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100 000 words pages Get via App Store Read this post in our app! How long should it take to write 100k words? 100,000 words makes a novel. For a perfectionist each line is poetry. Td Bank? How long should it take to write a novel? Not a bestseller. Just enough income to survive in the city. Question subjective? Maybe. Answerable? Yes.

To produce something no more nor less publishable than some bestsellers bare minimum would be about a year broken down like this: Two Months: First Draft (taken as 2xNaNoWriMo some people do produce 100k+ in this month but 50k is generally thought to be achievable) Two Months: Cool down time. University Of Washington Essay? Maybe first draft a completely separate project. Three Months: First Pass. Most of the good work is done here. By the time you've finished all that should be left is grace notes. Td Bank Essay? Three Months: Cool Down Time. More important. University? Get a lot of distance, should definitely work on scholarship, something else consuming here, try to forget as much of the detail about your work as possible. Two Months: Second pass and final polish. 3 Paragraph Essay? Time to murder the darlings, hoover up most obvious typos etc.

By the time this is scholarship finished the book will still have mistakes of various types but none that can be spotted without an editor. This should be ample time to thesis and research, produce one book and get underway on td bank scholarship, a couple more. If you have any talent and dedication what you produce should be up to the quality of what sits on many bestseller lists (midlist sales will not allow you to university honors essay, survive in the city you have to glean a large advance or respectable sales for scholarship essay, that). As to whether your offering will fare as well in the world's most Kafka-esque lottery (AKA the publishing industry). well, that's another matter entirely. 12/7 novels in that year. david.smith Dec 17 '12 at 19:00. If you want the minimum practical time for publishable fiction, Lester Dent (who wrote most of the Doc Savage books) is likely the best example. Is A? He wrote 159 short novels over 16 years. Figure probably about 50K words per novel, and he was typically publishing twelve Doc Savages a year.

The Master Fiction Plot page credits him with over td bank scholarship 200K words a month, and honors essay tells how he did it. The maximum practical time appears to scholarship essay, be limited by lifespan. University Essay? Another way of asking the question might be: how much should I aim to write every day? I think 1000 words a day is a good number. Here's why: It works even if you're not a full-time writer -- even if you're writing in the morning or evenings. It's consistent w/ some of the other data points above. At 1000 words a day, you'll finish a first draft of a novel in. That last one is really important. The way you finish a novel is by keeping at it, day after day.

It's easier to do that when you feel like you're meeting your goals making progress -- not disappointing yourself every time you sit down to write. How long it takes you to produce 100K words depends greatly on how quickly you write, how much time you have for td bank scholarship, writing, and what essay what level of polish you want your words to be at. Scholarship Essay? For first drafts , most writers can produce 100K words in 3-6 months, depending on the amount of time per day allotted. An Essay? The truly fanatical (like those 2xNaNoWriMo maniacs mentioned in @One Monkey's answer) can finish that amount of writing in one month, while an upper limit might be about a year. Every writer I've ever talked to recommends taking at least a month off after finishing the td bank essay first draft in order to get some critical distance. After that comes editing, which is a highly idiosyncratic process. Some people make multiple passes over the draft, making small tweaks each time.

Some people rewrite whole chapters at once. Essay? Some people only write one second draft, which changes everything at once. How you decide to edit is up to you, but again I'd suggest that 3-6 months is a reasonable time frame for editing. Note that some people spend a long time in td bank scholarship essay this phase--Patrick Rothfuss famously spent 14 years editing his Kingkiller trilogy before finding a publisher for essays, it. Overall, the novel process takes about scholarship, a year if you work consistently, maybe more or less depending on how much time you can devote to it. I'm not sure how helpful this will be, but it's at least one data point (though not about a novel).

I've written a popular science book that will be published later this year. Once I got a response to thesis example essay, my query letter, I started writing. Scholarship Essay? These were the milestones: The proposal submission included three chapters, 18,000 words, written in 3 months. (This was writing from scratch, with a lot of editing.) 17 months later, the draft manuscript was ready, at 75,000 words. (I'll guess that this was about 50/50 writing versus editing.) The final manuscript was 85,000 words, submitted 6 months after that. (90% editing.) So it took 26 months in all, working in and research my spare time on evenings, weekends, and during the summer. Td Bank Essay? I'm thinking that a year would be enough to ap psych test, write a reasonable 100K-word book, working on it full time, as others have suggested. I'm writing a book at the moment which is a Sci-fi fantasy type. I've written around 20,000 words in a month. (I started July once I got my summer holidays.) Some days I write 7 pages, other days I write half a page. Normally, I like to write a little everyday so I won't fall behind or completely forget my story line and characters. Have a notebook so you don't have to re-read everything. Plot down little details important to the story and it will save you time I think. Enjoy the writing process of td bank scholarship, course.

Sticking to essay, a pattern or plan will definitely help you achieve having a whole novel written! You can write it maybe all during the holidays. At work or school time, it will probably be hard work fitting it into your schedule. Having a plan is the main key to scholarship essay, success! You'll be finished in no time. I'm thinking around 3-5 months and thesis example it can be achievable! The point is moot. You will get to however many pages you want in scholarship essay the right amount of time for your story. Ocr Religious Judaism Past Papers? Here's how: Write your story from the essay beginning to the end.

Whatever you have of the story, write that down. It will start with ideas or scenes or characters, but just keep adding to an essay on racism, it until there's the story. Think about scholarship, what you've written, and leave it alone for a day. Don't write down any ideas for and research paper, changes, fixes, whatever. If the idea is scholarship essay good, it will come to you when needed. And Research? Take this time to put what you have into some sort of organization, like a timeline. After a full day, get in td bank scholarship that story's bidness like just got off parole. Have at the thing. Don't worry about dumping scenes or characters.

If they are really important, they'll come back. What 3 Paragraph? Even if you'd kept them you would have re-written them. You'll get the beginning, climax, ending, and scholarship conflict, and university of washington essay tensioners at different times, but you'll only scholarship, have multiple conflicts (subplots) or multiple tensioners. What Is A 3 Paragraph? When you feel like the scholarship story is all there, check the thesis word count. You'll be over td bank scholarship or under, but not by is a 3 paragraph essay, much. And editing that first draft will give or take 20% anyway. Td Bank Scholarship? So ignore the number and JUST KEEP WRITING THE STORY. It depends on how much time you have and also depends on knowing what you write. I am currently writing a novel that is currently about 104,000 words and it took me 63 days to write that many words.

I wote this while only balancing college. However, I knew what I wanted to write before I started writing which allowed me to write faster because I wrote a detailed outline. My previous draft was 113K but took me longer to write because I was just creating things at university of washington essay the top of my head. My new draft I suspect will hit at 120K or more. To answer your question, we can do four things: Look at how many books professional authors publish: According to the Guinness Book of World Records, the most prolific writer was Mary Faulkner, who published 904 books during the 70 years of her life. If we subtract her childhood and maybe the last year or two of her life, she has written about 18 books per year on td bank essay, average, or one book every three weeks. An Essay On Racism? Sylvia Plath, Emily Bronte, J. D. Salinger, and Ralph Ellison each have published one novel in their lifetime. They haven't spent an inordinate amount of time writing it, but for one reason or another they found themselve unwilling or unable to write another one. Essay? Apparently their literary energy was spent in that one work, so we have to regard each of their novels as one novel per lifetime. Essay? Look at td bank essay how long some authors have taken to write a single novel: It took George R. R. Martin five years to write A Dance with Dragons , and he has been working on The Winds of judaism gcse papers, Winter for six years now. Patrick Rothfuss has been working on the third volume of his Kingkiller Chronicle for six years also.

Both authors have written other works in the meantime, but being unable to continue and having to take time off of writing a novel is still time that goes into finishing it. There are quite a few famous authors who have struggled with one novel all their lives. For example, Robert Musil has been working on The Man without Qualities from the First World War to scholarship essay, his death in 1942, that is over on racism the course of 25 years. He did not finish the novel, and yet it is td bank considered one of the most significant novels of the thesis and research 20th century. Look at the daily word count of professional authors: Authors write between 500 and 10,000 words per day. Td Bank Scholarship? Given a range of thesis and research, 50,000 to scholarship essay, 200,000 words per novel, it should take five to fourhundred days to write a novel. Look at how much you have to write to make a living: Authors have recieved royalties of between nothing and several million dollars for of washington, a single novel. In the first case you should have another job to essay, make a living. Since there is then no pressure on you, you can take as long as you like for your novel.

In the last case, you only need to write one book, but you should probably publish it before your parents kick you out. So the time you have for university, your 100,000 words would depend on your parent's generosity or the status of your bank account. Td Bank Essay? I guess you are getting the idea. Your novel will take as long to finish as it takes you to write it. There is no point in setting yourself a time limit that has no relation to how you work.

If you want to essay, know how long it will take you to write 100,000 words, you will have to find out by essay, writing 100,000 words. I'm addressing publication on Kindle only, as that's the thesis essay economic model I'm familiar with at td bank scholarship this time. My partner is an established author, and has published four long novels this calendar year, totaling nearly five hundred thousand words. That works out to around fifty thousands words per month, including rewrites, editing, etc. Published on Kindle at judaism gcse papers very competitive pricing with Kindle Unlimited enabled, that rate produces a living income (on average -- of td bank scholarship, course that has peaks after a release and essays valleys if it's been 2-3 months since the last book) -- but we live in td bank scholarship essay the country, and own our home free and clear.

Generally, it's the back list that pays the bills in slow months; it's the new sales that pay for things like computer upgrades, car repairs, and on racism so forth. To make enough to live in the city, you'd either have to write in a less competitive genre, maintain sales numbers at higher pricing, have higher Kindle Unlimited numbers, or live more frugally than we do (I also work full time, which gets past the td bank scholarship slow months), or a combination of more than one of these. And you can't count on a living income until you have a back list that provides some sales in months when you don't have a release -- around five novels seems to university honors essay, be the minimum.

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columbus essay title Arawak men and women, naked, tawny, and full of wonder, emerged from their villages onto the island's beaches and swam out to td bank get a closer look at the strange big boat. When Columbus and his sailors came ashore, carrying swords, speaking oddly, the Arawaks ran to many essays ap psych greet them, brought them food, water, gifts. He later wrote of this in his log: They . brought us parrots and balls of cotton and spears and td bank many other things, which they exchanged for example the glass beads and hawks' bells. Td Bank! They willingly traded everything they owned. . They were well-built, with good bodies and handsome features. Thesis! They do not bear arms, and do not know them, for I showed them a sword, they took it by the edge and cut themselves out of td bank scholarship essay ignorance. They have no iron. Their spears are made of cane. . They would make fine servants. With fifty men we could subjugate them all and make them do whatever we want. These Arawaks of the Bahama Islands were much like Indians on the mainland, who were remarkable (European observers were to say again and again) for their hospitality, their belief in sharing.

These traits did not stand out in the Europe of the Renaissance, dominated as it was by the religion of popes, the government of kings, the frenzy for money that marked Western civilization and its first messenger to the Americas, Christopher Columbus. As soon as I arrived in the Indies, on the first Island which I found, I took some of the natives by force in order that they might learn and what is a 3 paragraph might give me information of whatever there is in these parts. The information that Columbus wanted most was: Where is the gold? He had persuaded the td bank scholarship essay, king and queen of Spain to finance an expedition to the lands, the wealth, he expected would be on is a the other side of the Atlantic-the Indies and Asia, gold and essay spices. For, like other informed people of his time, he knew the world was round and 3 paragraph essay he could sail west in order to get to the Far East. Spain was recently unified, one of the new modern nation-states, like France, England, and td bank essay Portugal. Its population, mostly poor peasants, worked for the nobility, who were 2 percent of the population and owned 95 percent of the land. And Research Paper! Spain had tied itself to the Catholic Church, expelled all the Jews, driven out the Moors. Like other states of the modern world, Spain sought gold, which was becoming the new mark of wealth, more useful than land because it could buy anything. There was gold in Asia, it was thought, and certainly silks and spices, for Marco Polo and others had brought back marvelous things from essay, their overland expeditions centuries before. Now that the Turks had conquered Constantinople and the eastern Mediterranean, and controlled the land routes to Asia, a sea route was needed.

Portuguese sailors were working their way around the southern tip of Africa. Is A 3 Paragraph! Spain decided to gamble on a long sail across an unknown ocean. In return for bringing back gold and spices, they promised Columbus 10 percent of the profits, governorship over new-found lands, and td bank the fame that would go with a new title: Admiral of the essays, Ocean Sea. He was a merchant's clerk from the Italian city of Genoa, part-time weaver (the son of a skilled weaver), and expert sailor. Essay! He set out with three sailing ships, the university honors essay, largest of which was the Santa Maria , perhaps 100 feet long, and td bank essay thirty-nine crew members. Columbus would never have made it to Asia, which was thousands of miles farther away than he had calculated, imagining a smaller world. He would have been doomed by that great expanse of sea. But he was lucky. One-fourth of the way there he came upon an unknown, uncharted land that lay between Europe and Asia-the Americas. It was early October 1492, and thirty-three days since he and his crew had left the Canary Islands, off the Atlantic coast of Africa. Now they saw branches and sticks floating in the water.

They saw flocks of birds. These were signs of land. Then, on October 12, a sailor called Rodrigo saw the early morning moon shining on white sands, and cried out. It was an island in the Bahamas, the Caribbean sea. The first man to sight land was supposed to many essays ap psych test get a yearly pension of 10,000 maravedis for life, but Rodrigo never got it. Td Bank Scholarship Essay! Columbus claimed he had seen a light the evening before. He got the reward. So, approaching land, they were met by the Arawak Indians, who swam out to greet them.

The Arawaks lived in many, village communes, had a developed agriculture of corn, yams, cassava. They could spin and weave, but they had no horses or work animals. They had no iron, but they wore tiny gold ornaments in their ears. This was to have enormous consequences: it led Columbus to take some of them aboard ship as prisoners because he insisted that they guide him to the source of the gold. He then sailed to scholarship what is now Cuba, then to Hispaniola (the island which today consists of Haiti and the Dominican Republic). There, bits of visible gold in an essay, the rivers, and a gold mask presented to Columbus by a local Indian chief, led to wild visions of scholarship gold fields. On Hispaniola, out of timbers from the Santa Maria , which had run aground, Columbus built a fort, the first European military base in the Western Hemisphere. Is A 3 Paragraph! He called it Navidad (Christmas) and td bank essay left thirty-nine crewmembers there, with instructions to find and store the gold. He took more Indian prisoners and put them aboard his two remaining ships. At one part of the island he got into a fight with Indians who refused to trade as many bows and arrows as he and his men wanted.

Two were run through with swords and bled to death. Then the Nina and the Pinta set sail for the Azores and Spain. When the ocr religious judaism papers, weather turned cold, the Indian prisoners began to die. Columbus's report to the Court in Madrid was extravagant. He insisted he had reached Asia (it was Cuba) and an island off the scholarship, coast of China (Hispaniola). His descriptions were part fact, part fiction: Hispaniola is a miracle. Mountains and hills, plains and pastures, are both fertile and beautiful . the harbors are unbelievably good and there are many wide rivers of which the majority contain gold. . Thesis And Research! . . There are many spices, and great mines of td bank essay gold and other metals. The Indians, Columbus reported, are so naive and so free with their possessions that no one who has not witnessed them would believe it. When you ask for something they have, they never say no. To the contrary, they offer to share with anyone.

He concluded his report by asking for a little help from their Majesties, and in return he would bring them from his next voyage as much gold as they need . and as many slaves as they ask. Example Essay! He was full of scholarship religious talk: Thus the on racism, eternal God, our Lord, gives victory to those who follow His way over apparent impossibilities. Because of Columbus's exaggerated report and promises, his second expedition was given seventeen ships and more than twelve hundred men. Td Bank Scholarship Essay! The aim was clear: slaves and gold. They went from island to island in test, the Caribbean, taking Indians as captives. Td Bank Essay! But as word spread of the Europeans' intent they found more and more empty villages. On Haiti, they found that the sailors left behind at Fort Navidad had been killed in a battle with the Indians, after they had roamed the island in gangs looking for gold, taking women and university honors essay children as slaves for sex and scholarship labor. Now, from his base on Haiti, Columbus sent expedition after expedition into the interior. They found no gold fields, but had to fill up the what 3 paragraph essay, ships returning to Spain with some kind of dividend. In the year 1495, they went on a great slave raid, rounded up fifteen hundred Arawak men, women, and children, put them in pens guarded by scholarship essay, Spaniards and dogs, then picked the five hundred best specimens to load onto ships.

Of those five hundred, two hundred died en route. Thesis Paper! The rest arrived alive in Spain and td bank were put up for sale by many essays ap psych test, the archdeacon of the town, who reported that, although the slaves were naked as the day they were born, they showed no more embarrassment than animals. Columbus later wrote: Let us in the name of the Holy Trinity go on sending all the slaves that can be sold. But too many of the slaves died in captivity. And so Columbus, desperate to pay back dividends to those who had invested, had to make good his promise to fill the td bank scholarship essay, ships with gold. In the province of thesis and research Cicao on Haiti, where he and his men imagined huge gold fields to exist, they ordered all persons fourteen years or older to collect a certain quantity of gold every three months.

When they brought it, they were given copper tokens to td bank essay hang around their necks. Indians found without a copper token had their hands cut off and and research paper bled to death. The Indians had been given an impossible task. Essay! The only gold around was bits of dust garnered from the streams. So they fled, were hunted down with dogs, and were killed. Trying to put together an army of resistance, the thesis and research, Arawaks faced Spaniards who had armor, muskets, swords, horses.

When the Spaniards took prisoners they hanged them or burned them to death. Among the Arawaks, mass suicides began, with cassava poison. Infants were killed to save them from the Spaniards. In two years, through murder, mutilation, or suicide, half of the 250,000 Indians on Haiti were dead. When it became clear that there was no gold left, the scholarship essay, Indians were taken as slave labor on huge estates, known later as encomiendas. They were worked at a ferocious pace, and died by the thousands.

By the year 1515, there were perhaps fifty thousand Indians left. By 1550, there were five hundred. A report of the an essay, year 1650 shows none of the td bank scholarship, original Arawaks or their descendants left on the island. The chief source-and, on many matters the only source-of information about what happened on thesis and research the islands after Columbus came is Bartolome de las Casas, who, as a young priest, participated in td bank essay, the conquest of Cuba. For a time he owned a plantation on which Indian slaves worked, but he gave that up and became a vehement critic of Spanish cruelty. Las Casas transcribed Columbus's journal and, in many ap psych, his fifties, began a multivolume History of the Indies. In it, he describes the td bank scholarship, Indians. They are agile, he says, and can swim long distances, especially the women. They are not completely peaceful, because they do battle from example essay, time to time with other tribes, but their casualties seem small, and they fight when they are individually moved to essay do so because of some grievance, not on the orders of what is a 3 paragraph captains or kings.

Women in td bank essay, Indian society were treated so well as to startle the thesis, Spaniards. Las Casas describes sex relations: Marriage laws are non-existent men and women alike choose their mates and leave them as they please, without offense, jealousy or anger. They multiply in great abundance; pregnant women work to the last minute and give birth almost painlessly; up the next day, they bathe in the river and scholarship essay are as clean and healthy as before giving birth. And Research Paper! If they tire of their men, they give themselves abortions with herbs that force stillbirths, covering their shameful parts with leaves or cotton cloth; although on the whole, Indian men and women look upon total nakedness with as much casualness as we look upon td bank essay a man's head or at his hands. The Indians, Las Casas says, have no religion, at least no temples. Ocr Religious Studies Judaism Past! They live in. large communal bell-shaped buildings, housing up to 600 people at one time . made of very strong wood and roofed with palm leaves. They prize bird feathers of various colors, beads made of fishbones, and essay green and white stones with which they adorn their ears and lips, but they put no value on gold and other precious things.

They lack all manner of commerce, neither buying nor selling, and university of washington rely exclusively on their natural environment for td bank scholarship essay maintenance. 3 Paragraph Essay! They are extremely generous with their possessions and by the same token covet the possessions of td bank scholarship their friends and expect the same degree of many essays liberality. . In Book Two of his History of the Indies , Las Casas (who at first urged replacing Indians by black slaves, thinking they were stronger and td bank scholarship essay would survive, but later relented when he saw the effects on thesis paper blacks) tells about the treatment of the Indians by the Spaniards. It is a unique account and td bank scholarship deserves to be quoted at length: Endless testimonies . .. prove the mild and pacific temperament of the an essay, natives. But our work was to exasperate, ravage, kill, mangle and destroy; small wonder, then, if they tried to kill one of us now and then. The admiral, it is true, was blind as those who came after him, and he was so anxious to please the td bank essay, King that he committed irreparable crimes against the Indians. Las Casas tells how the Spaniards grew more conceited every day and an essay on racism after a while refused to walk any distance. They rode the backs of Indians if they were in a hurry or were carried on hammocks by Indians running in essay, relays. In this case they also had Indians carry large leaves to shade them from the an essay, sun and others to scholarship fan them with goose wings. Total control led to total cruelty. The Spaniards thought nothing of knifing Indians by tens and twenties and university essay of cutting slices off them to test the scholarship, sharpness of their blades.

Las Casas tells how two of these so-called Christians met two Indian boys one day, each carrying a parrot; they took the parrots and for fun beheaded the studies judaism gcse past, boys. The Indians' attempts to defend themselves failed. And when they ran off into scholarship essay the hills they were found and killed. So, Las Casas reports, they suffered and 3 paragraph died in the mines and other labors in desperate silence, knowing not a soul in the world to whom they could turn for help. He describes their work in the mines: . Td Bank Scholarship Essay! mountains are stripped from top to bottom and bottom to top a thousand times; they dig, split rocks, move stones, and carry dirt on their backs to wash it in the rivers, while those who wash gold stay in the water all the time with their backs bent so constantly it breaks them; and when water invades the mines, the is a essay, most arduous task of all is to dry the mines by scooping up pansful of water and throwing it up outside. After each six or eight months' work in the mines, which was the time required of each crew to dig enough gold for melting, up to a third of the td bank essay, men died. While the men were sent many miles away to on racism the mines, the wives remained to work the td bank, soil, forced into the excruciating job of digging and making thousands of hills for cassava plants. Thus husbands and wives were together only once every eight or ten months and honors when they met they were so exhausted and depressed on both sides . they ceased to procreate.

As for scholarship the newly born, they died early because their mothers, overworked and famished, had no milk to nurse them, and for this reason, while I was in Cuba, 7000 children died in three months. Some mothers even drowned their babies from sheer desperation. in this way, husbands died in the mines, wives died at work, and children died from lack of milk . .. and in a short time this land which was so great, so powerful and fertile . Essays Test! was depopulated. . My eyes have seen these acts so foreign to td bank scholarship essay human nature, and now I tremble as I write. . When he arrived on Hispaniola in 1508, Las Casas says, there were 60,000 people living on this island, including the Indians; so that from 1494 to 1508, over three million people had perished from war, slavery, and the mines. Who in future generations will believe this? I myself writing it as a knowledgeable eyewitness can hardly believe it. Thus began the history, five hundred years ago, of the European invasion of the Indian settlements in the Americas.

That beginning, when you read Las Casas-even if his figures are exaggerations (were there 3 million Indians to begin with, as he says, or less than a million, as some historians have calculated, or 8 million as others now believe?)-is conquest, slavery, death. When we read the history books given to children in the United States, it all starts with heroic adventure-there is what essay, no bloodshed-and Columbus Day is essay, a celebration. Past the elementary and high schools, there are only occasional hints of an essay on racism something else. Samuel Eliot Morison, the td bank, Harvard historian, was the most distinguished writer on Columbus, the author of a multivolume biography, and was himself a sailor who retraced Columbus's route across the Atlantic. In his popular book Christopher Columbus, Mariner, written in 1954, he tells about the enslavement and the killing: The cruel policy initiated by Columbus and pursued by an essay, his successors resulted in complete genocide. That is on one page, buried halfway into the telling of a grand romance. Scholarship Essay! In the book's last paragraph, Morison sums up his view of Columbus: He had his faults and his defects, but they were largely the defects of the qualities that made him great-his indomitable will, his superb faith in God and in his own mission as the Christ-bearer to lands beyond the seas, his stubborn persistence despite neglect, poverty and discouragement. But there was no flaw, no dark side to the most outstanding and essential of all his qualities-his seamanship. One can lie outright about the past.

Or one can omit facts which might lead to unacceptable conclusions. Morison does neither. He refuses to an essay lie about Columbus. He does not omit the td bank scholarship, story of thesis and research mass murder; indeed he describes it with the harshest word one can use: genocide. But he does something else-he mentions the essay, truth quickly and goes on to other things more important to of washington honors essay him. Outright lying or quiet omission takes the risk of discovery which, when made, might arouse the reader to rebel against the writer. To state the facts, however, and then to bury them in a mass of scholarship other information is to say to the reader with a certain infectious calm: yes, mass murder took place, but it's not that important-it should weigh very little in our final judgments; it should affect very little what we do in the world. It is not that the historian can avoid emphasis of some facts and university honors essay not of others. This is as natural to essay him as to the mapmaker, who, in order to produce a usable drawing for practical purposes, must first flatten and distort the shape of the 3 paragraph, earth, then choose out of the bewildering mass of geographic information those things needed for the purpose of td bank essay this or that particular map. My argument cannot be against selection, simplification, emphasis, which are inevitable for both cartographers and many historians. Td Bank Scholarship! But the map-maker's distortion is a technical necessity for a common purpose shared by all people who need maps.

The historian's distortion is more than technical, it is ideological; it is released into a world of contending interests, where any chosen emphasis supports (whether the historian means to essay or not) some kind of interest, whether economic or political or racial or national or sexual. Furthermore, this ideological interest is not openly expressed in the way a mapmaker's technical interest is obvious (This is a Mercator projection for long-range navigation-for short-range, you'd better use a different projection). No, it is presented as if all readers of td bank scholarship essay history had a common interest which historians serve to the best of their ability. Thesis! This is not intentional deception; the historian has been trained in a society in which education and knowledge are put forward as technical problems of excellence and not as tools for scholarship contending social classes, races, nations. To emphasize the heroism of Columbus and on racism his successors as navigators and discoverers, and to de-emphasize their genocide, is not a technical necessity but an ideological choice. It serves- unwittingly-to justify what was done. Td Bank Essay! My point is university of washington honors, not that we must, in telling history, accuse, judge, condemn Columbus in absentia . It is too late for that; it would be a useless scholarly exercise in morality. But the easy acceptance of td bank essay atrocities as a deplorable but necessary price to pay for progress (Hiroshima and Vietnam, to save Western civilization; Kronstadt and Hungary, to save socialism; nuclear proliferation, to save us all)-that is still with us. One reason these atrocities are still with us is that we have learned to bury them in a mass of other facts, as radioactive wastes are buried in containers in the earth. We have learned to give them exactly the thesis and research, same proportion of td bank essay attention that teachers and writers often give them in the most respectable of classrooms and textbooks. This learned sense of moral proportion, coming from the apparent objectivity of the scholar, is accepted more easily than when it comes from politicians at press conferences.

It is therefore more deadly. The treatment of heroes (Columbus) and honors essay their victims (the Arawaks)-the quiet acceptance of conquest and td bank essay murder in the name of progress-is only one aspect of a certain approach to history, in which the past is told from the point of and research view of td bank governments, conquerors, diplomats, leaders. It is as if they, like Columbus, deserve universal acceptance, as if they-the Founding Fathers, Jackson, Lincoln, Wilson, Roosevelt, Kennedy, the leading members of Congress, the famous Justices of the Supreme Court-represent the nation as a whole. The pretense is that there really is such a thing as the judaism gcse, United States, subject to occasional conflicts and quarrels, but fundamentally a community of people with common interests. Essay! It is university of washington essay, as if there really is a national interest represented in the Constitution, in territorial expansion, in the laws passed by Congress, the decisions of the courts, the development of capitalism, the culture of education and scholarship the mass media. History is the memory of states, wrote Henry Kissinger in his first book, A World Restored , in which he proceeded to tell the history of nineteenth-century Europe from the viewpoint of the leaders of Austria and England, ignoring the is a essay, millions who suffered from those statesmen's policies.

From his standpoint, the peace that Europe had before the French Revolution was restored by the diplomacy of a few national leaders. But for factory workers in England, farmers in scholarship, France, colored people in Asia and Africa, women and children everywhere except in the upper classes, it was a world of conquest, violence, hunger, exploitation-a world not restored but disintegrated. My viewpoint, in telling the history of the example essay, United States, is scholarship, different: that we must not accept the memory of states as our own. On Racism! Nations are not communities and never have been, The history of any country, presented as the td bank scholarship, history of a family, conceals fierce conflicts of interest (sometimes exploding, most often repressed) between conquerors and conquered, masters and an essay on racism slaves, capitalists and workers, dominators and dominated in race and sex. And in td bank scholarship essay, such a world of conflict, a world of victims and university of washington essay executioners, it is the job of thinking people, as Albert Camus suggested, not to td bank be on the side of the executioners. Thus, in that inevitable taking of essays sides which comes from selection and emphasis in td bank scholarship, history, I prefer to try to tell the story of the discovery of America from the viewpoint of the many, Arawaks, of the Constitution from the standpoint of the td bank scholarship, slaves, of Andrew Jackson as seen by the Cherokees, of the Civil War as seen by the New York Irish, of the Mexican war as seen by the deserting soldiers of Scott's army, of the rise of industrialism as seen by the young women in the Lowell textile mills, of the Spanish-American war as seen by the Cubans, the what 3 paragraph, conquest of the Philippines as seen by black soldiers on Luzon, the Gilded Age as seen by southern farmers, the First World War as seen by socialists, the Second World War as seen by pacifists, the New Deal as seen by blacks in Harlem, the postwar American empire as seen by peons in Latin America. And so on, to the limited extent that any one person, however he or she strains, can see history from the td bank, standpoint of others. My point is not to grieve for the victims and denounce the what essay, executioners.

Those tears, that anger, cast into td bank scholarship the past, deplete our moral energy for the present. And the lines are not always clear. In the what, long run, the oppressor is essay, also a victim. In the many, short run (and so far, human history has consisted only of short runs), the victims, themselves desperate and tainted with the culture that oppresses them, turn on scholarship essay other victims. Still, understanding the university of washington, complexities, this book will be skeptical of governments and their attempts, through politics and culture, to ensnare ordinary people in scholarship essay, a giant web of nationhood pretending to paper a common interest.

I will try not to overlook the scholarship, cruelties that victims inflict on one another as they are jammed together in the boxcars of the university honors essay, system. Scholarship Essay! I don't want to romanticize them. But I do remember (in rough paraphrase) a statement I once read: The cry of the poor is not always just, but if you don't listen to it, you will never know what justice is. I don't want to example invent victories for essay people's movements. But to think that history-writing must aim simply to recapitulate the failures that dominate the past is to make historians collaborators in an endless cycle of defeat. If history is to be creative, to anticipate a possible future without denying the past, it should, I believe, emphasize new possibilities by disclosing those hidden episodes of the past when, even if in brief flashes, people showed their ability to resist, to join together, occasionally to win.

I am supposing, or perhaps only hoping, that our future may be found in the past's fugitive moments of compassion rather than in its solid centuries of warfare. That, being as blunt as I can, is my approach to the history of the United States. The reader may as well know that before going on. What Columbus did to the Arawaks of the Bahamas, Cortes did to the Aztecs of Mexico, Pizarro to the Incas of Peru, and the English settlers of Virginia and Massachusetts to the Powhatans and the Pequots. The Aztec civilization of Mexico came out of the heritage of Mayan, Zapotec, and Toltec cultures. It built enormous constructions from stone tools and human labor, developed a writing system and a priesthood.

It also engaged in (let us not overlook this) the ritual killing of thousands of people as sacrifices to the gods. The cruelty of the Aztecs, however, did not erase a certain innocence, and when a Spanish armada appeared at honors Vera Cruz, and a bearded white man came ashore, with strange beasts (horses), clad in iron, it was thought that he was the legendary Aztec man-god who had died three hundred years before, with the promise to return-the mysterious Quetzalcoatl. And so they welcomed him, with munificent hospitality. That was Hernando Cortes, come from td bank, Spain with an expedition financed by merchants and landowners and blessed by the deputies of God, with one obsessive goal: to find gold. In the mind of Montezuma, the king of the Aztecs, there must have been a certain doubt about whether Cortes was indeed Quetzalcoatl, because he sent a hundred runners to Cortes, bearing enormous treasures, gold and silver wrought into objects of fantastic beauty, but at the same time begging him to go back. (The painter Durer a few years later described what he saw just arrived in Spain from that expedition-a sun of gold, a moon of silver, worth a fortune.)

Cortes then began his march of death from town to town, using deception, turning Aztec against Aztec, killing with the kind of deliberateness that accompanies a strategy-to paralyze the will of the population by a sudden frightful deed. And so, in Cholulu, he invited the headmen of the Cholula nation to the square. And when they came, with thousands of unarmed retainers, Cortes's small army of Spaniards, posted around the square with cannon, armed with crossbows, mounted on what essay horses, massacred them, down to the last man. Then they looted the city and moved on. When their cavalcade of murder was over they were in td bank, Mexico City, Montezuma was dead, and the Aztec civilization, shattered, was in the hands of the Spaniards. All this is told in the Spaniards' own accounts. In Peru, that other Spanish conquistador Pizarro, used the same tactics, and for an essay on racism the same reasons- the frenzy in scholarship essay, the early capitalist states of Europe for gold, for slaves, for products of the soil, to pay the bondholders and stockholders of the expeditions, to finance the monarchical bureaucracies rising in Western Europe, to many test spur the growth of the new money economy rising out of feudalism, to td bank participate in what Karl Marx would later call the primitive accumulation of capital. These were the violent beginnings of an essays test, intricate system of td bank essay technology, business, politics, and many essays ap psych culture that would dominate the world for the next five centuries. In the North American English colonies, the pattern was set early, as Columbus had set it in the islands of the Bahamas. In 1585, before there was any permanent English settlement in Virginia, Richard Grenville landed there with seven ships. The Indians he met were hospitable, but when one of td bank them stole a small silver cup, Grenville sacked and burned the whole Indian village.

Jamestown itself was set up inside the ocr religious studies papers, territory of an Indian confederacy, led by the chief, Powhatan. Powhatan watched the English settle on his people's land, but did not attack, maintaining a posture of coolness. When the English were going through their starving time in the winter of 1610, some of them ran off to join the Indians, where they would at least be fed. When the summer came, the governor of the colony sent a messenger to ask Powhatan to return the runaways, whereupon Powhatan, according to the English account, replied with noe other than prowde and td bank scholarship essay disdaynefull Answers. Some soldiers were therefore sent out to take Revenge. They fell upon an Indian settlement, killed fifteen or sixteen Indians, burned the houses, cut down the corn growing around the village, took the queen of the tribe and her children into boats, then ended up throwing the children overboard and shoteinge owit their Braynes in the water. The queen was later taken off and stabbed to death. Twelve years later, the Indians, alarmed as the English settlements kept growing in numbers, apparently decided to try to wipe them out for good. They went on a rampage and massacred 347 men, women, and children.

From then on it was total war. Not able to enslave the Indians, and not able to live with them, the English decided to exterminate them. University Of Washington Honors Essay! Edmund Morgan writes, in his history of early Virginia, American Slavery, American Freedom: Since the Indians were better woodsmen than the td bank, English and virtually impossible to track down, the method was to studies judaism feign peaceful intentions, let them settle down and essay plant their com wherever they chose, and then, just before harvest, fall upon on racism them, killing as many as possible and burning the corn. . Within two or three years of the td bank scholarship, massacre the thesis essay, English had avenged the deaths of td bank that day many times over. In that first year of the studies judaism past papers, white man in td bank scholarship, Virginia, 1607, Powhatan had addressed a plea to on racism John Smith that turned out td bank prophetic. How authentic it is may be in doubt, but it is ap psych, so much like so many Indian statements that it may be taken as, if not the rough letter of that first plea, the exact spirit of it: I have seen two generations of my people die. I know the difference between peace and war better than any man in my country. I am now grown old, and must die soon; my authority must descend to my brothers, Opitehapan, Opechancanough and Catatough-then to my two sisters, and then to my two daughters-I wish them to know as much as I do, and that your love to them may be like mine to you. Why will you take by essay, force what you may have quietly by love? Why will you destroy us who supply you with food?

What can you get by war? We can hide our provisions and run into studies judaism papers the woods; then you will starve for wronging your friends. Why are you jealous of us? We are unarmed, and willing to give you what you ask, if you come in td bank scholarship, a friendly manner, and not so simple as not to know that it is much better to eat good meat, sleep comfortably, live quietly with my wives and children, laugh and be merry with the honors, English, and trade for their copper and hatchets, than to run away from them, and to lie cold in the woods, feed on acorns, roots and such trash, and be so hunted that I can neither eat nor sleep. In these wars, my men must sit up watching, and if a twig break, they all cry out Here comes Captain Smith! So I must end my miserable life. Take away your guns and swords, the cause of scholarship essay all our jealousy, or you may all die in the same manner. When the Pilgrims came to New England they too were coming not to vacant land but to is a territory inhabited by tribes of Indians.

The governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, John Winthrop, created the excuse to td bank take Indian land by declaring the university, area legally a vacuum. The Indians, he said, had not subdued the land, and therefore had only a natural right to it, but not a civil right. Td Bank! A natural right did not have legal standing. The Puritans also appealed to the Bible, Psalms 2:8: Ask of me, and I shall give thee, the heathen for thine inheritance, and the uttermost parts of the earth for of washington thy possession. And to justify their use of force to take the land, they cited Romans 13:2: Whosoever therefore resisteth the power, resisteth the td bank essay, ordinance of God: and they that resist shall receive to themselves damnation. The Puritans lived in thesis, uneasy truce with the Pequot Indians, who occupied what is now southern Connecticut and Rhode Island. Essay! But they wanted them out of the way; they wanted their land.

And they seemed to want also to establish their rule firmly over Connecticut settlers in that area. The murder of thesis a white trader, Indian-kidnaper, and troublemaker became an excuse to td bank scholarship essay make war on the Pequots in 1636. A punitive expedition left Boston to attack the essays ap psych test, Narraganset Indians on Block Island, who were lumped with the Pequots. As Governor Winthrop wrote: They had commission to put to death the men of Block Island, but to spare the women and children, and to td bank essay bring them away, and to university essay take possession of the island; and from thence to go to the Pequods to demand the murderers of Captain Stone and other English, and one thousand fathom of td bank scholarship wampum for damages, etc. and some of their children as hostages, which if they should refuse, they were to what is a 3 paragraph essay obtain it by force. The English landed and killed some Indians, but the rest hid in the thick forests of the island and the English went from one deserted village to the next, destroying crops. Scholarship! Then they sailed back to and research paper the mainland and scholarship raided Pequot villages along the coast, destroying crops again. One of the officers of that expedition, in an essay on racism, his account, gives some insight into scholarship essay the Pequots they encountered: The Indians spying of us came running in multitudes along the water side, crying, What cheer, Englishmen, what cheer, what do you come for? They not thinking we intended war, went on cheerfully. - So, the war with the Pequots began. Massacres took place on both sides. The English developed a tactic of warfare used earlier by Cortes and later, in the twentieth century, even more systematically: deliberate attacks on what is a 3 paragraph essay noncombatants for the purpose of terrorizing the enemy.

This is ethno historian Francis Jennings's interpretation of Captain John Mason's attack on a Pequot village on the Mystic River near Long Island Sound: Mason proposed to avoid attacking Pequot warriors, which would have overtaxed his unseasoned, unreliable troops. Battle, as such, was not his purpose. Td Bank! Battle is only one of the ways to destroy an enemy's will to ocr religious studies past papers fight. Massacre can accomplish the same end with less risk, and Mason had determined that massacre would be his objective. So the English set fire to the wigwams of the village. By their own account: The Captain also said, We must Burn Them; and immediately stepping into the Wigwam . brought out a Fire Brand, and putting it into the Matts with which they were covered, set the Wigwams on td bank scholarship essay Fire.

William Bradford, in his History of the Plymouth Plantation written at an essay on racism the time, describes John Mason's raid on the Pequot village: Those that scaped the fire were slaine with the sword; some hewed to peeces, others rune throw with their rapiers, so as they were quickly dispatchte, and very few escaped. It was conceived they thus destroyed about 400 at this time. It was a fearful sight to see them thus frying in the fyer, and the streams of blood quenching the same, and td bank scholarship horrible was the what essay, stincke and sente there of, but the victory seemed a sweete sacrifice, and they gave the td bank, prayers thereof to God, who had wrought so wonderfully for them, thus to inclose their enemise in university of washington honors essay, their hands, and give them so speedy a victory over so proud and insulting an td bank scholarship essay, enimie. As Dr. Cotton Mather, Puritan theologian, put it: It was supposed that no less than 600 Pequot souls were brought down to hell that day.

The war continued. Indian tribes were used against one another, and never seemed able to join together in fighting the essay, English. Jennings sums up: The terror was very real among the Indians, but in time they came to meditate upon scholarship essay its foundations. They drew three lessons from the Pequot War: (1) that the Englishmen's most solemn pledge would be broken whenever obligation conflicted with advantage; (2) that the English way of war had no limit of scruple or mercy; and (3) that weapons of Indian making were almost useless against weapons of paper European manufacture. These lessons the Indians took to td bank essay heart.

A footnote in Virgil Vogel's book This Land Was Ours (1972) says: The official figure on the number of studies judaism gcse past Pequots now in Connecticut is twenty-one persons. Forty years after the Pequot War, Puritans and Indians fought again. This time it was the Wampanoags, occupying the south shore of Massachusetts Bay, who were in the way and also beginning to trade some of their land to people outside the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Their chief, Massasoit, was dead. His son Wamsutta had been killed by Englishmen, and Wamsuttas brother Metacom (later to be called King Philip by the English) became chief. Essay! The English found their excuse, a murder which they attributed to Metacom, and they began a war of conquest against the Wampanoags, a war to an essay on racism take their land. Scholarship! They were clearly the aggressors, but claimed they attacked for preventive purposes.

As Roger Williams, more friendly to the Indians than most, put it: All men of conscience or prudence ply to windward, to maintain their wars to thesis be defensive. Jennings says the elite of the Puritans wanted the war; the ordinary white Englishman did not want it and often refused to fight. The Indians certainly did not want war, but they matched atrocity with atrocity. Scholarship! When it was over, in 1676, the English had won, but their resources were drained; they had lost six hundred men. Three thousand Indians were dead, including Metacom himself. Yet the Indian raids did not stop. For a while, the English tried softer tactics. But ultimately, it was back to annihilation. The Indian population of 10 million that lived north of thesis essay Mexico when Columbus came would ultimately be reduced to less than a million. Essay! Huge numbers of essays Indians would die from diseases introduced by the whites. A Dutch traveler in New Netherland wrote in 1656 that the Indians . Essay! affirm, that before the arrival of the thesis paper, Christians, and scholarship before the of washington honors essay, smallpox broke out amongst them, they were ten times as numerous as they now are, and that their population had been melted down by this disease, whereof nine-tenths of them have died.

When the English first settled Martha's Vineyard in 1642, the Wampanoags there numbered perhaps three thousand. There were no wars on that island, but by 1764, only 313 Indians were left there. Td Bank Scholarship Essay! Similarly, Block Island Indians numbered perhaps 1,200 to 1,500 in 1662, and by what 3 paragraph, 1774 were reduced to fifty-one. Behind the English invasion of North America, behind their massacre of essay Indians, their deception, their brutality, was that special powerful drive born in civilizations based on private property. It was a morally ambiguous drive; the need for space, for land, was a real human need. But in conditions of scarcity, in a barbarous epoch of history ruled by competition, this human need was transformed into the murder of thesis example essay whole peoples.

Roger Williams said it was. a depraved appetite after the great vanities, dreams and shadows of this vanishing life, great portions of land, land in this wilderness, as if men were in as great necessity and danger for want of great portions of land, as poor, hungry, thirsty seamen have, after a sick and stormy, a long and starving passage. This is one of the gods of New England, which the living and scholarship most high Eternal will destroy and famish. Was all this bloodshed and deceit-from Columbus to Cortes, Pizarro, the Puritans-a necessity for the human race to progress from savagery to civilization? Was Morison right in burying the story of genocide inside a more important story of human progress?

Perhaps a persuasive argument can be made-as it was made by Stalin when he killed peasants for thesis industrial progress in the Soviet Union, as it was made by Churchill explaining the bombings of Dresden and Hamburg, and td bank scholarship Truman explaining Hiroshima. But how can the judgment be made if the benefits and university of washington honors essay losses cannot be balanced because the losses are either unmentioned or mentioned quickly? That quick disposal might be acceptable (Unfortunate, yes, but it had to be done) to td bank scholarship essay the middle and upper classes of the conquering and advanced countries. But is it acceptable to the poor of Asia, Africa, Latin America, or to the prisoners in Soviet labor camps, or the blacks in urban ghettos, or the Indians on reservations-to the victims of that progress which benefits a privileged minority in the world? Was it acceptable (or just inescapable?) to the miners and railroaders of America, the factory hands, the men and women who died by the hundreds of thousands from thesis, accidents or sickness, where they worked or where they lived-casualties of progress? And even the privileged minority-must it not reconsider, with that practicality which even privilege cannot abolish, the value of its privileges, when they become threatened by the anger of the sacrificed, whether in organized rebellion, unorganized riot, or simply those brutal individual acts of desperation labeled crimes by law and the state?

If there are necessary sacrifices to be made for td bank scholarship essay human progress, is thesis and research, it not essential to scholarship essay hold to the principle that those to studies gcse past be sacrificed must make the decision themselves? We can all decide to give up something of ours, but do we have the right to td bank scholarship essay throw into the pyre the children of others, or even our own children, for a progress which is not nearly as clear or present as sickness or health, life or death? What did people in and research, Spain get out of all that death and brutality visited on essay the Indians of the Americas? For a brief period in history, there was the thesis example, glory of a Spanish Empire in the Western Hemisphere. As Hans Koning sums it up in his book Columbus: His Enterprise : For all the gold and silver stolen and td bank scholarship shipped to Spain did not make the Spanish people richer. It gave their kings an edge in and research, the balance of power for a time, a chance to hire more mercenary soldiers for their wars. They ended up losing those wars anyway, and all that was left was a deadly inflation, a starving population, the rich richer, the poor poorer, and scholarship essay a ruined peasant class. Beyond all that, how certain are we that what was destroyed was inferior?

Who were these people who came out on the beach and swam to bring presents to Columbus and his crew, who watched Cortes and what 3 paragraph essay Pizarro ride through their countryside, who peered out of the forests at the first white settlers of Virginia and Massachusetts? Columbus called them Indians, because he miscalculated the size of the earth. In this book we too call them Indians, with some reluctance, because it happens too often that people are saddled with names given them by their conquerors. And yet, there is some reason to call them Indians, because they did come, perhaps 25,000 years ago, from Asia, across the land bridge of the Bering Straits (later to disappear under water) to Alaska. Then they moved southward, seeking warmth and land, in a trek lasting thousands of years that took them into North America, then Central and South America.

In Nicaragua, Brazil, and Ecuador their petrified footprints can still be seen, along with the print of td bank scholarship bison, who disappeared about thesis and research, five thousand years ago, so they must have reached South America at scholarship essay least that far back. Widely dispersed over the great land mass of the Americas, they numbered approximately 75 million people by the time Columbus came, perhaps 25 million in North America. Responding to of washington honors the different environments of soil and climate, they developed hundreds of different tribal cultures, perhaps two thousand different languages. They perfected the art of agriculture, and figured out how to grow maize (corn), which cannot grow by itself and must be planted, cultivated, fertilized, harvested, husked, shelled. They ingeniously developed a variety of other vegetables and fruits, as well as peanuts and chocolate and tobacco and td bank scholarship rubber. On their own, the thesis and research paper, Indians were engaged in the great agricultural revolution that other peoples in Asia, Europe, Africa were going through about the scholarship essay, same time. While many of the tribes remained nomadic hunters and food gatherers in wandering, egalitarian communes, others began to live in more settled communities where there was more food, larger populations, more divisions of labor among men and thesis and research paper women, more surplus to feed chiefs and priests, more leisure time for artistic and td bank scholarship social work, for building houses.

About a thousand years before Christ, while comparable constructions were going on in Egypt and test Mesopotamia, the td bank scholarship, Zuni and Hopi Indians of what is now New Mexico had begun to build villages consisting of an essay large terraced buildings, nestled in td bank essay, among cliffs and mountains for protection from enemies, with hundreds of rooms in each village. Many! Before the arrival of the European explorers, they were using irrigation canals, dams, were doing ceramics, weaving baskets, making cloth out of cotton. By the td bank scholarship essay, time of Christ and Julius Caesar, there had developed in the Ohio River Valley a culture of so-called Moundbuilders, Indians who constructed thousands of essays ap psych test enormous sculptures out of earth, sometimes in the shapes of huge humans, birds, or serpents, sometimes as burial sites, sometimes as fortifications. One of them was 3 1/2 miles long, enclosing 100 acres. These Moundbuilders seem to essay have been part of a complex trading system of ornaments and thesis and research paper weapons from as far off as the Great Lakes, the Far West, and scholarship essay the Gulf of Mexico.

About A.D. Many Test! 500, as this Moundbuilder culture of the scholarship, Ohio Valley was beginning to thesis example essay decline, another culture was developing westward, in the valley of the td bank essay, Mississippi, centered on what is now St. Louis. It had an advanced agriculture, included thousands of villages, and also built huge earthen mounds as burial and an essay ceremonial places near a vast Indian metropolis that may have had thirty thousand people. The largest mound was 100 feet high, with a rectangular base larger than that of the Great Pyramid of Egypt. Td Bank! In the city, known as Cahokia, were toolmakers, hide dressers, potters, jewelry makers, weavers, salt makers, copper engravers, and magnificent ceramists. One funeral blanket was made of twelve thousand shell beads.

From the Adirondacks to the Great Lakes, in on racism, what is now Pennsylvania and upper New York, lived the most powerful of the northeastern tribes, the League of the Iroquois, which included the Mohawks (People of the Flint), Oneidas (People of the Stone), Onondagas (People of the td bank essay, Mountain), Cayugas (People at the Landing), and Senecas (Great Hill People), thousands of judaism gcse past people bound together by a common Iroquois language. In the vision of the Mohawk chief Iliawatha, the legendary Dekaniwidah spoke to td bank scholarship essay the Iroquois: We bind ourselves together by taking hold of each other's hands so firmly and many test forming a circle so strong that if a tree should fall upon it, it could not shake nor break it, so that our people and grandchildren shall remain in the circle in security, peace and happiness. In the villages of the Iroquois, land was owned in common and worked in common. Hunting was done together, and the catch was divided among the members of the essay, village. Houses were considered common property and were shared by several families.

The concept of private ownership of land and homes was foreign to the Iroquois. A French Jesuit priest who encountered them in the 1650s wrote: No poorhouses are needed among them, because they are neither mendicants nor paupers.. . . Their kindness, humanity and courtesy not only makes them liberal with what they have, but causes them to possess hardly anything except in common. Women were important and respected in Iroquois society. Families were matrilineal. That is, the family line went down through the female members, whose husbands joined the family, while sons who married then joined their wives' families. What Is A 3 Paragraph Essay! Each extended family lived in a long house. When a woman wanted a divorce, she set her husband's things outside the door.

Families were grouped in clans, and a dozen or more clans might make up a village. The senior women in the village named the men who represented the clans at village and tribal councils. Td Bank Scholarship Essay! They also named the forty-nine chiefs who were the ruling council for the Five Nation confederacy of the Iroquois. The women attended clan meetings, stood behind the many essays ap psych, circle of men who spoke and voted, and td bank scholarship essay removed the men from office if they strayed too far from the wishes of the women. The women tended the crops and took general charge of village affairs while the men were always hunting or fishing. And since they supplied the moccasins and food for warring expeditions, they had some control over military matters. As Gary B. Nash notes in his fascinating study of early America, Red, White, and and research paper Black: Thus power was shared between the sexes and the European idea of male dominancy and female subordination in all things was conspicuously absent in Iroquois society. Children in Iroquois society, while taught the td bank, cultural heritage of their people and solidarity with the university of washington essay, tribe, were also taught to be independent, not to submit to overbearing authority. They were taught equality in status and the sharing of possessions.

The Iroquois did not use harsh punishment on children; they did not insist on early weaning or early toilet training, but gradually allowed the child to learn self-care. All of td bank scholarship essay this was in and research paper, sharp contrast to European values as brought over by the first colonists, a society of rich and poor, controlled by priests, by governors, by male heads of families. For example, the pastor of the Pilgrim colony, John Robinson, thus advised his parishioners how to deal with their children: And surely there is in all children . a stubbornness, and stoutness of mind arising from natural pride, which must, in the first place, be broken and beaten down; that so the foundation of their education being laid in humility and tractableness, other virtues may, in their time, be built thereon. Gary Nash describes Iroquois culture: No laws and ordinances, sheriffs and td bank scholarship essay constables, judges and juries, or courts or jails-the apparatus of authority in European societies-were to be found in the northeast woodlands prior to European arrival. Yet boundaries of acceptable behavior were firmly set. Though priding themselves on the autonomous individual, the Iroquois maintained a strict sense of right and wrong. He who stole another's food or acted invalourously in war was shamed by his people and ostracized from their company until he had atoned for his actions and demonstrated to an essay their satisfaction that he had morally purified himself.

Not only the Iroquois but other Indian tribes behaved the same way. In 1635, Maryland Indians responded to the governor's demand that if any of them killed an Englishman, the guilty one should be delivered up for punishment according to English law. The Indians said: It is the manner amongst us Indians, that if any such accident happen, wee doe redeeme the life of a man that is so slaine, with a 100 armes length of Beades and since that you are heere strangers, and come into our Countrey, you should rather conform yourselves to the Customes of our Countrey, than impose yours upon us. So, Columbus and his successors were not coming into an empty wilderness, but into a world which in some places was as densely populated as Europe itself, where the culture was complex, where human relations were more egalitarian than in Europe, and td bank where the relations among men, women, children, and nature were more beautifully worked out than perhaps any place in the world. They were people without a written language, but with their own laws, their poetry, their history kept in memory and is a essay passed on, in an oral vocabulary more complex than Europe's, accompanied by song, dance, and ceremonial drama. They paid careful attention to the development of personality, intensity of will, independence and flexibility, passion and potency, to their partnership with one another and td bank scholarship with nature.

John Collier, an American scholar who lived among Indians in the 1920s and 1930s in the American Southwest, said of their spirit: Could we make it our own, there would be an thesis, eternally inexhaustible earth and a forever lasting peace. Perhaps there is some romantic mythology in that. But the evidence from scholarship essay, European travelers in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and is a 3 paragraph eighteenth centuries, put together recently by an American specialist on Indian life, William Brandon, is overwhelmingly supportive of much of that myth. Even allowing for the imperfection of myths, it is enough to make us question, for that time and ours, the excuse of progress in the annihilation of races, and the telling of history from the standpoint of the conquerors and td bank scholarship leaders of Western civilization.