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resume wbd ru Westminster Theological Journal 10 (1958) 46-70. Copyright © 1958 by Westminster Theological Seminary, cited with permission. THE HA-BI-RU--KIN OR FOE OF ISRAEL ? MEREDITH G. I Stand. KLINE. II. Ha-BI- ru --HEBREW RELATIONS. A fascination with the with homework, possibilities of illuminating Hebrew. origins has characterized studies of the ha-BI- ru . As observed. at the outset, popular theory has it that the Hebrews were. one offshoot of the ha-BI- ru . This theory may start with.
the supposition that the ha-BI- ru were a social class or an. ethnic group. Although some form of either approach can be. developed without the assumption that the essay, terms ha-BI- ru. and ' Ibri can be equated phonetically or at least semantically.
they are greatly strengthened if such equation can be estab - lished . It is necessary in this connection to survey the usage. of ' Ibrim in the Old Testament and to face the hybrid papers, question of. the phonetic relation of ha-BI- ru and ' Ibri . A. The Usage of ' Ibrim in the Old Testament. Support for the view that the term ha-BI- ru denotes a. larger whole from i stand essay, which the biblical Hebrews originated has. been claimed in the usage of the term ' Ibrim in the Old. Testament.
There is no doubt that the gentilic ' Ibri is. ordinarily used in - grounded theory, the Old Testament as an ethnicon for. Abraham and his descendants of the where, Isaac-Jacob line. 178 In a. 178 The word is cover, found almost exclusively in a few clusters which suggests.
that particular circumstances account for its employment. One such. group appears in the narrative of the Egyptian sojourn and i stand essay, bondage; a. second in cover and, the record of Israelite-Philistine relationships during the days of. Samuel and Saul; and a third in a series of texts dealing with the manumis - sion of Hebrew servants. There are besides only the isolated appearances. in Genesis 14:13 and Jonah 1:9.
The great majority of these are instances. of non-Israelites speaking to or about Israelites, or of Israelites speaking to. foreigners , or of declarations of God destined for foreigners. Where Essay. Where it is. few passages, however, some have judged that ' Ibrim is help online, used. in a non-Israelite or even appellative sense and that in such. texts an original, wider ( i . Essay. e., ha-BI- ru ) connotation emerges. These passages must be examined. 1. The ' Ebed ' Ibri Legislation. In the legislation of Exod . 21:2 and word essay pages, Deut. 15:12 and in.
the references to these laws in Jer . 34:9, 14 the term ‘ Ibri has. been thought to where i stand essay denote not the ethnic character of the dissertation - grounded theory, servant. but a particular variety of where i stand servanthood . J. Lewy develops. this theory on the basis of editing his interpretation of the where i stand, term. ha- Bl-ru in the Nuzu contracts as an appellative meaning. foreign-servant, and his judgment that the parallels between. the status of the homework online, ha-BI- ru servants and the ' ebed ‘ Ibri of. Exod . 21:2 (and the associated passages) are so close and. numerous as to indicate identical institutions and identity. of meaning for ha-BI- ru and 'Ibri . 179. the Israelite author who employs the term he is often adapting his ter - minology to the usage in the context.
In several passages a contrast is. drawn between Israelites and other ethnic groups. It has been suggested that ‘ Ibri uniformly possesses a peculiar connota - tion . For example, DeVaux ( RB 55, 1948, pp. 344 ff.) maintains that it. has a derogatory nuance and finds the common element in where essay, the fact that. the ' Ibrim are strangers in the milieu, while Kraeling ( AJSL 58, 1941. pp. 237 ff.) suggests that ' Ibri is an alternate for help chat, Israelite in where, situations.
where the car research, designee is not a free citizen in a free community or on free soil. The latter formulation seems to be successful in unravelling a strand. common to all the ' Ibri contexts but it remains uncertain whether such a. nuance necessarily attached to the employment of the word. Cf. Green- 179 HUCA XIV, 1939, pp. 587 ff.; XV, 1940, pp. 47 ff. Cf. his note in. Bottero , op. cit., pp. 163-4, where he translates ha-BI- ru as resident.
alien . Lewy supports his thesis with the considerations that the where, ha-BI- ru. are present in the Mitannian orbit in the period during which the ' Ibrim. became a nation and vlad, that the whole area in question had been unified. under the Hyksos with the where, result that the tepes essay, same technical terms and. analogous institutions are found throughout. He holds that this social- legal appellative usage of Ibri represents the earliest stage (noting its.
appearance in the first paragraph of Israel 's Book of the Covenant) but. that later the term was used in an ethnic sense for the descendants of the. Hebrews par excellence . Cf. I Stand. supra WTJ XIX, pp. With Online. 183, 184. 48 WESTMINSTER THEOLOGICAL JOURNAL. But is the situation on the Nuzu side clearly as Lewy has. reconstructed it? There are texts 180 in which the person(s) concerned is not designated as an ha-BI- ru and yet the i stand essay, essen - tial clauses of the contract are those characteristic of the. contracts where the persons are labeled as ha-BI- ru . It is, therefore , difficult to insist that we are dealing with a specif - ically ha-BI- ru type of with homework online chat servanthood. I Stand. 181 While, therefore, ha-BI- ru are found in the great majority of these contracts, they are not necessarily involved in all of them, 182 and one. may not assume then the existence in the Nuzu area of a. specifically ha-BI- ru brand of slavery.
Moreover, even if Lewy's view of the Nuzu evidence were. to be adopted, the biblical evidence would contradict the. translation of ‘ Ibri as foreign-servant in the ‘ ebed ‘ Ibri. legislation . For the biblical law is patently not dealing with. foreign servants but with those who were their masters' brethren . The Deut. 15:12 expansion of the editing and resynthesis, original state- ment reads, If thy brother 183 a Hebrew man, or a Hebrew. woman , be sold unto thee; while Jeremiah, further expanding.
it urges that every man should let go free his man-servant. and every man his maid-servant, that is a Hebrew or He- brewess ; that none should make bondmen of i stand them, namely, of a Jew, his brother (34:9, cf. vs. With Online. 14). Essay. While one may then. recognize the instructive parallels in the conditions of servant- hood at dissertation, Nuzu and in the biblical legislation, it is impossible. to hold that ‘ Ibri is in this legislation a technical term for a.
180 JEN VI, 610, 611, 613 (cf. JEN V, 456:9-23); JEN V, 446, 449, 181 An alternate interpretation has been advocated in the present study. See supra WTJ XIX, pp. 179, 180, 183, 184. 182 Especially relevant is the figure of where i stand Attilammu the Assyrian in the. servant contract JEN VI, 613:2. Even when this text in abbreviated form. is included in the Sammelurkunde JEN V, 456 between two contracts in.
which the persons are specifically designated as ha-BI- ru ( i . e., in a situation. where there would be a tendency to uniformity), Attilammu is not. described as an ha-BI- ru . It is further to be observed in connection with. the use of as- su-ra-a-a-u for Attilammu in JEN VI, 613 that when ha-BI- ru. from Ashur are so described it is as sa - mat as- su-ur . 183 Note the clear distinction drawn in verse 3 between the foreigner and thy brother in the law of the seventh year release with respect. specific type of cover letter and servanthood 184 and least of all for where essay, the. idea of foreign-servant. Its usage is letter, rather ethnic, as. 2. The ‘ Ibrim in I Samuel 13 and 14. It has been affirmed that the ' Ibrim here ( cf . 13:3, 7, 19;
14:11, 21) are quite clearly non-Israelites. I Stand Essay. 185 The proper. interpretation of these verses is, indeed, difficult; nevertheless, to distinguish between the ‘ Ibrim and the Israelites would. be at odds with the decisive evidence in this context of their. identity . Thus, in 13:3, 4 , Myrib ;fihA and lxerAW;yi-lkA are obvious. equivalents (cf. Ufm;wA lxerAW;yi-lkAv ; : Myrib;fihA Ufm;w;yi ). 186 More- over , it is apparently in reference to the hiding of hybrid car research those de- scribed in 13:6 as the men of Israel that the Philistines say,
Behold, the essay, ‘ Ibrim are coming out of the holes where they had. hid themselves (14:11b). Again, the equivalence of Myrib ;fihA. with the inhabitants lxerAW;yi Cr,x , lkoB ; and with lxerAW;yi-lkA. in 13:19, 20 is evident. To find, then, in the ‘ Ibrim of 13:7 a group ethnically. distinct from the letter, men of Israel in 13:6 would involve for. the term ‘ Ibrim a change from its contextual significance too.
abrupt to be plausible. Verses 6 and 7 are concerned with. two groups of Israelites. Verse 6 refers to i stand those excused by. Saul from military service (cf. vs. 2). 187 These hide in the.
hills and caves west of Jordan . Verse 7 refers to certain of. the selected troops who were with Saul at Gilgal near the. Jordan . These, deserting, cross over the river to the land of. Gad and Gilead east of Jordan. 188. 184 The ' ebed in the phrase ‘ ebed ‘ Ibri ( Exod . 21:2) would then be tau - tological , and Alt feels obliged to exscind it from the text. 185 Cf. e. Vlad. g ., A. Guillaume, PEQ , 1946, p. 68.
186 The LXX rendering of the end of where essay verse 3, h ] qeth kasin oi [ dou?loi. ( as though the Hebrew were Myrbfh vfwp ) seems to be a conjectural emenda - tion occasioned by vlad essay the fact that Myrib;fihA comes somewhat unexpectedly. on the lips of Saul. 187 13:4b does not describe a regathering of those sent home but simply. indicates the new location of Saul and his chosen army at Gilgal . 188 There were originally 3000 chosen by Saul (13:2), but after the. approach of the where essay, Philistines in force and Samuel's delay there were only. 600 left (13:11, 15; 14:2).
50 WESTMINSTER THEOLOGICAL JOURNAL. In 14:21 it is not necessary to tepes essay follow the English versions in. regarding the ‘ Ibrim as men who had been serving in the. Philistine army. Even if such a translation were adopted, it. would still be gratuitous to identify these ‘ Ibrim as non-
Israelites for they might be Israelite turn-coats. But verse 21 may be translated : Now the Hebrews were. towards the Philistines as formerly when 189 they went up. with them in the camp round about; 190 both they were with. the Israelites who were with Saul and Jonathan and. . The antecedent of Mm.Afi , with them, appears to be Saul. and all the people (or army) of where verse 20. Another possibility. is to regard the Philistines as the antecedent of them but to hybrid papers translate the preposition against.
191 In either case. this passage would contain no mention of ‘ Ibrim as having. served in Philistine forces. Verses 21 and 22 rather distinguish. as two elements swelling the essay, unexpectedly triumphant rem - nants of Saul's army those who had deserted after being. selected by Saul to encamp against help homework online chat the Philistines (vs. 21) and those who, after being dismissed by Saul, 192 were fright- ened into hiding by the alarming course of the conflict (vs. Where Essay. 22). This distinction in 14:21, 22 is the dissertation, same as that found in. 13:6, 7a. Indeed, the where, terminology in the two passages is.
deliberately made to correspond. Vlad Tepes Essay. ‘ Ibrim is used in both. 13:7a and 14:21 for the deserters; and men of Israel in. 13:6 and 14:22 for the people who hid in the hill-country of. Ephraim. The ‘ Ibrim of 14:21 will then be the deserting. soldiers of Saul who had crossed over 193 the Jordan but now.
resume their former position in where i stand, the Israelite ranks against. 189 Cf. Brown, Driver and Briggs, Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old. Testament ( Oxford , 1952) under rwAxE 4b (a). 190 Is this an allusion to - grounded the circumstance that the original three Israelite. positions at Bethel , Michmash , and Gibeah surrounded the where essay, Philistine. garrison at Geba ? If the 1200 essay pages, Massoretic text and accentuation ( bybisA ) stand, the next clause will be a pseudo-verbal construction (as translated above).
The LXX and Syraic would read MGa Ubb ;sA , they also turned, which would. provide a parallel to Mga UqB;d;y.ava (vs. 22). 191 Cf. Brown, Driver and Briggs, op. cit. , under Mfi lc . 192 For a similar military development see Judg . 7:3-7, 23, 24 . 193 The use of Urb ;fA . in 13:7a suggests the possibility of Myrib;fohAv ; , those. who passed over, as the i stand, original in vlad tepes, 14:21 (cf. the participle, MyxiB;Hat;mi.ha , 3. Abraham the ‘ Ibri (Gen.
14:13). Is ‘ Ibri in essay, this its earliest biblical appearance used eth- nically ? This question may be dealt with in connection with. an inquiry into the origin of the term ‘ Ibri . Broad contextual. considerations indicate that in his use of ‘ Ibri in Gen. 14:13, the author had in mind ‘ Eber of the line of Shem (cf. Gen. 10:21, 24, 25; 11:14-i 7). 194 The direct descent of Abraham.
from ‘ Eber had already been traced in - grounded, the genealogy of. Gen. I Stand Essay. 11:10-26. Moreover, the pages, departure from the stereotyped. presentation of the genealogical data in Gen. 10 to describe. Shem as the i stand, father of editing and resynthesis all the where, children of ‘ Eber (vs.
21) 195. is most readily accounted for help with homework, as an anticipation of the author's. imminent concentration (cf. Gen. 11:27 ff.) upon the Semitic. Eberites par excellence, i . e., the Hebrews whom Yahweh. chose to be the channel of revelation and where essay, redemption.
In. Gen. 14:13 then, ‘ Ibri is a patronymic, applied in analysis and resynthesis, this isolated. way to Abraham perhaps to contrast him with the many other. ethnic elements which play a role in this context. On the other hand, many regard this usage of ‘ Ibri as. appellative and then find their interpretations of the term. ha-BI- ru reflected in it. 196 The appellative view is ancient, for the LXX renders yrib;fihA as o[ pera thj ; 197 Aquila , as. thj ; Jerome, as transeuphratensis ; and the prevailing.
view of the rabbis a generation after Aquila was that yrib;fihA. in the corresponding member of 14:21). Such a change in the Massoretic. pointing would support a corresponding change to where i stand Myrib;fov ; in theory, 13:7a. If. the Massoretic Myrib;fiv ; . is original, the author perhaps employed this. designation of the Israelites to produce a word play with Urb;fA . 194 yrib ;fi (‘ ibri ) is the gentilic formation of rbAfa (‘ eber ).
195 Cf. I Stand. also the additional remark in Gen. 10:25. 196 For example, W. F. Word. Albright, JAOS 48, 1928, pp. 183 ff., once found. in both the essay, idea of mercenary; and DeVaux , op. cit ., pp. 337 ff., that of. stranger . Hybrid Car Research Papers. Kraeling , op. cit., held that ‘ Ibri is used to underscore Abra - ham's role as a sojourner who pays tribute to i stand Melchizedek. 197 Parzen , AJSL 49, pp. 254 ff., is mistaken in his opinion that the. LXX actually found rbfh in the Hebrew text. Noth , Erwagungen zur.
Hebraerfrage , in Festschrift Otto Procksch ( Leipzig , 1934), pp. 99 ff., is. probably correct in stating that the LXX translator simply regarded it as. desirable at this first appearance of ‘ Ibri to indicate what was, in his. opinion , its significance. 52 WESTMINSTER THEOLOGICAL JOURNAL. designated Abraham as from the dissertation - grounded, other side of the where i stand, river. 198. All of these derived ' Ibri from the substantive meaning the. other side rather than from the verb ‘ br . 199 In line with this.
view of the papers, etymology is the emphasis in Joshua 24:2, 3 on. Abraham's origin beyond the River. But these facts are. far from possessing the weight of the more immediate con- textual considerations cited above. Here too then ‘ Ibri is.
not appellative but ethnic. It has appeared from this study that, the term ' Ibrim in. the Old Testament has uniformly an ethnic meaning and. denotes descendants of i stand Eber in the line of Abraham-Isaac- Jacob exclusively. Deriving from the eponymous ancestor. ' Eber the term is probably early ; 200 in particular, its applica - tion to Abraham need not be proleptic . To judge from.
its characteristic association with foreigners in the biblical. contexts and the general avoidance of pages it by the Israelites, it possibly originated outside the where essay, line of Abraham. Orig - inally it may have been of - grounded theory wider application than is i stand, the. usage in the Old Testament, denoting other descendants of. Eber than the Abrahamites . This is perhaps suggested by. the use of letter ' Eber in Gen. 10:21 and Num. Where Essay. 24:24. 201 In that. 199 Greenberg, op. cit. , p. 5, n. 24, directs attention to the evidence for. this in B e resit Rabba 42, 8. A minority opinion of the rabbis was that.
Abraham was called the ' Ibri because he was a descendant of ' Eber . 199 This appears to be so even in the LXX, although later Patristic. writings in treating the LXX rendering derived it from a verbal base. (cf. Greenberg, ibid.). 200 Kraeling , op. Word. cit ., offers the strange hypothesis that Hebrews is a secondarily personalized form of a geographical name, i . e., Overites from rhAnA.ha rbAfa adopted by the Israelites as late as the early monarchy in. an attempt to orientate themselves to the world in which they had just. become prominent. The usage would thus be that of the first millennium. even when applied to the Patriarchs. H. H. Rowley counters: (a) in the.
early monarchy, consciousness of being from over where i stand essay the Euphrates is tepes essay, not. apparent among the Hebrews; (b) the term disappeared almost completely. from the Old Testament with the establishment of the monarchy; (c) The. Israelites would hardly adopt as a symbol of self-esteem a term generally. employed in a pejorative sense. PEQ , 1942, pp. 41-53; From Joseph to. Joshua , 1952, pp.
54-5; cf. further O'Callaghan's criticism in Aram. 201 The validity of conclusions based on the tradition of descent from. case the essay, appearance of cover letter and such gentilic but non- Abrahamic. ‘ Ibrim in where i stand, some non-biblical text of the patriarchal age need. not come altogether unexpectedly. Do the help with online chat, ha-BI- ru qualify? According to i stand essay the conclusions. already reached in dissertation theory, this study concerning the probable ge - ographical and ethnic origins of the ha-BI- ru they do not.
qualify as Semitic let alone Eberite kin of the Hebrews. 202. On the other hand, a final judgment on i stand this larger issue is. Eber is challenged by - grounded theory DeVaux's contention ( op. cit .) that there are diver- gent views within the Old Testament. He grants that the composer(s) of the biblical genealogies derives ‘ Ibri from the ancestor ‘ Eber , but finds. in the reference to Jacob as a wandering Aramean (Deut. 26:5) a. conflicting tradition of Aramaic origin (cf. I Stand Essay. Gen. 10:22-24). DeVaux. believes the latter to be further supported by the description of and Laban , grandson of Abraham's brother Nahor , as an Aramean (Gen.
31:20). According to the record, however, the term Aramean could have been. applied to both Jacob and Laban in virtue of their long residence in. Paddan-aram and so construed would say nothing about their lineage. DeVaux also insists, but unnecessarily, on identifying the Aram of i stand essay Gen. 10:22 and the Aram of - grounded theory Gen. 22:21, which would then bring the two passages.
into hopeless confusion. Finally, DeVaux appeals to the prophetic denun - ciation of Jerusalem in Ezek. 16:3, your origin and your nativity are of. the land of the Canaanite; the essay, Amorite was your father and the Hittite. your mother.
Actually, as is homework, apparent from the context (cf. especially. vss . 45 ff.), Ezekiel is using a scathing figure to say that from the first. Israel was just as much disqualified spiritually from enjoying a covenantal. relationship with Yahweh as were her despised heathen neighbors--the. point being that Israel 's election must be attributed solely to i stand essay the principle.
of divine grace. But even if Ezekiel were speaking of literal racial inter- mixture , the reference would be not to Abraham's family origins but to pages the. subsequent mingling of the racial strain of his descendants with those of. the inhabitants of i stand essay Canaan . DeVaux's view is that the Hebrews and ha- BI- ru were of common Aramaean descent. Starting with the notion that. the ha-BI- ru were desert nomads, DeVaux seeks to relate the ha-BI- ru. to the Aramaeans by dissertation - grounded theory a partial identification of them with proto- Aramaean. 202 Greenberg, op. cit, pp. Where I Stand. 93 ff., provides an example of how the biblical.
usage of cover letter and ‘ Ibrim can be regarded as consistently ethnic, and ha-BI- ru be. deemed an appellative for a social class, and i stand, yet the and resynthesis, terms be equated. and the Hebrews derived from the ha-BI- ru . He suggests that Abraham. was an ha-BI- ru , but this epithet as applied to Abraham's descendants. became an ethnicon . Later biblical genealogists, unaware of this, invented. the ancestor ' Eber , man of essay many descendants, in order to explain at one. stroke the known kinship of the Hebrews to vlad essay other Semitic tribes and the.
origin of their name! 54 WESTMINSTER THEOLOGICAL JOURNAL. bound to be seriously affected by one's opinion on the phonetic. question of whether the term ha-BI- ru can be equated with. the term ' Ibri (and so be derived from ' Eber ). 203. B. Phonetic Relation of Ha-BI- ru to ' Ibri . 1. Consonants . I Stand Essay. The common cuneiform spelling of the name.
is ha-BI- ru the final u being, according to the usual assump - tion , the - grounded, nominative case ending, which yields as the grammat - ical relations require to other case or gentilic endings. 204 In this. cuneiform rendering the where i stand essay, identity of the first two radicals is. ambiguous . The initial consonant is dissertation - grounded theory, ambiguous because. Accadian h may represent other letters than Hebrew H ; 205. among them, Hebrew f . 206 The second is ambiguous because. 203 In addition to where essay the supposed phonetic equivalence of ha-BI- ru and. ' Ibri , support has been sought for the derivation of the Hebrews from the. ha-BI- ru by appeal to certain parallels in the careers of the two.
But the. similarities are for the most part superficial or based on misinterpretations. of the data on one side or the other. For a recent popular example see. H. Orlinsky , Ancient Israel , 1954; cf.
DeVaux RB 55, 1948, pp. 342 ff .; H. H. Rowley From Joseph to Joshua , 1952, p. Hybrid Car Research. 53, n. 1. Items like the. following have been or might be mentioned: (a) In each case there is a. westward movement about the Fertile Crescent . (But this cannot be. demonstrated for i stand essay, the ha-BI- ru and, in and, the case of the Hebrews, it applies. not to the group as such but only to Abraham.) (b) The chronological. span of the use of the terms ha-BI- ru and ' Ibri is roughly the same. (c) Both groups move in where i stand, the Hurrian cultural orbit and exhibit the influence.
of this fact. (d) The military activity of Abraham the theory, Hebrew in Genesis. 14 and i stand, the attack of Simeon and Levi on Shechem are comparable to. ha-BI- ru razzias . (But this involves a superficial estimate of both biblical. instances .) (e) The ha-BI- ru mercenary activity is paralleled by the. Hebrews in the Philistine army. (But this is a misinterpretation of the. biblical data.) (f) Both groups are in Egypt forced into the corvee . (g) The ha-BI- ru are frequently strangers in 1200 word essay, the milieu and such are the. Hebrew patriarchs in Canaan . (h) Both groups deprive Egypt of its. holdings in Canaan by military operations during the Amarna Age. 204 Cf. supra, WTJ XIX, pp. 9-11. 205 Indeed, as A. Ungnad observes, Bisweilen wird h fur 3 gebraucht ( Grammatik des Akkadischen , 1949, p. 9).
206 In the Canaanite glosses in the Tell el Amarna tablets are found, for. example : hu-ul-lu (EA 296:38) = lfo (cf. XXX) ; and hi- na-ia ( EA 144:17) = ynayfa (cf. XXXX). Cf. E. A. Speiser , Ethnic Movements in the Near East in. the Second Millennium B.C ., 1933, p. 39. BI represents among other values that of pi as well as that. of bi in all periods of the cuneiform literature. Further evidence is available, however, for i stand, in some cases.
other signs of the cuneiform syllabary are used to editing analysis write this. name and, moreover, the name has appeared in other systems. of writing, syllabic and alphabetic. From Ras Shamra 207. comes the form ' prm written in the alphabetic cuneiform. common in i stand essay, texts from 1200 word essay pages, that site, in which the ' Ayin is distinct. from other gutturals and the b is where essay, distinct from p . This form. is , therefore, unambiguous. But the question has been raised.
whether this form, in editing analysis and resynthesis, particular the second consonant, is. original or secondary. If the where essay, phonetic equivalence of ' prm. and ' Ibrim were to car research be maintained, the primacy of the p would. still he favored by the fact that Ugaritic often preserves a. more primitive Semitic form than does the Hebrew.
208 On. the other hand there is evidence of an original b becoming p. in Ugaritic. 209. In Egyptian hieroglyphics appears the where i stand essay, form ' pr.w which. is also without ambiguity. But here again the question arises.
as to whether the editing and resynthesis, p is primary or secondary. It can be shown. that Egyptian p may represent foreign, including Semitic, b , especially when the b is where i stand essay, immediately preceded or followed by l. 207 Virolleaud , Syria 21, 1940, p. 132, pl. 8 and p. 134, pl. 10. 208 So Kraeling , AJSL 58, 1941, pp.
237 ff. Cf. W. F. Albright, BASOR. 77, 1940, pp. 32-3; DeVaux , RB 55, 1948, p. 342, n. 3. In an effort to. show that it is quite possible that the isolated Ugaritic as well as the. Egyptian 'pr are secondary forms due to Hurrian influence J. Cover. Lewy. observes that the population of Ugarit included Hurrian elements and. that the Hurrians , wherever they appear, are responsible for a confusion in.
the rendering of Semitic b and p because their scribes did not distinguish. between voiced and voiceless stops ( HUCA 15, 1940, p. 48, n. 7). C. H. Gordon, however, informs me that the Ugaritic scribes who wrote the. tablets bearing ' prm carefully distinguish p and b . J. W. Essay. Jack ( PEQ , 1940, p. Chat. 101) attributes the Ugaritic spelling to Egyptian influence at Ugarit . 309 There are, e. g., the variants lbs/ lps and nbk/npk . Cf. Greenberg, op . Where Essay. cit ., p. 90, n. 24.
For evidence of cover confusion in Ugaritic between b. and p , and that in the very name ha-BI- ru , attention has been called to. the Ugaritic text 124:14, 15 (Gordon, Ugaritic Manual , 1955). Cf. Virol - leaud , Syria XV, 1934, p. 317 n., and La Legende de Keret , 1936, p. 74; and H. H. Rowley, From Joseph to Joshua , 1950, p. Essay. 50. Actually, the. text has nothing to homework online chat do with the ha-BI- ru or with the Hebrews (as suggested. 56 WESTMINSTER THEOLOGICAL JOURNAL. or r . 210 Such, however, is i stand, not the rule 211 , and, as Kraeling.
observes, 212 in the case of the vlad tepes essay, ' pr.w , a people present in Egypt. itself , it is difficult to assume an error of hearing on the. part of the scribe. The spelling ha-BIR-a-a is found twice in Babylonian. documents of the 12th and 11th centuries B.C. 213 Commenting. on this form, B. Landsberger observes that b nicht p als. mittlerer Radikal steht durch die Schreibung ha- bir -a-a (IV. R 34 Nr. 2, 5) fest. 214 In signs, however, of the variety.
consonant-vowel-consonant there is not only vocalic var - iability but flexibility of both consonants within the limits of. 210 For the evidence see B. Gunn apud Speiser , op. cit ., p. 38, n. Cf. J. A. Wilson, AJSL 49, 4, pp. 275 ff. W. F. Albright ( JAOS 48, 1928, pp. 183 ff.) argues that the equation of Egyptian 'pr with ' eber is difficult. since Egyptian of the New Empire regularly transcribes Semitic b by. Egyptian b . As for i stand essay, Egyptian hrp for Can. harb (Heb. hereb ), he says that.
it only shows there was the same tendency for a final vowelless sonant. stop following a consonant to become voiceless that there is in 1200 word essay pages, the modern. Arabic dialect of Egypt ; but the b in i stand essay, ' eber is medial and cannot have been. pronounced as a voiceless p . It should be noticed, however, that in some. instances of the use of Egyptian p for foreign b , the b is medial: thus, 211 Gunn op. Tepes. cit ., p. 38, n .: There are many cases (36 counted) in where, which. a foreign b with r or l either before or after it is represented by b and not. by p in the Egyptian writings.
Wilson op. cit ., pp. 275 ff. affirms that. the most straightforward equation is 'pr = rpf . 212 Op. cit ., pp. 237 ff. 213 Rawlinson , Cuneiform Inscriptions of Western Asia , IV, 34:2, 5; and. Hilprecht , Old Babylonian Inscriptions , I, 2, pl. 66, no.
149, 22. 214 ZA, N. F. 1, 1923, p. 214, n. With Homework Online Chat. 1. 215 See the remarks of C. H. I Stand Essay. Gordon, Orientalia 19, 1950, pp. Cover Letter And. 91 ff. Essay. There. is specific evidence that BIR was used (though not commonly) for pir in. the neo-Assyrian period and possibly (the evidence is doubtful) in the. middle-Assyrian period. Cf.
Von Soden , Das Akkadische Syllabar , 1948, p. 73, no. 237. Bottero , op. cit ., p. 132 urges against reading pir here the. absence of specific Babylonian evidence for this value to date, plus the. availability of the sign UD ( pir ) . However, he acknowledges (p. 156) that this form is not decisive for a root ' br . It may be additionally noted. that J. Lewy in defense of reading the second radical as b appeals to the. occurrence of the essay, god d Ha-bi-ru in an Assyrian text ( Keilschrifttexte aus.
Assur verschiedenen Inhalts , no. 42), i . e., in a text in which ha-bi- ru can. hardly stand for * ha-pi- ru ( HUCA 15, 1940, p. 48, n. 7). Bottero ( op. Essay. cit ., p. 135) agrees on the grounds that in the neo-Assyrian era one normally. By way of conclusion, there can be no doubt that the. Ugaritic and Egyptian forms of the name definitely require. that the consonant represented in the cuneiform syllable h a. be read as 'Ayin . 216 They also strongly support an 1200 word pages, original p . While there is a possibility that ' br is primary, it is highly. probable that 'pr is the original form.
In fact, unless it can. be shown that ha-BI- ru is to be equated with the where, biblical. ' Ibri there is no unquestionable evidence for ' br as even a. secondary form. 217. 2. Vowels. That the first vowel is A-type and the second. is I-type is obvious from the cuneiform, ha-BI-ru ; 211 but it is.
more difficult to determine the papers, length of where i stand these vowels. This. question requires examination before one attempts to draw. conclusions concerning the possibilities of phonetic equation. used PI to signify pi . For evidence that BI = pi in vlad tepes essay, all periods see Von. Soden , ibid ., p. 53 no. Where. 140.
Also J. W. Jack states, In the Hittite doc- uments , for instance, habiru clearly has bi ( PEQ , 1940, p. 102). E. Laroche (in Bottero , op. cit ., p. 71, n. 2) argues, D'apres le systeme en. usage a Boghazkoy , ha-bi- ri note une pronunciation habiri ( sonore inter- vocalique non geminee ) . But ha- ab-bi-ri appears twice. Moreover, P.
Sturtevant maintains that in hybrid, cuneiform Hittite the Akkadian distinction. between . p and i stand, b did not exist, adding, To all intents, therefore, Hittite has dispensed with the means of tepes essay writing b ( Comparative Grammar. of the where i stand, Hittite Language , 1933, p. Vlad. 66). Similarly, J. Friedrich, Hethitisches. Elementarbuch I, 1940 ,. p. I Stand Essay. 6(21). Accordingly, even the form ha- ab-bi-ri.
( KBo V, 9, IV, 12) is editing, quite ambiguous, as it would also be in Akkadian. cuneiform where AB stands in all periods for both ap and ab . Greenberg. ( op. cit ., p. 90, n. 20) suggests the possibility that a Hittite scribe utilized. a native convention, doubling the labial to indicate a sound heard by. him asp. I Stand Essay. Also ambiguous is the sign BAD ( bi or pi ) used in the Alishar text. 2 ,6 Cf. Bottero , op. Dissertation - Grounded Theory. cit ., p. 154.
217 Speiser (op. cit., p. 40), writing at a time when he did not have the. benefit of the Ugaritic evidence, begged the question of the phonetic. equation with ' Ibri in concluding, The second consonant is ambiguous. both in cuneiform and in Egyptian, but not so in Hebrew: since the where, latter. has b, the labial must be read as voiced in help with online chat, cuneiform, while the voiceless. correspondent in the Egyptian form of the name is to be ascribed to local. 218 As far as it goes the Egyptian data is where i stand, compatible. Gunn ( op. cit ., p. 38, n.) concludes from vlad essay, a survey of the evidence that we seem to have.
the alternatives ' apar , ' apir , ' apur , with a possible indication in the. Beth- shan stele of Seti I in favor of ' apir . 58 WESTMINSTER THEOLOGICAL JOURNAL. a . Where I Stand Essay. The A-Vowel: According to cover and Gustavs, 219 the form h a- AB-BI-ri 220 shows that the a is i stand, short. He explains the doubling. of the middle radical on the ground that consonants in.
Akkadian are often doubled after an accented short vowel . 221. This possibility, however, rests on the doubtful opinion that. the following I-vowel is short, for otherwise the penult would. receive the accent. 222 Another possible explanation of the. doubling of the middle radical, although the online, phenomenon is. rare and where, late, is that it indicates that the preceding vowel is. Other unusual forms have appeared which suggest that the.
A-vowel is long. One is help homework, ha-a-BI-ri-ia-as . 224 Another is ha - a-BI- i-ri- a [ n ?] (cf. I Stand Essay. ha-a-BI- i-ri-ia-an ). 225 Finally , from help with chat, Alalah. comes the form ha-a'-BI-ru . 226. b . The I-Vowel: Inasmuch as short unaccented vowels. between single consonants often drop out 227 and the name. 219 ZAW , N. F. 3, 1926, pp. I Stand Essay. 28 f. 220 KBo V, 9, IV, 12. Cf. also ha-AB-BI- ri-ia-an (KUB XXXV, 43,
221 Cf. Vlad. Ungnad , op. cit ., p. 18 (6p); W. Von Soden , Grundriss der Ak - kadischen Grammatik, 1952, p. 21 (20g). 222 Cf. Where. Von Soden , op. cit ., p. Cover Letter. 37 (38 f). 223 Cf. Ungnad , op. cit ., p. 7 (3d). 224 HT 6, 18. Essay. This text is a variant of KUB IX, 34, IV. Hybrid Car Research Papers. Greenberg.
( op. cit ., p. Where Essay. 90, n. 20) comments, Were this writing not unique and hybrid, not. in a word foreign to the Hittites it might have deserved consideration as. indicative of a participial form. 225 KUB XXXI, 14 (XXXIV, 62), 10; and KUB XXXV, 49, I, 6 ff. 226 AT 58:29. E. Where I Stand. A. Speiser ( JAOS 74, 1954, p. 24) observes that the. main purpose of this unique form may be to indicate a form like * H abiru . He suggests that even if the sign be given its value ah4 instead of hybrid a ' the h. might be a graphic device signifying a long vowel or stressed syllable. Cf. Greenberg ( op. cit ., p. 20): Assuming that the scribe was West Semitic. he may have noted that his alephs became long vowels in Akkadian : hence , by a sort of back analogy he may have converted what he took to.
be a long vowel into an aleph. Wiseman (in Bottero , op. Essay. cit ., p. 37) The word is unusually written ha-'a-bi- ru . This may be either a case of. HAR=AB 4 or, as I am inclined to think, a case of the scribe erasing by. the three small horizontal strokes of the and, stylus. 227 Cf. Ungnad , op. cit. , pp. 12, 13 (5c). The possibility that the i is.
short but accented is obviated by the fact that were it short, the antepenult. with its long a (as maintained above) would receive the accent. ha-BI- ru is never found without the i , it would seem that. this i is long. 228. Further support for this is found in the spelling ha-BI-i-ra 229. used for the Nuzu personal name (assuming this name may be. identified with our ha-BI- ru ). There are also the forms noted. c. Conclusion: The vocalization is largely a question of. how much weight to attach to the exceptional spellings.
Quite possibly they require two long vowels, producing the. ( apparently non-Semitic) form, ' apir . I Stand Essay. Perhaps only one vowel. is long. It would be precarious, however, to pages assume that. every indication of a long vowel is misleading and to adopt. the form ' apir --or still less likely-- ' abir . 3. The Hebrew Equivalent. Where Essay. The difference in middle radicals.
between ha-BI- ru (read as ha-pi- ru ) and 1200 word pages, ' Ibri would not be. an insuperable obstacle for the phonetic equation of the two. There are a few examples of a shift in Hebrew from p to b . 230. Nevertheless, this shift is not the where i stand, rule 23l and the difference in. labials must be regarded as a serious difficulty in the case for.
If we allow the consonantal equation and examine the. vowels it will be found that the difficulties increase and the. equation can be regarded as at best a bare possibility. The. following are the possible vowel combinations of ha-BI- ru. ( reading bi for the moment and listing the more probable. combinations first) along with their normal Hebrew gentilic. equivalents : ' abir , yriybiOf ; ' abir , yriybifE ; ' abir , yrib;Of ; ' abir , yribefE ; and analysis and resynthesis, ' abr , yrib;fa . Attempts have been made, however, to derive ' Ibri from.
one or other of these vowel combinations. The most plausible. efforts are those which assume two short vowels, ' abir . 232. 228 So C. H. Gordon ( Orientalia 21, 1952, p. I Stand Essay. 382, n. Help Homework Chat. 2 ) : That the i is. long follows from the i stand essay, fact that it is not dropt to become * hapru . 230 dpr-dbr , drive; parzillu , 511 ; dispu , wbd . Cf. W. F. Albright, BASOR 77, 1940, p. Word Essay Pages. 33; H. H. Rowley, PEQ , 1940, p. 92; DeVaux , RB. 231 Cf., e. g., rpAfa , rpefo , rpAKo , rpAse , rpAxa . 232 J. Lewy ( op. cit .), assuming the form H abiru , suggests that it is. 60 WESTMINSTER THEOLOGICAL JOURNAL.
Speiser suggests that the form qitl may go back to an older. qatil with the restriction that such forms derive from stative , not transitive, verbs. Essay. 233 In line with this, attention has been. called to the derivation of late Canaanite milk , king, from. older malik , prince”. 234 Whatever validity there may be in. the theory of a qatil to with homework qitl shift, 235 it must be remembered that. such is not the dominant tendency. Moreover, the where essay, degree of. plausibility in applying such a principle in the present case. is greatly diminished by the following considerations: a) The.
combination of two short vowels ( ' abir ) is one of the less. likely possibilities; b) The supposed shift from word, ' abir to ' ibr. did not occur according to our evidence in extra-biblical. documents either earlier than, or contemporary with, the. appearances of where ' Ibri in the Bible. It is with, necessary to where assume. that the shift took place first and only with the Hebrew. authors . Car Research. And if we may not assume that the Hebrew form is.
based on a previous shift to ‘ ibr elsewhere, then proof is. required within the where essay, Hebrew language itself, and cover and, not merely, for example, from inner-Canaanite developments, of a shift. from qatil to qitl . 236. to rbAfe and where, yrib;fi as the Akkadian proper name Zakiru (m) [for references. see , e. g., A. T. Help Online Chat. Clay, Personal Names from Cuneiform Inscriptions of the. Cassite Period (New Haven, 1912) p .- 145] is to rkAze and yrik;zi (Ex. 6:21, etc .) . There is, however, no evidence that the Hebrew form rkAze represents. the Akkadian Zakiru . 233 Op. Where I Stand Essay. cit ., p. 40, n. 96. Cf.
T. J. Meek, Hebrew Origins , 1936, p. Dissertation Theory. 7. Similarly Bauer-Leander ( Grammatik , 459), on the basis of a possible. relation of adjectival qatil and abstract qitl : e. g. sapil-sipl , base- 234 So, e. g., Albright, Archaeology of Palestine and the Bible ( New York , 1935), p. 206, and Bohl , Kanaander and Hebraer 1911, p. 85. In an earlier. article ( JBL 43, 1924, pp. 389 ff.), Albright stated that Hebrew ' Eber for ' Ibr. stands by epenthesis for where i stand essay, * ' Apir , adding that the philological process is. familiar in 1200, all the Semitic languages; e. I Stand. g., Arab. bi'sa from ba'isa . Cf. the.
alternation of ma- si-ri and mi-is- ri in hybrid, syllabic texts from Ugarit . 235 DeVaux ( op. cit .) goes to where the extreme of describing the with homework online chat, passing of. 236 The qatil type of noun does appear at times in Hebrew like a segholate ; cf. Gesenius , Hebrew Grammar , 1910, 93 hh , ii. Most of these are of the. getel -type which is where, usually the A-type but is hybrid papers, sometimes the I-type (e. g., bcAq , , rtAy , , fmaD , ); but lz,Ge (Eccles. 5:7; Ezek. 18:18) is also found and that is. clearly I-type.
This phenomenon is, however, confined to the construct. Conclusion : The complete phonetic equation of ha-BI- ru. and ‘ Ibri is at most a bare possibility. If a difference in. morphology were to i stand be allowed while identity of editing and resynthesis denotation. was assumed the difference in i stand, the vowels could be explained 237. and only the labial problem would remain as a phonetic. obstacle for the theory of common derivation. Even that. assumption , however, is essay pages, implausible in dealing as we are.
not with appellatives but proper names. The phonetic situa - tion , therefore, is such as would weaken an i stand, otherwise strong. case for tracing Hebrew origins to the ha-BI- ru , not such as. to strengthen a theory already feeble. C. Amarna Age Encounter. In spite of the negative conclusions reached thus far the. investigation of ha-BI- ru --Hebrew relationships is not much.
ado about nothing. For history apparently did witness an. ha-BI- ru --Hebrew encounter. How is the ha-BI- ru activity in Palestine as reflected in. the Amarna letters to be integrated with the online, Israelite con- quest of where i stand their promised land as described in the books of. Joshua and letter, Judges?
That is the question. 1. Conquest . I Stand. The Amarna activity of the vlad tepes essay, ha-BI- ru has. been identified by some with the where, Hebrew Conquest, more. specifically , with its first phase led by Joshua. But quite. apart from all the aforementioned obstacles to any identifica - tion of the two groups, the help homework, Conquest under Joshua differed. from the where i stand essay, Amarna military operations of the ha-BI- ru even in. broadest outline and hybrid car research, fundamental character. (a) The Hebrew conquerors were a people which had long. been in Egypt and were newly arrived in Canaan . The.
Ugaritic and Alalah evidence reveals that the ha-BI- ru were. state . This restriction would not, of course, be significant so far as the. gentilic form yrib;fi is concerned. It becomes significant though when. account is taken of the derivation of yrib;fi from the patronymic rbAfa which. is found in the absolute state. 237 Albright compares a development of gentilic ‘ Ibri from an appellative. ha-BI- ru to Lewi , Levite, probably derived from * lawiyu , person.
pledged for a debt or vow; Qeni , kenite , from qain , smith; or hopshi , 62 WESTMINSTER THEOLOGICAL JOURNAL. in Syria for a long while before the Hebrew Conquest (on any. view of its date). Moreover, since in Syria the ha-BI- ru had. long enjoyed permanent settlements of their own in well- regulated , peace-time integration with the local population. and authorities, while the Amarna letters show the ha-BI- ru.
in Palestine to be on the move, quartered here and there, without absolute loyalty to any one party, it seems clear. that the Amarna ha-BI- ru were in Canaan as professional. militarists to exploit the anarchy there for their northern. ( b ) Also in where, conflict with this picture of the ha-BI- ru. operating in relatively small, detached companies and fighting. as mercenaries with no apparent national aspirations of their. own as ha-BI- ru is the biblical picture of the Hebrew Conquest. as an invasion by a united multitude, advancing in their own. name in a concerted effort to achieve a common national goal. (c) The natives of Canaan were to and resynthesis the Israelites an enemy. to be exterminated; the acceptance of them as allies would.
directly contravene Israel 's purposes. 238 But the ha-BI- ru. had no special antipathy for the Canaanites as such. Quite. the contrary, the Canaanites were their employers, and for.
the most part the ha-BI- ru are found abetting the where i stand essay, attempts. of those Canaanites who strove to gain independence from. Egyptian domination. Complaints are frequently heard from. the loyalists that Canaanite rebels are going over to the. cause of the SA-GAZ . (d) The goal of Israel in Canaan with respect to the land. was to gain possession, and agreeably their general policy in.
dealing with cities was to exterminate the population and. seize the spoil but to refrain from online chat, destroying the cities by fire. The ha-BI- ru , however, after conquering and where essay, plundering, frequently set the city on fire, 239 apparently having no designs. to acquire territory or to build an empire. The difference between the letter, two movements can also be. traced in matters of detail. 238 Cf. Josh. 11:19.
Nothing underscores this more than the anomalous. character of the Gibeonite alliance. It should not be overlooked, however, that after the days of i stand essay Joshua's leadership the original determination gave. way frequently to a fraternizing attitude (e. g., Judg . 3:5-6). 239 So repeatedly in EA 185. (a) Names: None of the names of the Israelite leaders. is found in the Amarna letters. Car Research. 240 Moreover, where the names.
of the rulers of specific Canaanite cities can be checked (as at. Jerusalem , Lachish , Gezer , and Hazor ) there is in essay, every case. disagreement between the Bible and the Amarna texts. (b) Numbers: In the pleas of the 1200, loyalists for military. assistance it appears that Egyptian support in the form of.
fifty or so men will be adequate to turn the tide of battle. It. seems unlikely then that these Canaanite kings were con- fronted with an assault on the scale of Joshua's army. Where Essay. 241. (c) Places: The ha-BI- ru operated successfully in Phoenicia. and Syria , but neither the Conquest under Joshua nor later. tribal efforts penetrated that far. 242. (d) Military Technology: The Israelites made no use of. chariotry, 243 whereas chariots were a standard division of the.
ha-BI- ru corps at Alalah and in Palestine. 244. 2. Pre-Conquest . An alternative must be found then to. identifying the biblical Conquest under Joshua with the. Amarna disclosures. The procedure of the majority of scholars. is to place Joshua after the Amarna events. Thus Meek, 240 Proposals to equate Joshua with Yashuia and Benjamin with Benenima. ( or Ben- elima ) are phonetically impossible. Furthermore the Amarna.
men were pro-Egyptian. 241 Cf. Exod . 12:37; 38:26; Num. 1:46; 2:32; 26:51. At the same time it. should not be overlooked that even fifty professional soldiers might. provide adequate leadership to defend a walled garrison. Moreover, there. are larger requests like that of Rib- Addi ( EA 71:23-24) for fifty pair of.
horses and 200 infantry as a merely defensive measure. 242 The way in which this argument is developed by Rowley ( op. 1200 Word Pages. cit ., pp. 42 ff.) is an i stand essay, illuminating exhibition of analysis and resynthesis rewriting history to one's taste. He argues that the essay, exploits of Joshua were mainly if not entirely confined. to the central districts while the ha-BI- ru trouble was in the south and. north and only at Shechem in hybrid, the center. It will be recognized that this. is the where i stand essay, precise opposite of the prima facie biblical account, according to. which Joshua's campaigns were notably in editing and resynthesis, the south (Josh. 10) and in. the north (Josh.
11:1-14). Rowley rejects Joshua 10 in favor of the. supposedly conflicting account in Judges 1; and Joshua 11, in favor of. the supposed variant in i stand, Judges 4. According to papers the record itself, Judges 1. records events after the death of Joshua and the events of Judges 4 fall. well over a century after those of Joshua 11.
64 WESTMINSTER THEOLOGICAL JOURNAL. though he believes the Amarna ha-BI- ru and where essay, Joshua's cam- paign belong to letter one movement, specifies that the Amarna. account marks the beginning of the movement, while the. Old Testament account has to do largely with its final ac- complishment . 245 An odd quirk of where i stand essay Meek's view is that the. Exodus from Egypt under Moses follows Joshua by more. Albright, though he posits an earlier, pre- Amarna exodus. from Egypt and entry into Canaan on the part of the Joseph.
tribes and finds their presence in central Palestine before the. major Hebrew arrival reflected in the ha-BI- ru of the Amarna. letters , dates the (second) exodus ( i . e ., Moses leading out. the Leah tribes) and the campaigning of Joshua in the 13th. century , long after the Amarna correspondence. 246. To cite one further variety of this approach, there is. Rowley's intricate reconstruction. He also espouses a theory. of a two-fold entry into the land, according to which certain. Hebrew groups, notably Judah, press northward from Kadesh.
c. Car Research Papers. 1400 B.C. I Stand. (these Rowley would identify with the ha-BI- ru. of the Amarna letters) while kindred tribes, including Asher, Zebulon, and Dan, exert pressure in and resynthesis, the north (these, Rowley. conjectures , are the SA-GAZ of the Amarna letters). I Stand. But. the exodus from dissertation theory, Egypt under Moses and the entry of Joshua. into central Palestine he dates late in where essay, the 13th century B. Word. C. 247. It will be observed that all these efforts to locate Joshua. after the Amarna episode involve drastic recasting of the.
biblical data--the rejection not merely of points of detail. but of the biblical history in where, its basic structure. It requires. some ingenuity, indeed, to produce one of these elaborate. creations by weaving together a host of miscellaneous data. sublimated from their original contexts, but the result is. fiction not history. Under the mask of a claim of controlling.
the biblical sources by means of archaeological and extra- biblical sources an almost totally undisciplined biblical ex- egesis has been introduced. But why the penchant for the. hasty rejection of the Old Testament source in favor of. 246 BASOR 58, 1935, pp. 10 ff. 247 See Rowley, op. cit ., esp. pp. 140 ff. for a survey of the various views. interpretations of archaeological evidence which are them- selves so uncertain and disputed at countless points? 3. Post-Conquest . There is another alternative for the. integration of the Amarna and the biblical histories. It is.
the reverse of those just surveyed in that it locates the Con- quest under Joshua before rather than after the Amarna. letters , at editing analysis, least before those of Abdi-Hepa. 248 This is in. 248 The historian is at this juncture always embroiled in the complex. question of the date of the Exodus. Aware of the where i stand, difficulties of the early. date ( i . Word Pages. e., locating Joshua in or before the Armarna Age) and not aware of. the proper solution of them all, the writer nevertheless finds insuperable. the difficulties of where i stand a later date. Relevant as the problem is, limitations of. space allow only brief comment on a few salient points: a) The case.
presented by H. Essay. H. Rowley (in From Joseph to where i stand essay Joshua ) against a Hebrew. entry into Egypt in the Hyksos period has not been answered. Vlad Essay. If valid, that majority of scholars which is certainly correct in dating the patriarchal. period early in the second millennium B.C. rather than (with Rowley) in the middle of it must date the beginning of the sojourn before the Hyksos. period , not (with Rowley) after it. And that, in turn, virtually necessitates. the early date of the Exodus. b ) Advocates of where a 19th dynasty Exodus. constantly appeal to the archaeological evidences of dissertation - grounded royal building opera- tions at the sites of Pithom and Raamses . G. E. Wright, for a recent. example , states, We now know that if there is any historical value at where i stand essay, all.
to the cover, store-city tradition in Exodus (and there is no reason to doubt its. reliability ), then Israelites must have been in Egypt at least during the early. part of the reign of Rameses II ( Biblical Archaeology ( Philadelphia and. London , 1957), p. 60. Italics his.) That is a curiously misleading state- ment . Is it not rather the case that, if one has no reason to doubt the. reliability of the record in where essay, Exodus 1:11 that Pharaoh forced the Israelites. to build Pithom and Raamses as store-cities, he cannot possibly identify. that pharaoh with Ramses II? For it is inconceivable that anyone should. have described the magnificent operations of essay Ramses II at these sites, transforming one of them into essay, the capital of Egypt , in the store-cities terms of Exodus 1:11.
The Hebrew building and the Hebrew Exodus. must then precede Ramses II. c) Albright has dated the destruction of. Canaanite Bethel, Lachish , and Debir , all by conflagration, in essay, the 13th. century B.C., and would identify this destruction with Joshua's campaigns. as evidence of a late Exodus. Such a deduction does not do justice to the. biblical facts that Canaanite reoccupation frequently followed Joshua's. conquest of Canaanite cities and that destruction by where i stand fire was exceptional. in Joshua's campaigns. (Apparently only Jericho and Ai among the.
southern cities were burned and only Hazor was burned in the Galilean. campaign . Josh. 11 .13.) The evidence of these Palestinian excavations, therefore , actually requires a date for car research, Joshua considerably earlier than the. 66 WESTMINSTER THEOLOGICAL JOURNAL. precise agreement with the chronological data in Judges 11:26.
and I Kings 6:1 and i stand essay, assumes a fairly brief period for Joshua's. campaigns which also agrees with the biblical record. 249. Even more compatible with this view than with the iden - tification of Joshua's campaigns and the Amarna activity are. certain facts which have long constituted a popular argument.
in favor of the latter view. 251 Giving it a somewhat different. turn than the advocates of word pages identification, the argument is as. follows : Precisely those cities which appear in the Amarna. letters as under Canaanite control, whether pro-Egyptian or. rebel (and, therefore, likely allied to i stand essay the SA-GAZ ), are those. which were not permanently dispossessed either by Joshua 251.
or the early tribal efforts after the death of Joshua. 252. 13th century fall of these cities. A propos of Josh. 11:13, Yadin's recent. report of the second season of excavations at Hazor is of interest ( cf. Biblical Archaeologist, XX, 1957, pp.
34 ff.). In addition to the latest. Canaanite city which was destroyed in the 13th century (perhaps then, according to an early Exodus, in the days of Deborah, cf. Editing Analysis And Resynthesis. Judges 4 and 5), remains were found of a 14th century city approximately in the el- Amarna. period (p.
44) and of an earlier city of the Middle Bronze Age which. was effectively destroyed by essay fire, most probably by one of the Egyptian. pharaohs of the New Kingdom , Amenophis II or more probably Thut - mose III (p. 44). The supposition that a pharaoh of the theory, New Kingdom. captured Hazor is questionable; for in spite of their many campaigns into. Canaan their ignorance of the techniques of siege warfare made the. capture of a fortified city a rarity.
But according to the early date of the. Exodus, Joshua was a contemporary of Amenophis II and as for Hazor , 249 Josh. 14:7 and 10 indicate that the initial phase was completed. within five years of the entry into Canaan . 250 Cf., e. g., Olmstead, History of where essay Palestine and help online chat, Syria (New York, 1931), pp. 196-197; Meek, op. cit ., p. 20. 251 Joshua 10 and 11. 252 The situation at Shechem is problematic. Nothing is said about an.
Israelite conquest of central Palestine , but if the transaction of Joshua 24. implies Israelite control of Shechem , they subsequently lost their foothold, for Labaya ruled Shechem some thirty years after the Israelite entry. (cf. EA 289:22 ff.). Similarly, if Albright ( BASOR 87, 1942, p. 38) is.
correct that Debir became the seat of a local chieftain after the Amarna. period , not only Joshua's raid but even Othniel's capture of that city. (Josh. 15:15-17; cf. Judg . 1:11 ff.) failed to be permanently effective. Again, though Joshua's raid had depopulated Lachish and Gezer , these. cities fell again into where i stand, Canaanite hands according to EA 287:14-15, whether.
these lines mean that these cities had been assisting Pharaoh's enemies or. Albright has concluded that in southern Palestine of the. Amarna period the letter and, main city-states were Gezer , Lachish , Jerusalem , and Hebron-Keilah. 253 In the period of Joshua. there are in this area five additional city-states: Jarmuth , Makkedah , Libnah , Debir , and Eglon , with still others like. Jericho , Bethel and where, Gibeon nearby. Albright then theorizes. that from c. 1375-1250 there had been a gradual reduction in.
the power of the city-states combined with an increase in. their number, which he attributes to a settled Egyptian policy. of divide et impera . This decrease in the power of the help homework online, Cana - anite city-states is then judged to have aided Israel in essay, her. Conquest. Indeed, this is seized upon as compelling evidence. that the Hebrew Conquest was late. It will be recognized that this reconstruction of the - grounded, 14th.
century situation in southern Palestine is based in part on. silences in the Amarna letters. Essay. Such a procedure is precarious, however , for vlad essay, the silences might readily be accounted for by. the fact that the i stand essay, authors of the and resynthesis, Amarna letters simply had no. occasion to mention the towns in question. Essay. To the editing analysis, extent, however , that there may actually have been fewer city-states. in the Amarna period than in Joshua's day, a more plausible. explanation would be that between Joshua and the Amarna. situation the Israelites had been encroaching on the territory. of the old Canaanite city-states, reducing their number by. Furthermore, the spontaneous confederation of Canaanite.
kings described in Joshua 10 is difficult to explain if it be. supposed that Joshua's campaigns were contemporary with. or subsequent to the ha-BI- ru activity of the i stand, Amarna letters. For these letters graphically exhibit the mutual distrust and. growing antagonism among the Canaanite kings during this.
period . Is it not apparent that neither in the midst of, nor. soon after, such intrigues and civil strife could a king of. Jerusalem so easily consolidate the editing analysis and resynthesis, surrounding city-states for. were to provide for Pharaoh's archers. Such developments indicate that.
Israel 's permanent acquisition of territory in Canaan was a gradual. process only initiated by Joshua's campaigns. 253 Besides these, Jarmuth was a minor independency and an Egyptian. garrison and official were stationed at Eglon . I Stand. BASOR 87, 1942, pp. 37-38. 68 WESTMINSTER THEOLOGICAL JOURNAL. a joint military venture against a common foe?
Abdi-Hepa's. futile efforts during the struggle with the ha-Bi- ru is a witness. that a king of Jerusalem would find such a task impossible. Again a more plausible reconstruction is that the - grounded, collapse of. the five-city alliance against Joshua terminated the southern. confederation and prepared for the Canaanite disunity ev - idenced in the Amarna letters. If Joshua is to be placed before the Amarna period, the. problem still remains of synchronizing the later Israelite tribal. efforts to take actual possession of their allotted inheritances. ( i . e., the Book of judges) with the Amarna ha-BI- ru move- ments . The arguments already presented against where essay the pos- sibility of identifying the with homework, ha-BI- ru with the i stand, Israelites of.
Joshua's day for the most part hold against any such iden - tification at this point as well. However, in view of the 1200 essay pages, known. tendency of the authors of the Amarna letters to stigmatize. the cause of all enemies (or at least all accused of disloyalty. to Egypt ) with the SA-GAZ label, we ought not to be too. dogmatic in denying the possibility that some Hebrew. activity might be hidden in where, the Amarna letters under that.
More significant is the dissertation, fact that on the chronology followed. here the first oppression of Israel in i stand, Canaan 254 falls in hybrid car research, the late. second and in the third decade of the 14th century B.C. This. corresponds with part of the era of the i stand essay, ha-BI- ru in Canaan. 255.
Israel 's first oppressor was Cushan-rishathaim king of Aram. Naharaim. Hybrid Car Research. 256 The area designated by Aram Naharaim would include within its southwestern limits the region about. Alalah (and probably still farther south) which was a strong. ha-BI- ru center in the 14th century B. C. 257 Though styled. 255 part of this era corresponds to the career of Labaya which can be. dated in the second and where i stand essay, third decades of the vlad essay, 14th century on either. Albright's or Knudtzon's reading of the date on the hieratic docket on. Labaya's letter, EA 254. 256 Judg . 3:8. Where. It is possible that the additional MyitafAw ;ri , double wicked- ness , was appended by Cushan's victims, perhaps as a pun on Myirahana Mraxa . Cf.
Burney, The Book of Judges , 1920, pp. 65-66. 257 Cf. Help Homework Online Chat. O'Callaghan, Aram Naharaim , esp. pp. 131-145; cf. p. 122. melek , Cushan-rishathaim need not have been more than one. strong chieftain among several in Aram Naharaim. 251. Moreover, the name Cushan is attested in this area both as. the name of a geographical district and i stand, as a personal name. That there was a district in analysis, northern Syria in the 13th and.
12th centuries B.C. called Qusana-ruma , is known from the. list of Ramses III. Essay. 259 Still more pertinent is the 15th century. tablet from Alalah 260 which contains the personal name. ku-sa- an . 261 This tablet is cover letter and, a fragment of a census list of. unspecified purpose, on which 43 personal names remain. along with the where i stand, phrase found on the left edge, owner of a. chariot . The list then might well be one of the essay, numerous. military lists and where i stand, probably includes the names of several. Within the 1200 word pages, framework of synchronization proposed here.
for Hebrew and ha-BI- ru careers, it is difficult to dissociate the. oppression of where i stand Israel by Cushan-rishathaim from the vlad, ha-BI- ru. menace of the Amarna letters. The facts rather suggest that. elements of the ha-BI- ru corps from Syria active in southern. Canaan as the terror of the loyalist Canaanite city kings began.
in time to raid the i stand essay, settlements of the 1200 essay pages, more recently arrived. Israelites. Where Essay. The Israelites were becoming, like the analysis, Egyptians, too dominating a power in Palestine to suit the interests which. the ha-BI- ru were engaged to further. It appears then that it. was from plundering ha-BI- ru mercenaries that Othniel.
delivered oppressed Israel. 262. If so, the ha-BI- ru , certainly not the kin of Israel , were. actually Israel 's foe--the first oppressors of Israel in where i stand, Canaan . And then, far from offering a Canaanite version of the Hebrew. 258 Such is the usage elsewhere in judges. Car Research Papers. Thus Jabin of where essay Hazor is called.
king of cover letter and Canaan ( Judg . Where I Stand. 4:2; cf. 4:23, 24), though he was but one of. several Canaanite kings ( cf . Judg . 5:19). So also, O'Callaghan, op. cit ., 259 Cf. W. Edgerton, J. Wilson, Historical Records of Ramesses III , 260 Wiseman, AT 154. 261 Ibid ., p. 140. 36 names end in -an ( ibid ., p. 10).
262 Since Othniel is associated with the south, this first oppression. probably centered there. 70 WESTMINSTER THEOLOGICAL JOURNAL. march of conquest, the Amarna letters dealing with the. ha-BI- ru are a Canaanite portrait of the first scourge employed. by Yahweh to dissertation theory chastise the Israelites for their failure to.
prosecute the where i stand essay, mandate of conquest. It is - grounded theory, not difficult to surmise what verdict the biblical. historians would have given if they had left to us their inter- pretation of the data of the essay, ha-BI- ru oppression of the. theocratic people in editing analysis and resynthesis, the early 14th century and the almost. total disappearance of the ha-BI- ru as a social-political entity. by about the where i stand, close of that century. Surely they would have. judged that the brief Amarna Age encounter with Israel was.
for the tepes essay, ha-BI- ru a crucial hour of more than ordinary political. decision . It was an encounter that sealed their destined fall. Westminster Theological Seminary, Philadelphia. This material is cited with gracious permission from:
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In the recent decades, the hospitality and tourism industry are playing the vital role in the social life, especially is hotel and resort industry. Hybrid Car Research Papers! However. Contract , Cost of goods sold , Earnings before interest and taxes 1321 Words | 4 Pages. assistance on arrival and transfer to the hotel . Later proceed to visit India Gate, drive past the Presidential Palace, Parliament Street and . Government building into where i stand essay, Diplomatic Enclave and hybrid papers, visit Qutab Minar, Humayun's tomb, Purana Quila, Red Fort. Overnight stay in the hotel . Day 02: DELHI -AGRA (195kms/4hrs) Morning after breakfast drive to Agra.
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Academic degree , Associate's degree , Bachelor's degree 574 Words | 3 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of 1200 pages writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the where i stand, definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story. Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of and resynthesis daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages.
in the living room having a cup of tea whilst discussing school and where i stand essay, University work) Ayse: Thank God! It’s nearly Christmas I was sick of all these mock . GCSE exams! Zuhre: I don’t even get a break! I have this essay to do but don’t know where to start. Ayse: You just done one essay didn’t you? Zuhre: This is another one about how to design better conversational spaces. Editing And Resynthesis! (Sighs) and I still don’t know how to essay, define a conversational space or a conversation properly! Ayse: A conversation. Bohm Dialogue , Conversation , Dialogue 2498 Words | 7 Pages. Backpacking or Staying in the Hotel.
Comparison Essay Backpacking or Staying in Hotels Traveling is one of the favorite hobbies almost all people have. There are . several ways for word essay, traveling around the world, and they all include some good things and some bad things. In the essay, past, people traveling by editing, risking their live in wildness of nature but today, by where, the progression of technology, traveling can be a safe hobby that can be done by anyone. Commonly, there are two kinds of traveling according by where you can sleep during the night. Hostel , Hotel , Hotels 902 Words | 3 Pages.
probably noticed, essay writing assignments can pop up in any class. Hybrid Papers! An essay is a literary composition that expresses a . certain idea, claim, or concept and backs it up with supporting statements. It will follow a logical pattern, to include an introductory paragraph (make the claim), a body (support), and a conclusion (summary of statements and support). English and literature teachers use them on a regular basis, but essays are required in many other types of classes. Essay exams are also a.
Abstraction , Essay , Fiction 876 Words | 3 Pages. disquisition, monograph; More 2. formal an attempt or effort. Where I Stand Essay! a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in telecommunications a trial design of a postage stamp yet to be accepted. Dissertation Theory! verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. attempt or try. Where Essay! essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in the sense ‘test the. Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. Major Essay “Transformation and hybrid, the Search for Truth in Hannie Rayson’s Hotel Sorrento.” Consider Rayson’s subtle treatment . of the everyday as a means of exploring deeper realities. ‘At the core of this play is a family struggling with loyalty, loyalty to each other and loyalty to their own story.’ Dr Tess Brady Hotel Sorrento, written by Hannie Rayson, is an where essay analysis of human relationships within a family structure. The play encourages an hybrid car research papers ownership without the need to hide in the belief. Antagonist , Australia , Character 2233 Words | 6 Pages.
Semester 1, 2013 Assessment Task 2:Critical Essay IDEAS in MANAGEMENT Writing instructions and Marking Rubric This assessment task is . an ESSAY . The RMIT College of Business requires you to use a particular style of essay writing which involves both the where i stand essay, way the essay is structured and the way that you acknowledge other people’s ideas used in your work. The structuring of an vlad essay is very clearly described in the RMIT Study and Learning Centre Essay Writing Skills Online Tutorial available. Article , Citation , Critical thinking 807 Words | 3 Pages. Quality of where i stand essay Service for Customers in Hotels. ?For a hotel always concerned about the quality of their service to their customers.
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? Essay Instructions You will write 4 essays (double spaced, 12-point Times New Roman font). 1200 Word Pages! The first essay must . be 1,000–1,200 words, and the following essays must be 750–1,000 words each. Essay one corresponds to the essay one prompt as listed below. Essay two corresponds with the essay two prompt, etc. through all four essays . Each essay is a separate assignment. In completing each essay , research must be conducted through 2–4 peer-reviewed, scholarly sources in addition to the Bible and the. Bible , Religious text 990 Words | 3 Pages. Bankers Adda How to write Essay in SBI PO Exam? Dear readers, as you know that SBI PO 2014 Paper will also contain a Descriptive Test of . 50 marks (1 hour duration), which will consist of English Language Comprehension, Short Precis, Letter Writing Essay ). So, here we are presenting you How to write Essay ? and few points to remember while writing an essay in the exam, which will be important for upcoming SBI PO exam. How to write an essay ? 1. Analyze the prompt.
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This assignment will evaluate your ability to integrate early cinematic representations we watch, course concepts in essay lecture and textbook support. Analysis! The guided midterm is. Asian American , Better Luck Tomorrow , Cinema of the where i stand essay, United States 1401 Words | 5 Pages. BM 6105 Assignment BM 6105 Managing Change Assignment (3000 words) Essay Due on vlad essay, Monday 14th of January 2013 You are required to write an where i stand . essay supported with reference to car research, the academic literature that answers the i stand, following question: • You have recently been appointed to dissertation theory, your first management post following graduation. You are keenly aware that as part of i stand your management role you will be responsible for managing change and anticipate drawing on your BM 6105 studies to help you achieve success. Essay , Management , Organization 690 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative Essay Social responsibility is an ideal topic for debate; there have been mixed results for companies and individuals who have . pursued social responsibility.
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ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to help you write an acceptable academic- level essay . . This is not the only way to organize and where essay, develop an essay . Tepes! It is, however, a tried and true system and will likely be what your TCC instructors require of you. Audience and Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and purpose. For, before you can know how to approach the subject, you must determine whom you will be addressing, how much they already. 2005 albums , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1430 Words | 5 Pages. Environmental Scanning System for a Hotel.
DEPARTMENT OF HOSPITALITY MANAGEMENT AN ESSAY ON Steps to Establish Environmental Scanning System For a Hotel . Identify the i stand, steps you would take to and, establish an environmental scanning system for a Hotel business and where i stand essay, critically evaluate the process as an aid to effective strategic management Present business scenario across the world is very complex and editing analysis, unpredictable. The globalisation, changes in demographics and technological advancements and political changes influence the business. Hoshin Kanri , Hotel , Management 1562 Words | 5 Pages. This paper consists of 3 (three) sections. Section A – 10 (ten) TRUE/FALSE question; Section B – 8 (eight) short essay and Section C (i) – 7 . (seven) definition questions. You are requested to answer only 5 in i stand short essay format for section B. In Section C (i) you are only editing analysis and resynthesis, answer 5 (five) questions and answers are in i stand essay point forms. Dissertation - Grounded Theory! In C (ii), you are provide to answer a long essay format and you need to where essay, provide comprehensive illustration in question number 2 (two). Candidates are required to answer. Answer , Answers , Cost 692 Words | 4 Pages. such strategies as scanning, skimming, main ideas, contextual clues and inferences. Learning Outcomes: Upon completion of this subject, student will . be able to: 1. write summaries as well as process, comparison-contrast and cause-effect essays 2. apply basic grammatical concepts in writing 3. answer questions based on academic texts 4. give oral presentations Textbook: 1. Daise, D., Norloff, C., and vlad tepes essay, Carne, P., (2011).
Q: Skills for Success 4 : Reading and i stand essay, Writing Oxford University. Cambridge , Essay , Latin 401 Words | 3 Pages. 10 Global Hospitality Trends in Hotel. WHAT IS HAPPENING TO THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY OVER TIME? 10 GLOBAL HOSPITALITY TRENDS IN HOTELS amp; RESORTS Time to time hospitality . industry experiences important changes that impact globally the vlad essay, hotelier industry practices. Currently global economics factors and increase international travel and tourism volumes, driven by the growing BRIC economies. As well mega events in where i stand essay Europe and South America from 2012 through 2016 have impact the vlad, global hospitality sector. Where! As result owners and managers. Grand Hotel Europe , Hospitality industry , Hotel 915 Words | 3 Pages. symbols which can be understood and manipulated by hybrid, someone who is culturally literate.
Second, being literate can mean having knowledge or competence. For . example, we speak of people being computer literate or politically literate. For your first essay , try to focus on a moment or a period in essay your life when you realized the significance of being literate in with this fashion. I Stand! Did you have trouble using a computer to register for classes? Did you fit into a subculture because you learned to speak its. Essay , Knowledge , Literacy 1120 Words | 4 Pages. ?Information systems for managers Case study: Outrigger Hotels and Resort The solution is here… Magic Data The solution is online chat here… . Question 1-The current IS resources of Outriggers: 1. Technical Resources: * Hardware(Personal computers; Routing equipment). * Software (Stellex, in where essay 1987; Stellex 2.0, in 1992; centralized IT systems; E.Piphany; JD Edwards). Hybrid Car Research! – Appendix 1 * Networking comportments of IT infrastructure (XML interface; Electronic interface; IBM AS 400 Platform; Windows.
Business intelligence , Competition , Hotel 1235 Words | 5 Pages. Co Exhibit A HOTEL CONTINENTAL INCOME STATEMENT For the i stand, Years 1987-1988 Revenues 1987 1988 Rooms . P 1,969,722.18 P 2,515,575.96 Food P 4,843,486.42 P 5,426,843.98 Beverage P 637,862.39 P 684,983.02 Laundry P 23,070.24 P 29,175.00 Telephone P 147,417.16 P 175,163.14 Swimming Pool P 156,718.28 P 182,718.45 Other Income P 660,336.83 P 842,985.15 Total Revenue . Destination hotel , Hotel , Hotels 629 Words | 4 Pages. trying to hybrid car research papers, know everyone in where essay the class. After that here comes the big turn, homework and writing essays . I have never written an essay . essay in my life while I was living in where i stand essay India. It was really hard for cover letter and, me to write down our thought on i stand essay, the given assignment. My English is editing analysis and resynthesis not good and grammar is worse. I was really afraid of writing, I didn’t want to tell anyone.
I missed my first essay due date and even second essay due date. After some days Mrs. I Stand Essay! Danielo called me in cover letter and her office during office hours. She told. Academic term , College , Essay 1524 Words | 4 Pages. outsourcing in where hotels was not a popular concept but more recently with the downturn in the economy in the nineteen nineties more and more . hotels are turning to outsourcing to help increase their revenues and maximize their profit potential. The use of outsourcing enables firms to maximize their resources and to reinforce their competitive advantage.
One of the most popular areas for outsourcing in hotels would have to help with chat, be the Food and Beverage sector. The decision to outsource by many hotels has been. Hampton Inn , Homewood Suites by Hilton , Hospitality industry 1577 Words | 6 Pages. ? Hotel Continental In July 1989, Mr. Oscar Mendoza, owner of Triumph Tours read in the newspapers an advertisement for the leasing of . Hotel Continental’s facilities. I Stand Essay! During the last six months, Oscar Mendoza has been seriously thinking about operating hotel to complement his travel agency business. Hybrid Papers! Oscar Mendoza had been experiencing difficulties in getting hotel accommodation for his tour groups’ last year during the peak travel months of December, January, July and August. Hotel Continental.
Hotel , Hotels , Las Vegas Strip 861 Words | 4 Pages. Centre for Language Study Pre-Sessional Course A 2013 WRITING TASK 4: Assessed Essay WRITING TASK 4 is your assessed essay . and where i stand, you will need to write an essay of 1200-1400 words. This is the same length as the essay in WRITING TASK 3. WRITING TASK 4 will form 80% of your mark for writing on the Pre-Sessional course. Please select a title from the list here: 1. Discuss the impact a particular theory has had on your area of study in terms of and resynthesis application, use and limitations. 2. Explain the problems. Citation , Essay , Marketing 1150 Words | 4 Pages. Classification of hotels Made by - Ayush Henry There are many ways to classify hotels , such as:1 According to their . size, 2 On the basis of where essay star system 3 On the basis of vlad essay ownership 4 Other categories Made by - Ayush Henry SIZE Classification on the basis of size refers to where i stand essay, the no. of rooms that a hotel can sell to guests, Usually the classification is, Hotels with 25 rooms or less is analysis small hotel ? With 26 to 99 is an where i stand average hotels ? From 100 to 299 is with online chat above average . Bed and where essay, breakfast , Guest house , Hotel 454 Words | 4 Pages. stories, news articles, and especially essays begin with good hooks because a writer is with often judged within the first few sentences. Just as . the where i stand essay, news tries to cover and, stimulate our fears by announcing a “danger in our water supply,” a writer must try to bring the reader from his or her world into the world of the essay . Where! This is done with a few choice words at the beginning of the essay : the infamous hook. It is not easy to think of dissertation theory how to make someone want to read an essay about where, a novel.
It’s not even easy to. Essay , Good and evil , Human 609 Words | 3 Pages. ?Executive Summary In March 2014, my friends and I is interested in the development of a luxury hotel , planned to be operated by a well . renowned hotel brand, a feasibility study was commissioned to be made. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the opportunities and - grounded, risks of i stand operating a high class hotel at the designated location. In order to tepes, determine whether a feasible operation of such an establishment is possible, the essay, various key factors of editing analysis competitive business in this particular market. Credit card , Hotel , Hotels 1296 Words | 4 Pages. Hotel Front Office – Medium Size Hotel Kyle Beers HTT250 August 15, 2010 Prof. Israel Johnson Hotel Front Office . – Medium Size Hotel How is the front office important to a hotel ? The front office of i stand any sized hotel is the brain of the operation. Hybrid Car Research Papers! The front office concludes of employees and where i stand, departments that make the hybrid car research, hotel functional. Front office employees, such as front desk employees, make reservations via phone, check-in/check-out guests, address all guest questions, and where i stand essay, suggest activities.
Hotel , Hotels , Motel 978 Words | 3 Pages. analyze the boutique hotel industry in Sri Lanka and hybrid car research, the trends of the industry at present and the key issues likely to change the essay, formation of . the theory, industry in the future. Tourism in Sri Lanka has been booming since the war came to an end also the recovery of the global recession also has led to essay, an increase in the number of tourists visiting the country. Therefore the need to cater to the foreigners has led to the growth in the emerging Boutique Hotel Industry. Demand for these hotels is increasing also. Boutique hotel , Hotel , Hotels 2285 Words | 7 Pages. McDonald's Hotels Written Case Analysis By Sean Bibbey SWOT Analysis External Environment The external environment of the . 1200 Pages! hotel industry in is very competitive and already well established. Trends in the market include promotional campaigns to customers using the more bang for your buck, method. There are several different segments of the hotel industry including: luxury, upscale, mid-market with food and beverage, mid-market without food and beverage, economy, and budget.
Hotel , Hotel chains , Hotels 1201 Words | 5 Pages. thesis is never a question. Readers of academic essays expect to where i stand essay, have questions discussed, explored, or even answered. A question (“Why did . communism collapse in dissertation theory Eastern Europe?”) is not an argument, and without an argument, a thesis is dead in i stand the water. 2. A thesis is help chat never a list. “For political, economic, social and cultural reasons, communism collapsed in Eastern Europe” does a good job of “telegraphing” the essay, reader what to expect in the essay —a section about political reasons, a section about. Argument , Frederick Douglass , Logic 1094 Words | 5 Pages.
categories of Marriott hotels which are separated by car research, location and where i stand essay, type. Word Essay Pages! Each category is aimed at where essay, a different target market, with wealthier . 1200 Essay! individuals the target of category seven hotels while individuals looking to enjoy their vacation without breaking the bank are the essay, target of lower category hotels . While all Marriott hotels strive to homework online, bring an excellent stay to their guests, the old phrase, “you get what you pay for,” can certainly be applied to the various Marriott hotels . Within the seven. 2003 Marriott Hotel bombing , Courtyard by Marriott , Hotel chains 2610 Words | 7 Pages. Name: Andrew Gordon Subject: Exp201, Professor Morales Summary Assignment Forerunners Sei Shonagon: Hateful Things Essay question: . Consider Sei Shonagon’s definition of the word ‘hate’ in the Heian era. Is an opinion considered hostile if it focuses on i stand, honesty and transparency of a situation? “Hateful Things” is an opinionated extract from the book “Pillow Talk” written by with online chat, Sei Shonagon. Pillow Talk is a collection of the lists, desires, poetry and judgmental conversations by where i stand essay, Shonagon. Sei. Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages.
selling tickets for 1200, tours). However, this is likely to i stand, depend on the resort in with homework online question and the leniency of the where i stand, employer. [pic] Responsibilities As a . resort representative, you will be required to car research, meet guests on arrival and accompany them to their hotel accommodation. Essay! You will also need to provide them with information about resort facilities and the entertainment on offer in homework addition to attending these events yourself. Where Essay! You’ll also need to 1200 essay pages, be on hand to answer guests’ questions and where i stand essay, deal with problems. Destination hotel , Employment , Hotel 1950 Words | 7 Pages. ”1 This is the stated philosophy of the luxury hotel company that Conrad Hilton, the founder of analysis and resynthesis Hilton Hotels , used to extend . his desire for his company to offer customers a kind, hospitable, and i stand, luxury setting. Conrad started the hotel chain by purchasing a single 40- room hotel from Cisco, Texas in essay 1919. Since then the corporation has grown into more than 2,800 hotels and i stand essay, 490,000 rooms in more than 80 countries as of and 2006.
Hilton Hotels Corporation headcourters are located in Beverly Hills. Hampton Inn , Hilton Garden Inn , Hilton Hotels 2535 Words | 7 Pages. ukessays.com http://www.ukessays.com/ essays /nursing/nosocomial-infections.php Nosocomial infections Nosocomial Infections 4 Running . Where Essay! Head: NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS Nosocomial infections. Nosocomial infections are those that result because of homework a treatment process normally carried out in a health care facility like a hospital. Typically these infections will appear two days after admission into the facility or hospital and up to one month after discharge from the hospital. Nosocomial infections. Acinetobacter baumannii , Antibiotic resistance , Bacteria 1740 Words | 3 Pages. W Hotels W Hotels is Starwood's luxury lifestyle / boutique hotel brand. Marketed towards a younger general crowd, . the hotel brand was launched in 1998 with its first property, W New York, opening at 541 Lexington Avenue. The brand has since expanded internationally with properties opening first in Mexico City, Seoul, and where essay, Istanbul.
The brand's first resort property is W Maldives Retreat amp; Spa. The group has now 52 hotels all over essay, the world, also in countries like Taiwan or Chili. In order. Hotel , Marketing , PEST analysis 576 Words | 3 Pages. Presence in where Brazil with Upcoming Sheraton Da Bahia Hotel in Salvador December 19, 2012 STAMFORD, CONN. – December 19, 2012 –Starwood . Word Essay Pages! Hotels amp; Resorts Worldwide, Inc. (NYSE:HOT) has partnered with GJP Hoteis amp; Resorts to expand the presence of where i stand its global powerhouse brand Sheraton Hotels amp; Resorts in Brazil. Sheraton da Bahia Hotelwill be located inSalvador, one of the tepes essay, most important tourist destinations in where essay the country.
The 284-room historic Hotel da Bahia is dissertation - grounded theory currently undergoing an extensive. Bahia , Hotel , Hotel chains 1400 Words | 5 Pages. Analytical Essay of Donald Halls’ “A Hundred Thousand Straightened Nails” Donald Halls’ “A Hundred Thousand Straightened Nails” is a . symbolic presentation of the decay of where i stand New Hampshire the author uses the life of vlad Washington Woodward to show the where i stand essay, pointless existence that is experienced in a place as lifeless as New Hampshire. Dissertation Theory! He uses the contrast of his own opinion and the beliefs of where i stand Woodward to show how after a while it is impossible to escape a pointless mindset. Washington finds joy in discarded. Death , Family , New England 1234 Words | 3 Pages. Good Hotel : Doing Good, Doing Well? Background Information Joie de Vivre (JdV) is a San Francisco based hotel management . company with 16 properties in the city. It was founded in editing 1987 by Chip Conley. He knows that his company comes up with unique hotels , with own personality. Where I Stand Essay! It has managed to grow to 36 boutique hotel properties.
It became the second largest in 2010. JdV had combined two of their properties, Best Western Hotel Britton and Best Western Flamingo. Pam Janusz is the general manager. Boutique hotel , Destination hotel , Hospitality industry 2100 Words | 7 Pages. Background of Study for Online Hotel Reservation System Chapter 1 : Project Overview Background of the Study The existence of analysis many . sophisticated computer systems and various innovations that we find in this Information Age justifies the age old saying that necessity is the mother of all inventions. I Stand Essay! The need to share information in help with homework chat a so called ‘global network’ and man’s desire to communicate from i stand, long distances called for the birth of the World Wide Web (formerly known as ARPANET).
With the advent. Computer reservations system , Destination hotel , Hotel 704 Words | 3 Pages.
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Heredity Versus Environment Essay. A major debate within psychology is whether it is nature or nurture which influences people; the way people act and behave, cognitive development, and what we look for in a partner are just some aspects of the debate. Nature supporters, or Naturists, believe that our behaviour is down to genetics and is inherited from where essay our parents. They believe that everything about a person is decided at the moment on conception. Whereas nurture supporters believe that people learn their behaviour from the environment, their upbringings and the surrounding influences; such as friends, peers and work colleagues. There is lots of research, studies and evidence to support both arguments on hybrid a variety of essay subjects.
The nature argument is often used in court cases to describe uncharacteristic or deviant behaviour. Humans are often related to as animals as this is believed that people evolved from, Charles Darwin is dissertation - grounded theory, a leading figure in this side of the argument. Where! He pioneered his theory of hybrid evolution, and it is widely accepted that humans did derive from a ‘common ancestor’, therefore do have instinctive behaviour, and traits about where essay, their personality (Allaboutscience, 2014). A real life example of this would be a baby, who is unable to communicate, and help with online, has little understanding of the where i stand world; however still show signs of and resynthesis fear if they were to hear a loud noise. Nurture supporters believe that a person’s upbringing is a major factor which influences people in later life. Where I Stand Essay! A real life example of this would be serial killers, when studied, they were often subject to horrific abuse as a child and they blame this for their inabilities to conform to society’s norms and commit dreadful crimes. This is supported by a psychological study Bowlby’s 22 juvenile thieve study; people commit crimes due to what kind of upbringing they received.
The lack of a secure attachment with their primary care giver (McCloud, 2007). The term gender refers to whether a person socially and culturally class themselves as male or female, and which role they choose to letter live their life by in society. Rather than the term sex; which is what’s chosen biologically by genetics whilst in where i stand essay, the womb (Who, 2014). Psychologists look at gender difference within the nature/nurture debate; to see if genetics or environment factors play a part in what makes genders behaviour and act differently. Vlad Tepes! There are stereotypical gender roles in society; examples of which are that females are seen as maternal caring and where i stand, loving people whereas males are seen as aggressive, dominate, and the breadwinners. Scientists know that there are biologically difference between genders; such as hormones, and chromosomes, these are scientifically proven. Also they have been shown to editing analysis and resynthesis majorly impact a person’s behaviour, for example the where male hormone testosterone is contributor to letter aggressive behaviour and is the reason behind why males have more muscle mass supporting the where i stand essay nature perspective.
Whereas nurture supporters believe that gender differences come from the analysis environment, for example, children are dressed in colours which are stereotypical for their sex; blue for a boy and pink for a girl. This is further supported by the self-fulfilling prophecy; that if a person is told that they are something (male or female in this case) they will eventually believe this which will affect their behaviour. Interactionism is a term used to describe genetic gender differences which are influence or modified by the environment. Mary Mead conducted an i stand, experiment supporting the nurture argument of letter gender differences in 1935, where she studied three different tribes; Arapesh, Mundugumor, and Tchambuli. The arapesh were non aggressive, with a caring attitude towards children. Where I Stand Essay! The Mundungumor were aggressive and cold towards children. Dissertation Theory! The Tchambuli was the tribe were the i stand essay males were submissive and passive.
The results were that Mead found a slight pattern in male and and, female behaviour across different cultures however there were a lot more differences. Supporting the nurture argument as in Mead’s study two tribes showed role reversal; in one tribe the males were dominate and aggressive, whereas in another the females were, and i stand, the males were submissive. Pages! Also females being cold and where i stand, uncaring towards children; this showed psychologists that it can’t be instinctive or genetic that women must have maternal tendencies. This therefore shows interactionism in western society. A criticism of this study is that all three tribes where in 1200 essay, close proximity therefore are the sample could be said to be culturally similar (Benson, 2005). Buss et al in 1990 conducted a study which found that males are more aggressive than females regardless of i stand culture. They found cross cultural similarities between the genders; these were in how people look for a perspective reproductive partner. 1200 Pages! Buss et al found that men preferred youth and where, attractiveness whereas women looked for wealth and status.
This study supports the nature debate as Buss et al studied a wide and varied sample of people, and some people believe that these results can still be seen today in the western world. Another psychologist credited for his work in regards to 1200 word essay this debate is Bronislaw Malinowski; he carried out where i stand a research project in north-western Melanesia in 1929. Malinowski like Mead studied tribes however he looked at cover, their sexual behaviour and concluded that sexual behaviour dominates every aspect of essay life regardless of culture, which further supports the online chat nature debate. As with all studies, there are things which may affect the results of the research. I Stand Essay! With studying tribes there could of been a communication barrier, between the researcher and tepes, the participating tribes which would effect the results.
The gender of the psychologist performing the study could influence the results as they could be said to where be bias; as they may favour there own gender. Also the presence of tepes essay a researcher in a person’s everyday life may alter the way that person behaves and where essay, acts around them. To conclude, there are lots of gender differences, some appear similar across the world whereas others appear to editing analysis and resynthesis be culturally connected. In relation to i stand essay the nature/nurture debate, there are arguments and studies to support both sides, and will always be a conflicting argument throughout psychology. Critically evaluate some evidence which offers support for and resynthesis, the role of where essay ‘nature’ in the heredity-environment debate on intelligence. One disagreement people have in the topic of heredity versus environment is vlad tepes essay, about the subject of intelligence; are people born an intelligent person or is this acquired over where time, when information is learned and vlad tepes essay, absorbed into a person brain.
Intelligence is defined as a ‘manifestation of a high metal capacity’ (Dictionary, 2014). I Stand Essay! A commonly used test to assess a person’s intelligence is a series of questions called an vlad tepes, IQ test; the higher the IQ score the more intelligent a person is believed to i stand be. Francis Galton in 1869 studied the subject of intelligence and letter, since then lots of psychologists have been interested in the debate and there have been many studies conducted (Malim Birch, 1998). In support of the nature debate, there have been a lot of where i stand essay experiments conducted on help online siblings, including twins studies, and cousins. Twins can be categorised into two groups; monozygotic (MZ), and dizygotic (DZ). Monozygotic twins are ‘identical’ and share the same genetic information as they were produced from where one egg, whereas dizygotic twins are produced from two separate ova and have the and resynthesis same genetic information as two children with the same parents (Malim Birch, 1998). As with all studies in this debate, these have been heavily criticised by supporters of the opposing arguments, this assignment will evaluate some of these.
The main criticism of the majority of IQ studies is that all the participants are children or adolescents. Newman et al in 1937 embarked on a ten year research project studying 100 pairs of twins, 19 of which were adopted MZ twins; 7 males and 9 females. These adopted twins had experienced different upbringings so Newman wanted to see how this affected their intelligence (Twin Studies, 2014). The results were that the IQ of where essay monozygotic twins was higher than that of the dizygotic twins which Newman studied. They also showed that the car research IQ of twins reared together was higher that if the twins had been separated after birth. However a major criticism of this study is where essay, that Newman enrolled the analysis twins that he studied on similarities to ensure that the twins he studied were MZ, as at the time the technology wasn’t available to scientifically prove whether the twins were identical or not. Also the sample of twins which Newman et al studied has been said to be biased, due to the expense of conducting the experiment; Newman had to pay for the sample to travel and stay in lodgings in Chicago.
The results could then be flawed as twins may have acted in a certain way to be chosen for the study in where i stand essay, order to go on an all-expenses paid holiday during a time of great depression across America. It has also been proven that a pair of twins from Newman’s sample group were raised in the same town and even attended the 1200 pages same school (Benson, 2005). A more recent twin study was conducted by James Shields in 1962; Shields took a sample of where i stand 44 pairs of hybrid car research identical twins who had been brought up apart from each other. I Stand Essay! Shields enlisted these twins by a television advertisement and wanted to find out the dissertation - grounded theory correlation between their IQ results. The findings were that the correlation of identical twins reared apart was higher than the non-identical twins reared together; who Shields also studied.
This study is i stand, often criticised due to the method the participants were enrolled onto the study; twins were put forward to the study as they looked alike, they may not have necessarily of been proven to be monozygotic or identical. Another flaw is that although Shield’s claims that the homework online chat twins were brought up separately, they were often raised by members of the same family, lived locally, and went to the same schools. It is essay, reported that one pair of twins, lived next door to each other. Editing And Resynthesis! Despite the flaws this study is often seen as one of the strongest twin studies in psychology in relation to IQ again supporting nature (Firth, 2009). Other than twin studies, some psychologist studied intelligence and how it correlates with differently between different ethnic groups and races in society. Arthur Jensen was one of these, in 1969 he analysed the differences in IQ results between different races, and published his results, which sparked outrage across america. Jensen’s devised an intelligence test for children, and where i stand, his pupils to sit the test from the school which he was a professor at. The test comprised of two parts; level one abilities or associative learning and level two abilities or conceptual learning. The results were that the ‘white american’ students performed better at the task two abilities than students of other races (Telegraph, 2013).
Jensen concluded that intelligence was 80% inherited, as he believed this from his results that a child’s ancestry was the reason that some children scored poorly on the test. This leading to analysis him to believing that intelligence is a factor of genetics and is passed on through generations. However there is an opposing argument, that this study also supports the nurture debate, as it shows how different cultures are effected differently. For example, the caucasian children would of come from a higher social class than the where ethnic minorities; therefore it was the environment and peers which affected their mental ability. The ethical issues involved with this study are evident as Jensen incited racism by publishing these figures. This could of also led to tepes violence, and sparked hatred within the community and across american.
Also some students could of been favoured over others, as they would be seen as clever, therefore received priority treatment, as proven in Rosenthal Jacobson’s study in 1968. Jensen completed his test in 1960’s america, which was a hostile time, in particular within regards to i stand race segregation, with the speech and assassination of Matin Luther King. Hans Eysenck was a German psychologist who is also credited for his work in dissertation - grounded, relation to intelligence and race (Cherry, 2014). He wrote a book called: The IQ argument: race, intelligence and education, based on these studies and essay, summarised the homework online results. Where I Stand Essay! This book claims that ’80% of variability is inborn’ (Benson, 2005). Hans was also criticised as his views also focused on the differences between IQ results of blacks and whites, rather than treating people as equally as individuals. Eysenck believed it to be fact that white people had a higher IQ and set about telling the world. Some people didn’t agree with his views which involved him being attacked on numerous occasions and becoming a hated public figure. In conclusion, there are a lot of cover and studies in psychology in regards to the nature/nurture debate, on a whole array of topics.
Intelligence is where i stand, only one of these. Criticisms are prevalent throughout all these studies as it is a debate which people just can not agree on, and everyone has their own opinion. Allaboutscience, 2014, Darwin’s Theory Of Evolution (Online) Available at http://www.darwins-theory-of-evolution.com [Last Accessed 24-04-2014] Benson, N, 2005, Introducing Psychology, Totem Books:USA. Birch, Malim, A T, 1998, Introductory Psychology, Macmillan Press:Hampshire. Cherry, 2014, Hans Eysenck Biography (Online) Available at http://psychology.about.com/od/profilesal/p/hans-eysenck.htm [Last Accessed 23-04-2014] Dictionary, 2014, Intelligence | Define Intelligence at Dictionary.com (Online) Available at http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/intelligence [Last Accessed 07-04-2014]
Firth, J, 2009, Shields (1962) (Online) Available at http://mindsandmodels.blogspot.co.uk/2009/03/shields-1962.html [Last Accessed 24-04-2014] Joesph, J, 2008 Separated Twins and the Genetics of Personality Differences: A Critique, (Online) Available at http://jayjoseph.net/yahoo_site_admin/assets/docs/AJP_MISTRA_PDF.157214425.pdf [Last Accessed 12-.4-2014] McCloud, S, 2007, John Bowlby | Maternal Deprivation Theory | Simply Psychology (Online) Available at http://www.simplypsychology.org/bowlby.html [Last Accessed 24-04-2014] McCloud, S, 2007, Nature / Nurture in editing analysis and resynthesis, Psychology, (Online) Available at where i stand essay, http://www.simplypsychology.org/naturevsnurture.html [Last Accessed 07-04-2014] Telegraph, 2013, Arthur Jensen (Online) Available at http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/obituaries/9774459/Arthur-Jensen.html [Last Accessed 23-04-2014]
Twin Studies, 2014, Twin Studies, (Online) Available at http://genepi.qimr.edu.au/staff/davidD/asthma11.html [Last Accessed 08-04-2014] Who, 2014, WHO | What do we mean by hybrid car research papers “sex” and “gender”? (Online) Available at http://www.who.int/gender/whatisgender/en/ [Last Accessed 24-04-2014] University/College: University of where i stand Arkansas System. Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 20 March 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on Heredity Versus Environment. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want?
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