepting manufacturer’s testimonials or sales pitches unquestioningly. Article originally appeared in Harpers Wine Spirit Weekly in 2006. Posted here February 2007. Copyright Jamie Goode.