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licenciate thesis Liquid Phase Epitaxial Growth of SiC. Institute of player essay Physics and Measurement Technology, Linköping University, Sweden. Manuscript under construction for russia report, Licenciate Dissertation. This page is currently under construction! Silicon Carbide (SiC) is established as a semiconductor material suitable for team player, device applications. The research in this material has been carried out for a long time, but has increased a substantial amount the on why, last decade. The growing interest is due to the properties of SiC which has many advantages compared to conventional semiconductors. Team! The wide band gap, high electric breakdown field strength, chemical stability, high saturated drift velocity, high thermal conductivity makes SiC very attractive for high-power, high-frequency, and high-temperature device applications.
However, there still remains some features of the material to be obliterated, i.e. the bristol, structural quality still needs to be improved. Player! Since it is possible to grow high-purity and high-quality semiconductor materials from the liquid phase, it is natural to exploit this for SiC. For example, Si liquid phase growth tends to reject metallic impurities by a factor of 103 to 105. For SiC the rejection ratio might be as high as 1010 . To date, there has only been a limited amount of research on Liquid Phase Epitaxial (LPE) growth of SiC and most of the work was performed two decades ago. The purpose of the present work is to update and bregoli contribute to essay, the research of SiC growth from the liquid phase. Basic Properties of SiC. SiC exists in a large number of different one dimensional polymorphs called polytypes . Basically, all polytypes have a hexagonal frame with a C atom in center of mass of a triangle of where Si atoms, Fig. 1a. The distances of a and C-Si are 3.08 Å and 1.89 Å, respectively .
The main focus of the research has been the on the 3C, 4H and 6H-SiC polytypes. The difference between the polytypes is the stacking order of the layers. The stacking sequences of the 3C, 4H and 6H-SiC polytypes are shown in Fig. 1a. The letters A, B, and C denotes a double layer of Si and C atoms. The notation of the polytypes follows the number of layers in the unit cell and team essay the crystal structure (C for cubic and H for hexagonal). Often 3C-SiC is referred to as b-SiC and the hexagonal polytypes as a-SiC. The 3C-SiC polytype is the only polytype which is cubic. The structure of the hexagonal polytypes is wurtzite. The height of a unit cell, c, varies within the gap analysis, different polytypes. Growth is often carried out on surfaces parallel to team player, the basal plane, i.e. on surfaces perpendicular to the c-axis, Fig.
1b. This is stated as growth on an on-axis substrate. However, it has been observed that growth on on why a surface off-oriented from the basal plane is player, favorable [4-6]. The substrate orientation is then stated off-axis. Resume Gap Analysis! Most often the misorientation is toward the (11 0) or (1 00) plane. The first plane is shown in Fig. 1b. SiC is a polar material, i.e. the outer most atoms in the  direction are the Si-atoms and in the [000 ] direction are the C-atoms, Fig. 1c.
As a consequence of this, the two faces have different growth characteristics and chemical behaviour. A common crystalline defect in SiC is the Double Position Boundary (DPB), often seen in 3C-SiC grown on 6H-SiC substrates. DPB's appear when islands of the two possible stacking sequences (ABC and ACB) meet. The probability of formation is higher when growing on on-axis substrates and the number of DPB's are reduced when growth is performed on misoriented substrate surfaces. Another serious crystalline defect in SiC is the micropipe: a hole which runs through the crystal along the c-axis. The diameter of team player essay a micropipe is in the mm range. These defects have also been observed in GaN, but with a diameter in the nm range [7,8].
The density of the micropipes is higher in SiC grown with the Modified Lely method (200 cm-2 for high-quality material) compared to material grown with the Lely method. The Lely method is, however, not suitable for large area growth. The micropipe is detrimental for SiC devices [9,10] and bregoli is thus a severe problem for power applications which often require an area of several cm2 for a device. The micropipe density must consequently be reduced considerably before SiC devices are of real commercial value. Fig. 1. (a) The tetrahedral structure of the essay, C and Si atoms in SiC. The double layer stacking sequence of the 6H, 3C, and 4H-SiC polytypes are also shown. (b) The basal plane, c-axis, and (11 0) plane of SiC. Where I Stand Essay! (c) The upper and lower face of SiC. The upper has Si-atoms with dangling bonds.
The lower side has C-atoms with dangling bonds. (a,b) from ; (c) from . Wetting of a Solution in essay, Contact with a Solid. A liquid placed on a solid, Fig. 2, will not float out, but will remain as a drop with an angle of contact between the russia, liquid and the solid, the wetting angle q. The total interfacial energy of the system is minimized if the drop has the shape of a spherical cap. A large wetting angle results in a bad wetting, i.e. the liquid does not cover the solid to essay, a desirable extent.
As the llm dissertation, wetting angle decreases the player, covered area of the solid increases. This is naturally preferable in liquid phase growth. When the surface and interfacial energies are in balance Youngs equation is obtained: When two of the surface energies are known, the third can be obtained by measuring the wetting angle and essay using the expression (1). Fig. 2. The wetting of team essay a liquid on a solid.
See text for details. Growth from Liquid Phase. Liquid Phase Epitaxy is basically growth of material from a metallic solution on a crystalline substrate. The solvent can either be a constituent of the growing material or some other metal with a lower melting point. Metal impurities will in for rikki-tikki-tavi, the latter case be incorporated into the growing solid.
The solvent contains a quantity of solute which is transported towards the growing interface. The fundamental principle for essay, growth from the liquid phase is the decreasing solubility of the solute in the melt with decreasing temperature. When the melt is in contact with a substrate, material is deposited on the substrate surface as the essay on why, temperature is decreased (heterogeneous nucleation). Essay! A liquid phase growth technique may utilize a transient or a steady state growth technique. In the first technique the temperature is altered in some specific manor. In the latter technique a temperature gradient is kept constant ensuring isothermal growth conditions. The most common and fundamental processes for the transient growth techniques are shown in Fig. 3. The arrows indicate at which point the bristol, substrate and the melt are brought into contact. In the equilibrium-cooling technique the substrate and the solution are placed in contact at the liquidus temperature of the solution. The cooling rate is then kept constant through-out the growth run. In compound growth precipitates are formed after long equilibrium cooling experiments.
These precipitates occur due to the continous reduction in temperature without significant change in the solute concentration at the solution surface. This causes spontaneous precipitation since the maximum amount of supercooling is exceeded. In the step-cooling technique the substrate and solution are cooled with a constant rate to a temperature below the melting point. This cooling is referred to as undercooling. The undercooling is player, well below the melting point, but not low enough for spontaneous precipitation to occur within the solution (homogeneous nucleation). The solution and substrate are held at this temperature for some time. They are then brought into contact and kept at the same temperature until growth is terminated. Essay Questions! If the cooling continues after contact the technique is referred to as supercooling. Due to the undercooling the value of the liquidus temperature need not to be known so accurately as in equilibrium growth. The undercooling also causes a supersaturation at the time of contact which provides a driving force making nucleation less sensitive to inhomogenities on the substrate surface. In the final technique, the two-phase cooling technique, the temperature is lowered below a point where homogeneous nucleation occurs.
The substrate and solution are then brought into essay contact and the cooling continues until growth is terminated. The homogenous nucleation insures that the solution is saturated at the time of contact with the substrate. The transient growth techniques are known to yield layers of uniform thickness. In the steady growth techniques the layers are often found to have non-uniform thicknesses. The advantage is i stand, that the team, impurity distribution in the grown material is very homogenous.
Buoyancy-driven convection is i stand, attributed as the cause of the non-uniform thicknesses. This convection is player, made up of unintentional flows in the liquid solution due to the forces excerted on the particles in the melt when the russia report, temperature gradient is applied. Due to essay, this stirring the thermal heat distribution is not uniform in the solution. In melt growth two additional important mechanisms may give rise to convection. Forced convection is essay, caused in the solution by moving mechanical parts in the melt and cappillary or Marangoni convection occurs if free solution surfaces exists in the growth configuration. Team! These latter convection mechanisms are not considered in the growth configuration studied in this thesis. To date, the russia book, affection of buoyancy-driven convection has been considered neglectable. This, however, is not the case. Convection is present in the growth process but the influence on the growth rate is smaller than the effect of diffusion . Fig. 3. Common transient techniques used for conventional growth from the liquid phase.
See text for full details. Fig. 4. Principle for travelling solvent method. Player Essay! A temperature gradient dissolves the source and the dissolved material nucleates on the substrate. As time goes by the solvent position is moving since the growth rate and dissolution rate is ideally equal. Two interesting techniques which are using a temperature gradient are the book, Travelling Solvent Method (TSM) and the Travelling Heater Method (THM). In TSM there are no moving parts whereas in THM a moving ampoule or a travelling heater can be used. The principle of TSM is shown in Fig. 4. A thin solution zone passes through the crystal when a temperature gradient is applied.
The lower feeding crystal (source) may be polycrystalline and the upper growing crystal is team player essay, a single crystal (substrate). As dissolution of the source proceeds material is deposited on the upper crystal. The TSM has shown to reduce the dislocation density in the grown crystal compared to where essay, the substrate material for player, e.g. GaAs [13,14]) or SiC . Essay On Why History! In the player essay, THM the heater may be moved to for rikki-tikki-tavi, keep the relative positions of the temperature gradient and the solvent zone constant.
The same effect may also be obtained by moving the ampoule. Fig. 5. Different misoriented regions on team essay a substrate causing different growth characteristics. The growth process comprises several possible growth mechanisms. One of the most important parameters in the growth process is the orientation of the substrate surface. Resume Gap Analysis! This has been investigated very thorougly in the case of GaAs LPE growth . The substrate surface may be divided in team player, different regions, Fig. 5. Growth on a low-index crystal face, e.g. in the -direction of the GaAs crystal or in the -direction of the SiC crystal macroscopically gives a smooth and planar surface of the epitaxial layer. In LPE growth of GaAs the growth mechanism is then two-dimensional or dislocation-controlled.
The former growth mechanism requires a high supersaturation. The latter is more probable since the surface of gap analysis a crystal always has dislocations which are terminating the surface. Growth steps are then originating from these dislocations. The step heights are very small and the steps are usually more or less equidistant. These steps are considered morphologically stable. In the near-facet growth region, Fig. Team Player! 5., the substrate surface is misoriented from the low-index face but the misorientation is very small.
The growth steps are then not originating from dislocations but from misoriented steps. Bristol Llm Dissertation! The growth steps are then not as regular as in the case of the facet-growth mode. In the case of GaAs LPE near-facet growth occurs on substrates which are misoriented from a low-index face with an angle which is less than 0.1°. The surfaces of the grown layers are smooth with steps which are a few lattice distances high. Team Player! The growth interface is considered stable since step bunching does not occur in the near-facet region. In the terrace growth region, Fig. 5, misoriented steps are also present but the heights and distances of the steps are more randomly distributed. In this case a step-bunching phenomena may occur and causes an increase in the step height and distances between the book, steps. The average step height and mean height of terraced steps increases with increasing layer thickness.
A terrace consists of a flat tread and a steep riser, Fig. 6., and is one of the team player essay, most common defects in crystal growth. Terraces may result in dopant inhomogenities . If the misorientation exceeds a critical value the terraces do not appear . Fig. 6. Terrace step which concists of a tread and a riser. In the terrace growth model there are large steps which are formed by smaller steps, i.e. step-bunching. The step height of the lateral steps are smaller and by this the lateral rate is higher for smaller steps.
The macrostep is a superposition of several lateral steps. Bristol! In this way the step heights of the macroscopic steps are increasing as growth proceeds. Fig. 7. The relation between lateral and macroscopic growth. There are a number of various undesirable processes which may inflict during growth from solutions.
One of the most important processes is constitutional supercooling. Before this occurs, a solute concentration gradient is team, established in the solution, Fig. Dissertation! 8a. This gives rise to a solute boundary layer at the growing interface which is essay, almost stagnant. If the temperaure distribution close to the growing interface follow line 1 in Fig. 8b, the temperature close to the interface is higher than the liquidus temperature at history each point. However, a decrease of the temperature gradient results in line 2. The temperature is then lower than the liquidus temperature in the area CS and solute might be rejected by the growing face.
The supercooling close to the growing surface is affected and projections of the crystal may grow into player essay the melt, i.e. dendritic growth may occur . Fig. 8. (a) Schematic concentration profile of solute near the growing interface; (b) Liquidus and temperature distributions adjacent to the growing interface. The cooling rate has a very high impact on the morphology of the grown epilayer. When the resume gap analysis, cooling rate increases the morphological stability is lowered. Experimental results for GaAs collected by Bauser  may be summarized with Fig. 9. Smooth growth faces can be obtained by balancing growth rate, cooling rate, and misorientation of the substrate surface. The most stable behaviour occurs for facet growth.
The growth rate should be decreased to keep the morphological stability when the substrate misorientation increases. An example from essay SiC liquid phase growth is shown in Fig. 10a,b for growth on for rikki-tikki-tavi misoriented substrate surface. Step bunching is clearly seen. In the case of growth on on-axis substrates the step bunching does not occur to the same extent, Fig. 10b. Fig. 9. Different growth regimes whose appearance depends on the growth parameters. From . Fig. 10. (a,b) Step bunching and step behavior at a pit on player essay misoriented substrate surface. (c) Step behaviour at a pit on on-axis surface.
Silicon Carbide Liquid Phase Growth. SiC does not form a stoichiometric liquid phase, Fig. 11a. Instead the material decomposes to questions for rikki-tikki-tavi, vapor at 2830 °C. SiC can be grown from the team, liquid phase by using a non-stoichiometric metal melt. The natural choice of melt would be Si since this is resume, a constituent of SiC and high-purity Si is commercially available. Light emitting diodes of SiC grown from Si-melts have been fabricated [20-24] but the growth rate was not very high.
The explanation to this is that the solubility of team essay C in Si is very low at temperatures less than 2000 °C , Fig. 11b. A low concentration of solute naturally decreases the growth rate. High growth rates have been reported ( 750 mm/hour) using Cr as the main solvent [26,27]. The defect density was, however, very high [15, 26]. A good wetting of the substrate using this metal solvent was obtained by evaporation of a thin film of Cr on the substrate prior to growth.
Fig. 11. History! (a). The phase diagram of the team, Si-C system. (b) The temperature dependence of the C solubility in Si. From . By introducing a transition metal to the Si melt the solubility of russia book report C may be increased. Team Player! A useful solvent is the one in the Si-Sc system, investigated in this report. The Si-Sc phase diagram is shown in Fig. Russia! 12a. The atomic weights of the composition used have been chosen as Si:Sc=72:28. This corresponds to an eutectic point in the Si-Sc phase diagram [V.
Kotroczo and I. J. Player! McColm, J. Alloys Comp. 203, 259 (1994)] and has good influence of the structure of the SiC epitaxial layers [R.T. Yakimova and A.A. Russia Book! Kalnin, Phys. Stat. Sol. (a) 32, 297 (1975).] Talk about ScC. Player! Complexity of the Si-Sc-C system. See Sc book. Fig.
12. (a) The phase diagram of the essay on why history, Si-Sc system [V. Kotroczo and I. Player! J. McColm, J. Alloys Comp. Gap Analysis! 203, 259 (1994)]. (b) The phase diagram of the Si-C system [V.R. Sidorko, L.V. Essay! Goncharuk, O.V. Gordiychuj, and R.V.
Antonchenko, J. Alloy Comp. 228, 159 (1995).]. The growth rate from essay questions for rikki-tikki-tavi various solvent compositions in a similar technique as in the present work is shown in Fig. X [R.T. Yakimova, PhD Thesis, LETI, Leningrad (1974), in Russian]. Essay! The growth rate is also dependent of the bregoli dissertation, solvent zone thickness. Fig. 13.
Growth rate in the sandwich configuration depending on (a) Solvent composition; (b) Melt zone thickness. The growth of SiC in the sandwich system is a complex process involving steps like wetting of team player essay source and bristol llm dissertation substrate, dissolution of solute from the source, transport of the solute in the melt to the substrate and player finally precipitation on the substrate. The latter consist of several subprocesses. The melt zone must be thick enough to provide a stabile interface between melt and substrate. The growth rate dependence of the zone thickness is shown in Fig.
X. Rositza PhD Thesis. The growth temperature and the temperature gradient must be chosen with great care. If the temperature is too low spontanous precipitation might occur in the melt. The driving force for growth (in this system), the supersaturation, is also dependent of the resume, temperature gradient. If the gradient is too low the supersaturation will be too low and the growth properties will be afftected. The morphology of the epilayers is very dependent of the orientation of the substrate. Team! By the use of off-axis substrates misorientation of the planes is introduced. The growth system used in essay, this report is commercially avilable [Epigress AB. ]. The basic part of the system is shown in fig. X. Essay! The heating is carried out by bristol, a current-induced power dissipation from player essay two graphite heaters. The temperatures above and under the sandwich is measured by thermocouples (TC's). These thermocuples are resistivity controlled and made of Ta.
Fig. X. The basic part of the growth system. Fig. X. Typical temperature profile of a complete growth run. Since the technique of growing semiconductor materials from the liquid phase is very simple it is worth while to study this for SiC. Unfortunately, SiC can not be grown from resume a stoichometric melt but it is possible to team player essay, grow SiC from a non-stoichometric the liquid phase using a version of the Travelling Solvent Method [A.I. Mlavsky and M. Weinstein, J. Resume Gap Analysis! Appl. Player! Phys.
34, 2885 (1963)]. This version is very simple and consists of a sandwich with the melt between a polycrystalline SiC source material and gap analysis a substrate (fig?). By applying a temperature gradient across the sandwich with the team player essay, higher temperature at the source material SiC is dissolved at the source, transported through the melt and deposited on the substrate. The sandwich is placed in a closed graphite crucible in order to decrease the amount of impurities introduced from the interior of the chamber. The crucible is placed on a graphite susceptor. Study! Premelting due to exothermic reaction of Si and Sc [V. Kotroczo and I. J. McColm, J. Alloys Comp. 203, 259 (1994)]. This reaction may be detrimental on the quality of the substrate surface. Prior to player essay, growth the SiC source material, Si and Sc are placed in a graphite crucible. This is carried out in an Ar glove box.
The loading of the bristol llm dissertation, material for the sandwich structure is done by a load lock. The crucible is sealed with a lid. Team! The graphite crucible is placed on a graphite susceptor which is loaded inte the growth chamber. The alloy was premelted before growth by heating in vacuum (10-4 mbar). The temperature is increased with 10-20 °/min up to 1425°C. Francesca Bregoli Dissertation! This temperature is well above the melting point of the chosen Si:Sc composition. By using this high temperature the player, alloy is given time to mix. The cooling rate is in the same magnitude as the heating rate because it sometimes occurs that the source cracks when utilizing fast cooling (i.e. by turning the heaters off).
After this melting the alloy is light metallic with a small curvature. Where I Stand Essay! Attempts were made to melt in argon and hydrogen. These gases did not show a reproducable melting behaviour. It sometimes occured that the surface of the alloy after melting was black. Player Essay! After growth the alloy was exposed to air and frequently turned into resume gap analysis a white powder. Player Essay! It it believed that this is either due to the prescence of oxygen or graphite. It is known that oxygen may form a black deposition of the surface of Sc (Sc2O3-x)[Scandium, C.T.Horowitz (Ed), Academic Press, London (1975), ch. 8] which is subsequently formed to essay, white Sc2O3 when exposed to air at high temperature. Team Player! The substrate was the placed on the alloy and the graphite crucible was reloaded into the chamber. The melting procedure was done in the same way as above but only up to.
1325 °C. After solidification the chamber was filled with Ar to 1 atm with a subsequent temperature rise up to the growth temperature. Growth was terminated by turning off the heaters. Essay Questions! The cooling rate was 100 °/min. From this it is obvious that a smooth morphology is not possible to obtain when the cooling rate is so rapid, see Fig. 8 (Cooling rate vs morphological stability by Bauser).  Silicon Carbide, J.R.
O'Connor, in The Art and Science of growing Crystals ch. 6, J.J. Gilman (Ed) John Wiley Sons Inc. London.  Polymorphism and Polytypism in Crystals, A. R. Verma and P. Krishna, John Wiley Sons Inc.
New York (1966).  O. Kordina, PhD Thesis, Linköping University (1994) and references therein.  H. S. Kong, J. T. Glass, and R. F. Davis, J. Appl. Phys. 64 (1988) 2672.  J. A. Powell, D. J. Larkin, L. G. Team Player! Matus, W. J. Choyke, J. L. Bradshaw, L. Henderson, M. Yoganathan, J. Yang and history P. Player! Pirouz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56 (1990) 1442.  T. Ueda, H. Nishino, and H. Matsunami, J. Crystal Growth 104 (1990) 695.
 W. Qian, G.S. Rohrer, M. Skowronski, K. Doverspike, L.B. Rowland, and D.K. Gaskill, Appl. Phys. Where I Stand! Lett. 67 (1995) 2284.  W. Qian, M. Skowronski, K. Doverspike, L.B. Rowland, and D.K.
Gaskill, J. Crystal Growth 151 (1995) 396.  P.G. Team Essay! Neudeck, IEEE Electron Device Lett. 15 (1994) 63.  J.A. Powell, P.G. Neudeck, D.J. Larkin, J.W. Wang, and P. Pirouz, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 137 (1993) 161.  L. Muelhof, W.J. Choyke, M.J. Bozack, and J.T. Yates, J. Essay! Appl. Phys. 60 (1986) 2842.
 C. Lockowandt, R. Yakimova, M. Syväjärvi, and E. Janzén, Presented 47th Int. Astronautical Conf., 7-11 Oct 1996, Beijing, China.  A.I. Mlavsky and M. Weinstein, J. Appl. Phys. Team Essay! 34 (1963) 2885.
 M. Weinstein, H.E. LaBelle, and A. Mlavsky, J. Appl. Phys. 37 (1966) 2913.  L.B. Griffiths, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 27 (1960) 257.  LPE-Grown Surfaces and Growth Mechanisms, E. Essay Study! Bauser in Crystal Growth of player essay Electronic Materials ch. 4, E. Kaldis (Ed), North-Holland, Amsterdam (1985).
 H. Weishart, A.N. Danilewsky, K.W. Benz and E. Bauser, J. On Why Study History! Crystal growth 131 (1993) 17.  Fundamentals of Melt Growth, J.J. Favier and D. Camel in team player essay, Crystal Growth in Science and Technology ch. 4, H. Arend and J. Hullinger (Eds), NATO ASI Series B210, Plenum Press, New York (1989).  Atomic Mechanisms in Semiconductor LPE, E. Bauser in Handbook of Crystal Growth vol. 3, ch. 20, D.T.J. Hurle (Ed), Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam (1994).
 A. Suzuki, M. Ikeda, N. Nagao, H. Matsunami, and T. Tanaka, J, Appl. Phys. 47 (1976) 4546.  W.v. Münch, W. Kürzinger, and I. Pfaffeneder, Solid State Electronics 19 (1976) 871.  W. v. Münch and W. Kurzinger, Solid State Electronics 21 (1978) 1129.  Y. Matsushita, T. Nakata, T. Uetani, T. Book! Yamaguchi, and T. Niina, Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 29 (1990) L343.
 Y. Ueda, T. Nakata, K. Koga, Y. Matsushita, Y. Fujikawa, T. Uetani, T. Yamaguchi, and T. Niina, Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Team Essay! 162 (1990 427.
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30 Book Report Templates #038; Reading Worksheets. Reading helps students develop a strong imagination, encourages their creativity, and team player strengthens their analytical skills. Teachers assign a lot of book reports to dissertation, ensure that students read lots of books, especially at that critical early age when they are still trying to master the team essay written word. To cut down on some of the workload, students and teachers can find a book report template to download and questions fill in. This gives more time to enjoy the act of reading, so students can become life long learners. A book report is team player, typically given as an where assignment to students in elementary and essay middle school. Students fill out a form answering basic questions about the book they were assigned to resume gap analysis, read. Turning in the report serves as proof to essay, the teacher that the resume student read the book and, hopefully, got something out of it. These reports may ask students to team, detail what the book was about, the names of the main characters, what the theme of the book is, and where the events are set.
Some reports may ask specific questions about events or characters to ensure that the students read the bristol llm dissertation book all the way through. The report can also help students understand the team player essay book better by asking them to think about its meaning and essay the plot. Teachers may also hand out worksheets for students to team player, complete in class or as homework. These are usually limited to the earlier grades when students are still learning to where i stand essay, read. Reading worksheets ask simple questions about the book without requiring multiple sentence answers.
These questions may ask students to name a favorite character, or mention the player essay main conflict in a few words. It’s not uncommon for the teacher to where i stand essay, read a picture book with the class and have students fill out a worksheet afterwards. Team. If the classroom has a bookshelf, there may also be a ‘Reading Time’ when students pick out a book to read. When they finish, the students fill out the questions for rikki-tikki-tavi worksheet and submit it to their teacher. Book report forms are a popular choice of assignment for team essay elementary school classes.
These forms make it simple for students to study, complete the team player essay report by filling out the worksheet. These sheets can be generic with standard questions, or teachers may create a unique sheet with questions specific to each different book that is assigned. These forms also help introduce students to the idea of a book report format and show them what kind of on why study information may be expected on longer, multi-page reports that they are expected to complete in the higher grades. A form is also easier to grade, especially for teachers who have a large classroom and more assignments to go over than usual. A simple book report features a few sections that ask students to answer questions in paragraph format. These each ask students to detail a different element of the book. All book report forms will ask for the title, author name, and the illustrator’s name, if it is a picture book. The other elements on a simple form include: Setting – This is where the book’s events took place, i.e.
New York. Characters – A list of who the main characters are and their names. Plot – A basic overview of the major events in the book. Your impressions – Whether you like the book or not, and why. A simple form may also just ask the students to describe the beginning, middle, and end events of the book in three questions. Students may also be expected to identify the climax, which is the player essay most intense point of the book where the main character’s problems are resolved or made worse. Resume Gap Analysis. This helps get students thinking about the traditional progression of a plot. Eventually, teachers transition students to writing a multi-page book report.
The report is usually written in a word processing software, like MS Word. Team. Students can find book report format templates for bristol llm dissertation these assignments too. These longer reports are written out in team player paragraph form. The teacher asks the students to bregoli, address different elements of a book in their own words or with their own formatting. A simple way to organize these reports is to divide them into three basic sections, the introduction, main body, and conclusion.
In the main body, students can create a different subheading for each element to address. For instance, Introduction – The first paragraph; includes book title, author, genre, and why you chose the book. Main Body – The middle part of the report; includes summary, theme, setting, and player essay characters. Conclusion – A short summary of the i stand essay book report and opinion of the book. Difference Between The Book Report Types. The short book report form is handed out by the teacher and can be completed in one night like a homework assignment. A multi-page report is team, created by the student and may take more than one night to finish. Where I Stand. Short templates are available in lots of fun book report ideas suitable for young children. They have questions with a few lines to hand write the answers in a few short sentences. Some templates may include activities to make them more interesting to students, such as having them draw out a scene from the book or re-write the ending.
Multi-page reports start out team essay as two page reports and gradually increase in size through middle school and high school. Of course, those two page reports are just as difficult for young students as the five page reports are for high school students. The great thing about these assignments is that students are usually free to organize their book report ideas however they desire. They can create bold sub-headers for francesca bregoli dissertation the main body of the report. Students can write about the theme, characters, and setting separately. Team Essay. Or they can leave out the essay questions for rikki-tikki-tavi headers and devote their report to a specific element, such as the book theme. This allows students to weave information about characters and setting into the report where they are most relevant to player essay, the theme. The former works well for short chapter books, and the latter is better for books that may feature multiple themes. Ideas for Different Kinds of Book Reports.
There is more than one way to complete a book report. Both teachers and students may find these creative ideas more interesting than a straightforward report. Write a review of the book. Create the report in the form of a newspaper or blog review. Summarize the book without giving away the plot or the ending. Bristol Llm Dissertation. Talk about essay what made you like it or, if you hated it. Bristol. Feel free to give the book a thumbs up or down rating at essay, the end. Do a diary. Use a journal template to create a diary written by one of the main characters.
There should be multiple entries that follow or discuss the events of the book from francesca bregoli dissertation that character’s point of view. Interview one of the characters. Create an player essay imaginary interview with one of the characters in the book. Ask them questions about where they come from, why the for rikki-tikki-tavi character did something important to the plot, and player essay what the character thinks about the questions outcome of the events in the book. Write a newspaper article. Create an imaginary newspaper article detailing one of the major events in the book, such as a theft or an important discovery. Make sure to player essay, answer the who, what, where, when, and why of these events in your article. What To Do Once You’ve Written The Report. When students finish writing out their book reports, they have completed what is called the “First Draft” or “Rough Draft”. This is just the where i stand essay first stage of the report, but it is the most difficult part.
Finishing up that report in the following steps is a lot easier. Team. Read and mark the report. Read through the book report from beginning to end to get a feel for it overall. Get a brightly colored pen to mark any spelling or punctuation errors you find in the report. Young students may want to read through their reports with their parents or a tutor. Sometimes, teachers actually make students submit a rough draft of their reports for points before the final report is due. The teacher reviews the draft, makes edits, and suggestions for on why study changing the report before final submission. Make edits to the report. Go back into the report file and make the easy grammar and spelling fixes.
Take a look at your teacher’s suggestions or the ideas you wrote down for things to change in team the report. Create a plan to make those additions or changes. Make the changes to the report. Don’t forget to i stand, save your file as a separate document. For instance, save your rough draft as, Report1.doc, and this updated version as, Report2.doc. Review the report. Print out a fresh copy of the report. Read through it one more time looking for spelling errors and grammar mistakes. Keep an eye out for spots where the text doesn’t make sense. This can sometimes happen when you add new content to a report.
If there are mistakes, fix them in essay the document file and review one more time. Your final draft is ready to print out when you can no longer find any mistakes. Book reports are a big part of the curriculum. That doesn’t mean they have to be a lot of work for essay on why the students or the teacher. Make assigning these reports less of a hassle with these tips. Assign one book for the entire class to read. This can cut down on the effort required in understanding submitted reports. Pick out a short book report template to use. There is no need to use valuable time in creating one from scratch. Print out more copies of the form than are needed. Some students may lose theirs and need an extra form.
Make reminder announcements when a due date approaches. Remind students at least twice before a book report due date. Player. Keep the word count requirement low. Dissertation. Teachers also have to player essay, spend more time reviewing longer reports. Consider creative alternatives to some written reports.
When your curriculum includes a lot of book reports, give students the option of turning in a drawing, diorama, or another project as a break. Being assigned a book report to complete can seem like a daunting task, especially if if you have never written a multi-page report. Make sure you don’t fall behind on the work by following a few of these tips. Bristol. Make up a reading schedule to complete the book well in advance of the report being due. Use a calendar to remind yourself.
Assign yourself different steps to complete each night for the report, i.e. Essay. make an outline, write 200 words, or revising Ask the teacher for help with ideas if you can’t figure out how to get started. Look for examples of completed reports to see how they are structured. Book reports vary in essay questions for rikki-tikki-tavi their length and complexity. Elementary school students get simple, one page forms to fill in about the books they read. Those in middle school and high school usually have to team player essay, write multiple page reports.
Nearly all reports require students to talk about the plot, theme, characters, and how they liked the book. Both students and teachers can find a lot of templates to use. Those looking for something generic for students to fill in after reading a book can pick up a .pdf or .jpg form. Essay Study History. Those who want more control over the look and wording of the player essay template should download a .doc file.
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How to Deal with Lying in Children and Teens. How to Deal with Lying in Children and team essay Teens. When you catch your child in gap analysis a lie, it’s natural to team essay feel betrayed, hurt, angry and frustrated. But here’s the truth: lying is normal. It’s wrong, but it’s normal. In fact, we all do it to some degree. Bregoli? Consider how adults use lies in their daily lives: When we’re stopped for speeding, we often minimize what we’ve done wrong, if not out–and–out lie about it. Why? We’re hoping to get out of something, even if we know better.
I believe that with kids, lying is a faulty problem–solving skill. It’s our job as parents to teach our children how to solve those problems in more constructive ways. Here are a few of the reasons why kids lie. (Later, I’ll explain how to team handle it when they do.) To establish identity : One of the ways kids use lying is to establish an identity and to connect with peers, even if that identity is essay for rikki-tikki-tavi, false. Lying can also be a response to peer pressure. Your child might be lying to his peers about things he says he’s done that he really hasn’t to make him sound more impressive. To individuate from parents: Sometimes teens use lying to keep parts of their lives separate from their parents.
At times it may even seem that they make up small lies about things that don’t even seem terribly important. Another reason children lie is team, when they perceive the house rules and restrictions to be too tight. So let’s say you have a 16–year–old who isn’t allowed to wear makeup, but all her friends are wearing it. Resume? So she wears it outside the house, then lies to you about it. Lying may become a way for her to have you believe she’s following your rules and still do “normal” teen activities. To get attention : When your child is little and team player essay the lies are inconsequential, this behavior may just be his way of getting a little attention. When a small child says, “Mommy, I just saw Santa fly by the window,” I think it is very different from an older child who says, “I finished my homework,” when he really didn’t. Younger children also make up stories during imaginative play, or playing “make believe.” This is essay for rikki-tikki-tavi, not lying but a way for player essay them to engage their imaginations and start to make sense of the world around them. To avoid hurting other’s feelings : At some point, most people learn how to minimize things in order not to essay hurt other people’s feelings. Instead of saying, “I love your new shoes,” we might say, “Those shoes are really trendy right now.” But kids don’t have the same sophistication that adults do, so it’s often easier for them to lie. I think as adults, we learn how to say things more carefully; we all know how to minimize hurt.
But kids don’t know how to do that. Lying is team, a first step toward learning how to say something more carefully. In some ways, we teach them how to lie when we say, “Tell Grandma you like the present even if you don’t, because it will hurt her feelings otherwise.” We have a justifiable reason—we don’t want to hurt someone’s feelings who’s gone out of their way for us—but we are still teaching our kids how to bend the truth. To avoid trouble : Most kids lie at one time or another to get out of trouble. Let’s say they’ve gotten themselves into a jam because they did something they shouldn’t have done. On Why? Maybe they broke a rule or they didn’t do something they were supposed to do, like their chores. If they don’t have another way out, rather than suffer the essay, consequences, they lie to francesca bregoli dissertation avoid getting into trouble. Again, in my opinion, the overall reason why kids lie is because they don’t have another way of team player, dealing with a problem or conflict. Francesca Dissertation? In fact, sometimes it’s the only way they know how to solve a problem; it’s almost like a faulty survival skill for kids.
I believe it’s really the parent’s job to differentiate the type of lie their child has told, and to player make sure that it isn’t connected to unsafe, illegal or risky behavior. This gets to resume the whole point about picking your battles. Team? If you see your child say to another child, “Oh I really like that dress,” and essay for rikki-tikki-tavi they later tell you in player the car, “I really don’t like that dress,” you might say something to them, but you might also let it go, especially if this is unusual for your child. Report? If they’re lying about something that’s risky or illegal or really unsafe, you definitely have to address it. And if it’s to team essay the point of essay questions, being really significant—like a lie about risky sexual behavior, drugs, or other harmful activities—you may need to team essay seek some help from a professional. So pick your battles. Decipher what’s really important versus looking at what’s normal. And again, that often depends on llm dissertation, the developmental age of your child. A four–year–old is going to make up big whopping stories as a way to be creative and begin to figure out their world.
It’s a normal developmental stage. Seven– and player essay eight–year–olds are going to do some of that as well, but they may have more black and bristol white thinking. So they might say, “I hated that lady” when they simply disliked something that person did. I think you can let those kinds of things slide or just gently correct your child. You can say something like, “Do you mean you didn’t like what she did yesterday?” This type of player essay, stretching of the truth is resume, really the result of concrete thinking because kids in this age group don’t have good skills to say something else more neutral or tactful. I don’t believe lying in children is a moral issue. I think it’s imperative not to take it personally if your child lies. Most kids don’t lie to hurt their parents; they lie because there’s something else going on. The important part for you as a parent is to address the behavior behind the team player, lie. If you’re taking it personally, you’re probably angry and upset—and not dealing with the resume gap analysis, more specific information concerning the behavior.
Here’s an example. Let’s say your child didn’t do his homework but he told you he did. When you find out that he’s lying, he admits he didn’t do it because he was playing sports with friends after school. If you yell at player essay, your child about being betrayed and say, “How dare you lie to me,” that’s all you’re going to be able to address. You’re not going to be able to francesca dissertation deal with the player essay, real issue of your child needing to do his homework before he plays sports. The bottom line is that your anger and russia report frustration about the lie is team, not going to help your child change his behavior. So lying is essay, not a moral issue; it’s a problem–solving issue, a lack of skill issue, and an avoiding consequence issue. Often kids know right from wrong—in fact, that’s why they’re lying. They don’t want to get in trouble for team essay what they’ve done and they’re using lying to solve their problems.
What that means is that they need better skills, and questions for rikki-tikki-tavi you can respond as a parent by helping them work on player essay, their ability to problem solve. How to Address Lying: Staging a “Lying Intervention” While it’s important to address the behavior behind the lying, if your child lies chronically or lies about essay study unsafe, risky or unhealthy behavior, I think it makes sense to address the team player essay, actual lying by having an intervention. A “lying intervention” is really just a planned and structured conversation about the lying behavior. This lets your child know what you’ve been seeing, and resume gives you a chance to team tell them that you are concerned. Here are some things to keep in mind: Plan ahead of time: Think about how you’re going to intervene beforehand.
Plan it out essay on why history, ahead of essay, time with your spouse; if you’re single, ask another close adult family member to be there with you. When this issue came up with our son, my husband James and I planned out what we were going to say, how we were going to react emotionally, and even where we were going to sit. We decided we were going to be neutral and that we would be as unemotional as possible. Essay Questions? We made a decision about team essay what the problem behaviors we wanted to essay questions address were. We also decided what the team essay, consequences for our son’s behavior would be. Bregoli? We did almost all of this ahead of time. Don’t lecture: When you catch your child lying, remember that lecturing is not going to be helpful. Kids just tune that out. Player Essay? They’ve heard it over and over—and when you start lecturing, the kids are gone. Gap Analysis? They’re no longer listening and nothing changes.
So what you need to do instead is to identify what it is team, that you’re seeing and what you’re concerned about. Be specific and francesca talk about what’s obvious: When you’re talking with your child, be specific about what you saw and team player what the problems are. You can state calmly and in a matter of fact way, “If the lying about gap analysis homework continues, this will be the consequence.” Or “It’s obvious you snuck out last night. There will be a consequence for that behavior.” Remember, it has to be a consequence that you can actually deliver on and are willing to follow through with. Don’t be too complicated in your message: Keep it very focused and team player essay simple for bristol your child; concentrate on the behavior.
And then tell him that you want to player hear what was happening that made him feel he needed to lie. (You are not looking for an excuse for the lie, but rather to identify the problem your child was having that they used lying to solve.) Be direct and specific. The intervention itself would be quick and to–the–point; you don’t want to francesca dissertation lecture your child for a long time. Essay? This is just ineffective. Keep the door open: Because the lie is most likely a way your child is trying to problem solve, make sure you indicate that you want to hear what’s going on with him. He may not be ready to talk with you about it the first time you raise the resume, subject—and this is where the neutrality on the parent’s part comes in. You want to team player be open to francesca dissertation hearing what your child or teen’s problem is. You want to create a safe environment for team player him to essay on why tell you during that intervention or that first conversation. But if your child is player essay, not ready, it’s important to keep that door open. Create this environment by being neutral and not attacking him.
If You Catch Your Child in a Lie… If you catch your child in a problematic lie, I recommend that you not react in the moment. Instead, send him to llm dissertation his room so you can calm down. Talk with your spouse or a trusted friend or family member and come up with a game plan. Team? Allow yourself time to think about it. Remember, when you respond without thinking, you’re not going to be effective. So give yourself a little time to plan this out. When you do talk, don’t argue with your child about the where, lie. Just state what you saw, and team essay what is history, obvious. You may not know the reason behind it, but eventually your child might fill you in on it. Again, simply state the behaviors that you saw.
So the conversation would go something like, “I got a call from the neighbor; they saw you sneaking out of your window. You were falling asleep at essay, the kitchen table this morning at breakfast. But you told us that you were home all night.”And you might then say to your teen, “There’s going to be a consequence for that. You’re not going to be able to stay over at russia report, your friend’s house next weekend. Player Essay? And we’re concerned about where you went.” Leave the door open for him to tell you what happened. Remember, state what you believe based on the facts you have.
Do it without arguing, just say it matter–of–factly. “We have this information, we believe it to be true and these are the consequences.”Keep it very simple and hear what your child has to say, but be really firm in what you believe. A Word about “Magical Thinking ” Be aware that kids and adolescents are prone to llm dissertation engage in “magical thinking.” This means that when your child gets away with a few lies, he will start thinking he should be able to get away with them the team player essay, next time. Often that just feeds on resume gap analysis, itself, and the lies become more and more abundant—and absurd. Your child might convince himself they’re true in order to team get out of the trouble. I also think kids often don’t want to believe they’re lying; no one really wants to be a liar. So you’ll see kids who’ve gotten caught smoking at school say, “No, I wasn’t smoking”—even though the smoke is still in the air. And when you’re a kid, you think that if you keep repeating the essay questions, same thing over and over again, it will be true. But it’s your job as a parent to say as matter–of–factly as possible what you feel is the truth. Acknowledge the lie, but give the consequence for the behavior, not for the lie. Realize that most kids are not going to lie forever and ever.
There is player, a very small percentage of kids who lie chronically. That’s more difficult for questions parents to deal with, and player essay it requires professional help. In all my years in working with adolescents, there were very, very few kids that I met who lied chronically for where i stand essay no reason. Usually, kids don’t lie arbitrarily; they have a reason for doing so, no matter how faulty that reason might be. Team Player? Your child really does know right from essay wrong, but sometimes he overrides the truth. I’m a parent too, and I understand that it’s hard not to take that personally or be disappointed. Team? But just remember, your child is trying to solve a problem in an ineffective way. Our job is to teach them how to face their problems head on, and to coach them through these confusing years. Over time, I believe they will learn to do that without lying.
Janet Lehman, MSW, has worked with troubled children and where teens for over 30 years. Team Player? A veteran social worker, she specializes in child behavior issues — ranging from anger management and oppositional defiance to more serious criminal behavior in teens. On Why? In addition, Janet gained a personal understanding of child learning and team essay behavior challenges from essay for rikki-tikki-tavi her son, who struggled with learning disabilities in school. She is co-creator of The Total Transformation® Program, The Complete Guide To Consequences™ , Getting Through To Your Child™ , and Two Parents One Plan™ . You must log in to player essay post a comment. Don't have an essay questions, account?
Create one for team free! Responses to questions posted on EmpoweringParents.com are not intended to replace qualified medical or mental health assessments. We cannot diagnose disorders or offer recommendations on which treatment plan is questions for rikki-tikki-tavi, best for your family. Please seek the support of local resources as needed. If you need immediate assistance, or if you and your family are in crisis, please contact a qualified mental health provider in your area, or contact your statewide crisis hotline. We value your opinions and player essay encourage you to add your comments to this discussion.
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