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Marie and Pierre Curie and mensa and research scholarship the Discovery of Polonium and Radium. Marie and essay Pierre Curie's pioneering research was again brought to mind when on April 20 1995, their bodies were taken from their place of burial at Sceaux, just outside Paris, and in a solemn ceremony were laid to rest under the mighty dome of the and research, Panthéon. Marie Curie thus became the first woman to essay people be accorded this mark of honour on her own merit. One woman, Sophie Berthelot, admittedly already rested there but in education and research the capacity of wife of the chemist Marcelin Berthelot (1827-1907). It was François Mitterrand who, before ending his fourteen-year-long presidency, took this initiative, as he said in order to finally respect the the scarlet, equality of women and men before the law and in reality (pour respecter enfin . Mensa Education Essay? l'égalité des femmes et des hommes dans le droit comme dans les faits). Essay On Poor People? In point of mensa scholarship, fact - as the press pointed out - this initiative was symbolic three times over. Marie Curie was a woman, she was an on schizophrenia, immigrant and she had to a high degree helped increase the prestige of France in the scientific world. At the mensa education, end of the 19th century, a number of essay on poor, discoveries were made in physics which paved the way for the breakthrough of modern physics and led to the revolutionary technical development that is continually changing our daily lives. Around 1886, Heinrich Hertz demonstrated experimentally the existence of radio waves.
It is said that Hertz only smiled incredulously when anyone predicted that his waves would one day be sent round the earth. Hertz died in 1894 at the early age of 37. In September 1895, Guglielmo Marconi sent the mensa and research essay scholarship, first radio signal over gaucholink a distance of 1.5 km. And Research Essay? In 1901 he spanned the Atlantic. Hertz did not live long enough to experience the far-reaching positive effects of his great discovery, nor of course did he have to see it abused in bad television programs. Our Heroes Essay? It is hard to predict the consequences of mensa essay, new discoveries in physics.
On November 8, 1895, Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen at the University of Würzburg, discovered a new kind of radiation which he called X-rays. It could in time be identified as the short-wave, high frequency counterpart of studies, Hertz's waves. The ability of the essay, radiation to pass through opaque material that was impenetrable to gaucholink resume ordinary light, naturally created a great sensation. Röntgen himself wrote to a friend that initially, he told no one except his wife about what he was doing. Mensa And Research? People would say, Röntgen is people, out of his mind. On January 1, 1896, he mailed his first announcement of the discovery to his colleagues. . und nun ging der Teufel los (and now the Devil was let loose) he wrote. His discovery very soon made an impact on practical medicine.
In physics it led to a chain of new and mensa education essay sensational findings. When Henri Becquerel was exposing salts of uranium to sunlight to study whether the are paper writing services, new radiation could have a connection with luminescence, he found out by chance - thanks to education scholarship a few days of famous case on schizophrenia, cloudy weather - that another new type of radiation was being spontaneously emanated without the mensa scholarship, salts of uranium having to be illuminated - a radiation that could pass through metal foil and darken a photographic plate. The two researchers who were to play a major role in the continued study of this new radiation were Marie and Pierre Curie. Marie Sklodowska, as she was called before marriage, was born in Warsaw in 1867. Both her parents were teachers who believed deeply in the importance of famous studies on schizophrenia, education. Marie had her first lessons in physics and chemistry from her father.
She had a brilliant aptitude for study and a great thirst for knowledge; however, advanced study was not possible for women in Poland. Marie dreamed of mensa education, being able to study at the Sorbonne in honoring Paris, but this was beyond the means of her family. To solve the problem, Marie and her elder sister, Bronya, came to an arrangement: Marie should go to work as a governess and help her sister with the money she managed to save so that Bronya could study medicine at the Sorbonne. When Bronya had taken her degree she, in her turn, would contribute to the cost of Marie's studies. So it was not until she was 24 that Marie came to Paris to study mathematics and physics. Bronya was now married to a doctor of Polish origin, and it was at Bronya's urgent invitation to come and live with them that Marie took the mensa education and research scholarship, step of practitioner application essay, leaving for Paris. By then she had been away from her studies for six years, nor had she had any training in understanding rapidly spoken French. But her keen interest in studying and her joy at being at the Sorbonne with all its opportunities helped her surmount all difficulties. Mensa And Research Essay Scholarship? To save herself a two-hours journey, she rented a little attic in essay on poor people the Quartier Latin.
There the cold was so intense that at night she had to pile on everything she had in the way of mensa education scholarship, clothing so as to be able to sleep. But as compensation for resume, all her privations she had total freedom to mensa education and research essay scholarship be able to about letter devote herself wholly to her studies. It was like a new world opened to me, the world of mensa, science, which I was at last permitted to know in all liberty, she writes. And it was France's leading mathematicians and physicists whom she was able to honoring our heroes go to hear, people with names we now encounter in the history of science: Marcel Brillouin, Paul Painlevé, Gabriel Lippmann, and Paul Appell. After two years, when she took her degree in physics in 1893, she headed the education and research, list of candidates and, in the following year, she came second in a degree in mathematics. After three years she had brilliantly passed examinations in physics and mathematics.
Her goal was to take a teacher's diploma and then to nurse application return to Poland. Marie Sklodowska, before she left for Paris. Now, however, there occurred an event that was to be of decisive importance in her life. She met Pierre Curie. He was 35 years, eight years older, and an internationally known physicist, but an outsider in the French scientific community - a serious idealist and mensa education and research essay scholarship dreamer whose greatest wish was to be able to devote his life to scientific work. He was completely indifferent to outward distinctions and a career. He earned a living as the head of a laboratory at the School of Industrial Physics and Chemistry where engineers were trained and he lived for his research into crystals and into the magnetic properties of bodies at different temperatures.
He had not attended one of the French elite schools but had been taught by his father, who was a physician, and by a private teacher. He passed his baccalaureat at nurse essay, the early age of 16 and at 21, with his brother Jacques, he had discovered piezoelectricity, which means that a difference in electrical potential is seen when mechanical stresses are applied on mensa and research scholarship, certain crystals, including quartz. Such crystals are now used in microphones, electronic apparatus and resume clocks. Marie, too, was an idealist; though outwardly shy and retiring, she was in reality energetic and single-minded. Pierre and Marie immediately discovered an intellectual affinity, which was very soon transformed into deeper feelings. Mensa And Research Scholarship? In July 1895, they were married at the town hall at Sceaux, where Pierre's parents lived. They were given money as a wedding present which they used to buy a bicycle for each of them, and long, sometimes adventurous, cycle rides became their way of relaxing. Their life was otherwise quietly monotonous, a life filled with work and study.
Persuaded by his father and by Marie, Pierre submitted his doctoral thesis in essay on poor 1895. It concerned various types of magnetism, and contained a presentation of the essay, connection between temperature and magnetism that is now known as Curie's Law. Essay? In 1896, Marie passed her teacher's diploma, coming first in her group. Mensa And Research Scholarship? Their daughter Irène was born in essay the scarlet September 1897. Pierre had managed to mensa education and research essay arrange that Marie should be allowed to work in the school's laboratory, and in essay 1897, she concluded a number of investigations into the magnetic properties of steel on education, behalf of an industrial association. Deciding after a time to go on doing research, Marie looked around for famous case on schizophrenia, a subject for mensa essay scholarship, a doctoral thesis. Becquerel's discovery had not aroused very much attention.
When, just a day or so after his discovery, he informed the famous studies, Monday meeting of l'Académie des Sciences , his colleagues listened politely, then went on to the next item on scholarship, the agenda. It was Röntgen's discovery and the possibilities it provided that were the focus of the interest and enthusiasm of researchers. Becquerel himself made certain important observations, for instance that gases through which the rays passed become able to essay conduct electricity, but he was soon to leave this field. Marie decided to make a systematic investigation of the mysterious uranium rays. She had an excellent aid at her disposal - an mensa and research scholarship, electrometer for the measurement of weak electrical currents, which was constructed by Pierre and are paper services his brother, and was based on the piezoelectric effect. Results were not long in coming.
Just after a few days, Marie discovered that thorium gives off the same rays as uranium. Her continued systematic studies of the various chemical compounds gave the surprising result that the strength of the radiation did not depend on the compound that was being studied. It depended only on the amount of uranium or thorium. Chemical compounds of the same element generally have very different chemical and education and research scholarship physical properties: one uranium compound is are paper writing, a dark powder, another is a transparent yellow crystal, but what was decisive for the radiation they gave off was only the amount of uranium they contained. Marie drew the conclusion that the ability to radiate did not depend on the arrangement of the atoms in a molecule, it must be linked to the interior of the atom itself. Education And Research? This discovery was absolutely revolutionary. From a conceptual point of view it is her most important contribution to the development of physics. She now went through the whole periodic system. Her findings were that only uranium and thorium gave off this radiation. Marie's next idea, seemingly simple but brilliant, was to study the natural ores that contain uranium and thorium.
She obtained samples from geological museums and found that of our heroes contest, these ores, pitchblende was four to five times more active than was motivated by the amount of uranium. Scholarship? It was her hypothesis that a new element that was considerably more active than uranium was present in on poor small amounts in the ore. Marie and Pierre - A Fruitful Collaboration. Fascinating new vistas were opening up. Pierre gave up his research into crystals and symmetry in nature which he was deeply involved in and joined Marie in her project.
They found that the strong activity came with the fractions containing bismuth or barium. When Marie continued her analysis of the mensa education essay scholarship, bismuth fractions, she found that every time she managed to case take away an amount of mensa education, bismuth, a residue with greater activity was left. Honoring Essay? At the end of June 1898, they had a substance that was about mensa and research essay, 300 times more strongly active than uranium. In the work they published in essay the scarlet July 1898, they write, We thus believe that the substance that we have extracted from pitchblende contains a metal never known before, akin to bismuth in its analytic properties. If the education and research essay, existence of this new metal is confirmed, we suggest that it should be called polonium after the name of the country of origin of one of us. It was also in this work that they used the term radioactivity for the first time. After another few months of work, the Curies informed the l'Académie des Sciences , on December 26, 1898, that they had demonstrated strong grounds for having come upon an additional very active substance that behaved chemically almost like pure barium. They suggested the name of radium for the new element. In order to honoring our heroes contest be certain of showing that it was a matter of education and research scholarship, new elements, the Curies would have to produce them in demonstrable amounts, determine their atomic weight and essay on poor preferably isolate them. To do so, the mensa and research essay scholarship, Curies would need tons of the essay about, costly pitchblende.
However, it was known that at the Joachimsthal mine in education and research scholarship Bohemia large slag-heaps had been left in the surrounding forests. Marie considered that radium ought to be left in the residue. A sample was sent to on poor them from Bohemia and education and research essay scholarship the slag was found to be even more active than the original mineral. Several tons of pitchblende was later put at are paper services, their disposal through the education, good offices of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. It was now that there began the heroic epoque in their life that has become legendary.
At this stage they needed more room, and essay on poor people the principal of the school where Pierre worked once again came to their aid. They could use a large shed which was not occupied. There the very laborious work of separation and analysis began. Marie carried out the education essay, chemical separations, Pierre undertook the measurements after each successive step. Physically it was heavy work for Marie. She processed 20 kilos of raw material at a time. First of famous, all she had to mensa and research essay scholarship clear away pine needles and any perceptible debris, then she had to undertake the work of separation. Sometimes I had to spend a whole day stirring a boiling mass with a heavy iron rod nearly as big as myself. Gaucholink Resume? I would be broken with fatigue at mensa education essay, day's end, she writes.
In a preface to Pierre Curie's collected works, Marie describes the shed as having a bituminous floor, and honoring our heroes a glass roof which provided incomplete protection against the rain, and essay where it was like a hothouse in the summer, draughty and cold in the winter; yet it was in that shed that they spent the best and happiest years of their lives. There they could devote themselves to famous studies on schizophrenia work the livelong day. Sometimes they could not do their processing outdoors, so the noxious gases had to essay be let out through the honoring contest, open windows. The only furniture were old, worn pine tables where Marie worked with her costly radium fractions. Since they did not have any shelter in which to store their precious products the latter were arranged on tables and boards. Marie could remember the joy they felt when they came into the shed at night, seeing from all sides the feebly luminous silhouettes of the products of their work. Education Essay? The dangerous gases of which Marie speaks contained, among other things, radon - the radioactive gas which is a matter of concern to us today since small amounts are emitted from essay on poor people, certain kinds of building materials. Wilhelm Ostwald, the highly respected German chemist, who was one of the mensa education, first to realize the importance of the Curies' research, traveled from Berlin to Paris to see how they worked.
Neither Pierre nor Marie was at home. He wrote: At my earnest request, I was shown the laboratory where radium had been discovered shortly before . It was a cross between a stable and a potato shed, and if I had not seen the worktable and items of chemical apparatus, I would have thought that I was been played a practical joke. Marie Presents Her Doctoral Thesis. At the same time as the Curies were engaged in their arduous work, each of nurse application essay, them had their teaching duties. From 1900 Marie had had a part-time teaching post at the École Normale Supérieur de Sèvres for girls. After thousands of crystallizations, Marie finally - from several tons of the original material - isolated one decigram of almost pure radium chloride and mensa and research essay scholarship had determined radium's atomic weight as 225. She presented the findings of this work in her doctoral thesis on June 25, 1903. Of the three members of the examination committee, two were to essay receive the Nobel Prize a few years later: Lippmann, her former teacher, in 1908 for physics, and education and research essay Moissan, in critical essay 1906 for mensa education and research, chemistry. The committee expressed the opinion that the findings represented the greatest scientific contribution ever made in a doctoral thesis. A little celebration in Marie's honour, was arranged in the evening by practitioner application essay, a research colleague, Paul Langevin.
The guests included Jean Perrin, a prominent professor at education scholarship, the Sorbonne, and Ernest Rutherford, who was then working in Canada but temporarily in Paris and are paper legal anxious to meet Marie Curie. He had good reason. His study of the deflection of radiation in magnetic fields had not met with success until he had been sent a strongly radioactive preparation by mensa education and research, the Curies. By that time he was already famous and was soon to be considered as the greatest experimental physicist of the day. It was a warmish evening and essay on poor people the group went out into the garden. Pierre had prepared an effective finale to the day. When they had all sat down, he drew from his waistcoat pocket a little tube, partly coated with zinc sulfide, which contained a quantity of radium salt in mensa and research essay solution. Famous? Suddenly the tube became luminous, lighting up the darkness, and mensa education scholarship the group stared at honoring contest, the display in wonder, quietly and solemnly.
But in mensa education essay the light from the tube, Rutherford saw that Pierre's fingers were scarred and inflamed and that he was finding it hard to hold the tube. A week earlier Marie and Pierre had been invited to the Royal Institution in London where Pierre gave a lecture. Before the crowded auditorium he showed how radium rapidly affected photographic plates wrapped in paper, how the substance gave off heat; in the semi-darkness he demonstrated the spectacular light effect. Essay About The Scarlet Letter? He described the medical tests he had tried out on and research essay scholarship, himself. He had wrapped a sample of radium salts in a thin rubber covering and bound it to his arm for ten hours, then had studied the wound, which resembled a burn, day by day. After 52 days a permanent grey scar remained. In that connection Pierre mentioned the possibility of radium being able to be used in the treatment of cancer. Essay? But Pierre's scarred hands shook so that once he happened to spill a little of the education and research essay, costly preparation. Fifty years afterwards the presence of radioactivity was discovered on our heroes essay contest, the premises and certain surfaces had to mensa be cleaned. In actual fact Pierre was ill. His legs shook so that at times he found it hard to stand upright.
He was in honoring essay much pain. He consulted a doctor who diagnosed neurasthenia and prescribed strychnine. And the skin on Marie's fingers was cracked and scarred. Both of them constantly suffered from fatigue. They evidently had no idea that radiation could have a detrimental effect on education essay, their general state of health. Pierre, who liked to say that radium had a million times stronger radioactivity than uranium, often carried a sample in his waistcoat pocket to show his friends. Marie liked to have a little radium salt by her bed that shone in the darkness. The papers they left behind them give off pronounced radioactivity.
If today at the Bibliothèque Nationale you want to consult the three black notebooks in which their work from December 1897 and the three following years is recorded, you have to case studies sign a certificate that you do so at your own risk. People will have to do this for a long time to come. In fact it takes 1,620 years before the activity of radium is reduced to a half. Rutherford was just as unsuspecting in regard to the hazards as were the Curies. When it turned out that one of mensa education essay, his colleagues who had worked with radioactive substances for several months was able to discharge an electroscope by exhaling, Rutherford expressed his delight. This confirmed his theory of the existence of airborne emanations. In view of the potential for the use of radium in medicine, factories began to be built in the USA for its large-scale production. The question came up of whether or not Marie and Pierre should apply for a patent for the production process. They were both against doing so.
Pure research should be carried out for case studies on schizophrenia, its own sake and mensa education must not become mixed up with industry's profit motive. Researchers should be disinterested and make their findings available to everyone. Marie and Pierre were generous in supplying their fellow researchers, Rutherford included, with the preparations they had so laboriously produced. They furnished industry with descriptions of the production process. In 1903, Marie and Pierre Curie were awarded half the Nobel Prize in honoring our heroes essay Physics. The citation was, in recognition of the extraordinary services they have rendered by their joint researches on the radiation phenomena discovered by Professor Henri Becquerel. Henri Becquerel was awarded the other half for his discovery of spontaneous radioactivity.
In a letter to mensa education scholarship the Swedish Academy of Sciences, Pierre explains that neither of them is able to come to Stockholm to receive the prize. They could not get away because of critical essay, their teaching obligations. Education And Research Scholarship? He adds, Mme Curie has been ill this summer and is not yet completely recovered. That was certainly true but his own health was no better. Not until June 1905 did they go to Stockholm, where Pierre gave a Nobel lecture.
At the prize award ceremony, the president of the Swedish Academy referred in his speech to the old proverb: union gives strength. He went on to quote from the people, Book of Genesis, It is not good that the mensa education essay, man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him. Although the Nobel Prize alleviated their financial worries, the Curies now suddenly found themselves the focus of the interest of the public and the press. Their seemingly romantic story, their labours in intolerable conditions, the remarkable new element which could disintegrate and give off heat from what was apparently an inexhaustible source, all these things made the reports into fairy-tales. At the center was Marie, a frail woman who with a gigantic wand had ground down tons of pitchblende in order to extract a tiny amount of a magical element. Even Le Figaro, otherwise a sensible newspaper, began with Once upon a time . They were pursued by resume, journalists from the whole world - a situation they could not deal with. Marie wrote, The shattering of our voluntary isolation was a cause of real suffering for mensa education and research, us and had all the effects of disaster. Pierre wrote in July 1905, A whole year has passed since I was able to honoring our heroes contest do any work . evidently I have not found the way of defending us against frittering away our time, and yet it is very necessary. It is education scholarship, a question of life or death from the intellectual point of nurse practitioner application, view.
But as Elisabeth Crawford emphasizes in mensa her book The Beginnings of the Nobel Institution , from the latter's viewpoint, the awarding of the 1903 Prize for Physics was masterly. Honoring Contest? Formerly, only the Prize for Literature and the Peace Prize had obtained wide press coverage; the Prizes for scientific subjects had been considered all too esoteric to be able to interest the general public. The commotion centered on the award of the Prize to the Curies, especially Marie Curie, aroused once and for all the curiosity of the press and the public. The work of researchers was exciting, their findings fascinating. The health of both Marie and Pierre Curie gave rise to concern. Their friends tried to make them work less. All their symptoms were ascribed to the drafty shed and to overexertion. Their dearest wish was to education essay scholarship have a new laboratory but no such laboratory was in honoring prospect. When Paul Appell, the dean of the faculty of education, sciences, appealed to Pierre to let his name be put forward as a recipient for the prestigious Legion of critical essay about the scarlet letter, Honor on mensa essay scholarship, July 14,1903, Pierre replied, . I do not feel the slightest need of being decorated, but I am in the greatest need of a laboratory. Although Pierre was given a chair at the Sorbonne in 1904 with the essay, promise of a laboratory, as late as 1906 it had still not begun to be built. Mensa And Research? Pierre was given access to some rooms in a building used for study by young medical students.
Pierre Curie never obtained a real laboratory. On April 19, 1906, Pierre Curie was run over by a horse-drawn wagon near the writing legal, Pont Neuf in Paris and education essay scholarship killed. On Poor? Now Marie was left alone with two daughters, Irène aged 9 and education scholarship Ève aged 2. Shock broke her down totally to begin with. Nurse Practitioner Essay? But even now she could draw on the toughness and perseverance that were fundamental aspects of her character. Mensa Education Scholarship? When she was offered a pension, she refused it: I am 38 and our heroes essay able to support myself, was her answer.
She was appointed to succeed Pierre as the head of the and research essay scholarship, laboratory, being undoubtedly most suitable, and to be responsible for his teaching duties. Honoring Contest? She thus became the mensa education scholarship, first woman ever appointed to teach at the Sorbonne. After some months, in November 1906, she gave her first lecture. The large amphitheater was packed. As well as students, her audience included people from far and near, journalists and photographers were in attendance. Many people had expected something unusual to occur. Perhaps some manifestation of the practitioner application essay, historic occasion. When Marie entered, thin, pale and tense, she was met by an ovation.
However the expectations of something other than a clear and factual lecture on physics were not fulfilled. But Marie's personality, her aura of education and research, simplicity and competence made a great impression. Irène was now 9 years old. Marie had definite ideas about the upbringing and honoring our heroes education of children that she now wanted to put into and research essay practice. Her circle of friends consisted of a small group of professors with children of school age.
Marie organized a private school with the parents themselves acting as teachers. A group of some ten children were accordingly taught only by prominent professors: Jean Perrin, Paul Langevin, Édouard Chavannes, a professor of writing services legal, Chinese, Henri Mouton from the Pasteur Institute, a sculptor was engaged for modeling and drawing. Marie took the view that scientific subjects should be taught at an early age but not according to a too rigid curriculum. It was important for children to be able to develop freely. Games and physical activities took up much of the time. Quite a lot of time was taken for travel, too, for the children had to mensa education and research essay travel to the homes of their teachers, to Marie at Sceaux or to Langevin's lessons in one of the Paris suburbs.
The little group became a kind of school for essay, the elite with a great emphasis on science. The children involved say that they have happy memories of that time. For Irène it was in those years that the foundation of her development into a researcher was laid. The educational experiment lasted two years. Subsequently the education essay, pupils had to prepare for their forthcoming baccalauréat exam and to follow the traditional educational programs. In 1908 Marie, as the first woman ever, was appointed to become a professor at the Sorbonne. She went on honoring contest, to produce several decigrams of mensa education and research essay scholarship, very pure radium chloride before finally, in legal collaboration with André Debierne, she was able to isolate radium in metallic form. André Debierne, who began as a laboratory assistant, became her faithful collaborator until her death and then succeeded her as head of the laboratory. In 1911 she was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
The citation by the Nobel Committee was, in recognition of her services to the advancement of chemistry by mensa and research essay scholarship, the discovery of the elements radium and polonium, by the isolation of radium and the study of the nature and compounds of critical about letter, this remarkable element. Now that the education essay scholarship, archives have been made available to the public, it is possible to study in detail the events surrounding the awarding of the two Prizes, in 1903 and 1911. In a letter in resume 1903, several members of the l'Académie des Sciences , including Henri Poincaré and Gaston Darboux, had nominated Becquerel and Pierre Curie for the Prize in Physics. Marie's name was not mentioned. This caused Gösta Mittag-Leffler, a professor of mathematics at Stockholm University College, to write to Pierre Curie. That letter has never survived but Pierre Curie's answer, dated August 6, 1903, has been preserved. He wrote, If it is true that one is seriously thinking about me (for the Prize), I very much wish to be considered together with Madame Curie with respect to our research on radioactive bodies. Drawing attention to the role she played in the discovery of radium and polonium, he added, Do you not think that it would be more satisfying from the and research essay, artistic point of view, if we were to be associated in this manner? (plus joli d'un point de vue artistique). Some biographers have questioned whether Marie deserved the Prize for Chemistry in 1911.
They have claimed that the discoveries of radium and polonium were part of the reason for the Prize in 1903, even though this was not stated explicitly. Marie was said to have been awarded the Prize again for the same discovery, the award possibly being an expression of gaucholink resume, sympathy for mensa and research essay, reasons that will be mentioned below. Actually, however, the legal, citation for the Prize in 1903 was worded deliberately with a view to a future Prize in Chemistry. Chemists considered that the discovery and isolation of radium was the greatest event in chemistry since the discovery of oxygen. Education And Research Essay? That for nurse practitioner, the first time in history it could be shown that an element could be transmuted into another element, revolutionized chemistry and education essay signified a new epoch. Despite the second Nobel Prize and an invitation to practitioner application essay the first Solvay Conference with the world's leading physicists, including Einstein, Poincaré and Planck, 1911 became a dark year in Marie's life. In two smear campaigns she was to experience the inconstancy of the French press. Mensa Education Scholarship? The first was started on 16 November 1910, when, by an article in essay Le Figaro , it became known that she was willing to and research scholarship be nominated for election to l'Académie des Sciences . Examples of factors other than merit deciding an election did exist, but Marie herself and her eminent research colleagues seemed to have considered that with her exceptionally brilliant scientific merits, her election was self-evident. Notwithstanding, it turned out that it was not merit that was decisive. The dark underlying currents of anti-Semitism, prejudice against critical essay about the scarlet, women, xenophobia and even anti-science attitudes that existed in French society came welling up to mensa and research scholarship the surface.
Normally the election was of essay contest, no interest to the press. And Research Essay Scholarship? The most rabid paper was the ultra-nationalistic and anti-Semitic L'Action Française , which was led by Léon Daudet, the studies on schizophrenia, son of the writer Alphonse Daudet. Dreyfus had got redress for his wrongs in 1906 and had been decorated with the Legion of Honour, but in mensa and research the eyes of the groups who had been against him during his trial, he was still guilty, was still the Jewish traitor. The pro-Dreyfus groups who had supported his cause were suspect and the scientists who were supporting Marie were among them. Jokes in bad taste alternated with outrageous accusations.
It was said that in resume her career, Pierre's research had given her a free ride. She came from Poland, though admittedly she was formally a Catholic but her name Sklodowska indicated that she might be of Jewish origin, and so on. Essay Scholarship? A week before the election, an opposing candidate, Édouard Branly, was launched. The vote on January 23, 1911 was taken in the presence of gaucholink, journalists, photographers and education and research essay hordes of the gaucholink resume, curious. The election took place in a tumultuous atmosphere. Education Essay Scholarship? In the first round Marie lost by are paper, one vote, in the second by two.
In all, fifty-eight votes were cast. Mensa And Research? A Nobel Prize in 1903 and are paper writing services support from prominent researchers such as Jean Perrin, Henri Poincaré, Paul Appell and the permanent secretary of the Académie , Gaston Darboux, were not sufficient to make the Académie open its doors. This event attracted international attention and indignation. It deeply wounded both Marie and indeed Édouard Branly, too, himself a well-merited researcher. However, Marie's tribulations were not at an end. When, at the beginning of November 1911, Marie went to Belgium, being invited with the world's most eminent physicists to education scholarship attend the honoring our heroes, first Solvay Conference, she received a message that a new campaign had started in mensa education the press.
Now it was a matter of her private life and her relations with her colleague Paul Langevin, who had also been invited to the conference. He had had marital problems for gaucholink resume, several years and had moved from his suburban home to a small apartment in Paris. Marie was depicted as the reason. Both were described in mensa essay slanderous terms. The scandal developed dramatically. Marie stands up in her own defence and managed to resume force an mensa education, apology from the newspaper Le Temps . The same day she received word from Stockholm that she had been awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
However, the very newspapers that made her a legend when she received the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1903, now completely ignored the fact that she had been awarded the legal, Prize in Chemistry or merely reported it in a few words on an inside page. The Langevin scandal escalated into a serious affair that shook the university world in mensa education essay scholarship Paris and the French government at the highest level. Nurse Practitioner Application Essay? Madame Langevin was preparing legal action to obtain custody of the four children. With a burglary in Langevin's apartment certain letters were stolen and delivered to the press. Léon Daudet made the whole thing into a new Dreyfus affair.
Day after day Marie had to run the mensa essay scholarship, gauntlet in the newspapers: an alien, a Polish woman, a researcher supported by are paper writing, our French scientists, had come and stolen an honest French woman's husband. Daudet quoted Fouquier-Tinville's notorious words that during the Revolution had sent the chemist Lavoisier to education essay the guillotine: The Republic does not need any scientists. Marie's friends immediately backed her up. Jean Perrin, Henri Poincaré and Émile Borel appealed to the publishers of the newspapers. Henri Poincaré's cousin, Raymond Poincaré, a senior lawyer who was to become President of France in services a few years time, was engaged as advisor. But the scandal kept up its impetus with headlines on the first pages such as Madame Curie, can she still remain a professor at the Sorbonne? With her children Marie stayed at Sceaux where she was practically a prisoner in her own home. Her friends feared that she would collapse. The drama culminated on the morning of 23 November when extracts from the letters were published in the newspaper L'Oeuvre . There was no proof of the accusations made against Marie and mensa the authenticity of the are paper writing, letters could be questioned but in the heated atmosphere there were few who thought clearly.
In her book Souvenirs et rencontres , Marguerite Borel gives a dramatic description of what happened. Émile Borel was extremely indignant and acted quickly. Marie had to be fetched from Sceaux and live with them until the storm was over. Marguerite and André Debierne went out to Sceaux where they found a hostile and scholarship angry crowd gathered outside Marie's home. Someone shouted, Go home to Poland. A stone hit the house.
Having managed to persuade Marie to go with them, they guided her, holding Ève by the hand, through the crowd. Marie sat stiff and deathly pale throughout their journey. Marguerite wanted to take her hand, but did not venture to do so. The Scarlet? On their return, Marie and Ève were installed in mensa education and research two rooms in the Borels' home. Henriette Perrin looks after Irène. But the Borels' home was owned by the École Normale Supérieure and essay Émile Borel was called up to the Minister of Education (Théodore Steeg, le ministre de l'Instruction publique) who informed him that he had no right to let Marie Curie stay in his home. It would cast a shadow on the École Normale . If Borel persisted in keeping his guest, he would be dismissed.
So be it then, I shall persist, was Borel's answer. For Marguerite Borel's part, she had to endure a stormy battle with her father, Paul Appell, then dean of the faculty at the Sorbonne. He was furious that the Borels have gotten mixed up in the matter. He revealed that with several other influential people he was planning an interview with Marie in order to request her to leave France: her situation in Paris was impossible. I have done everything for her, I have supported her candidature to the Académie , but I cannot hold back the flood now engulfing her. Marguerite replied, If you give in to that idiotic nationalist movement and insist that Marie should leave France, you will never see me any more. Appell, who was in the process of putting on his shoes, threw one of and research essay scholarship, them to hit the door - but the interview with Marie did not take place.
Langevin who had been repeatedly insulted, then felt forced to challenge Gustave Téry, the editor of the newspaper that printed the letters, to a duel. Fighting a duel was a usual way of obtaining satisfaction in gaucholink resume France at that time, although scarcely in academic circles. Newspaper publishers who had come up against each other in this dispute had already fought duels. Swords were generally used and a duellist was usually content with inflicting a thorough scratch on his opponent for the duel to be considered decided. But fatal accidents did in fact occur. Education And Research Scholarship? Langevin found it hard to find seconds, but managed to persuade Paul Painlevé, a mathematician and gaucholink later Prime Minister, and the director of the mensa and research, School of Physics and Chemistry.
The duel, with pistols at a distance of 25 meters, was to take place on the morning of essay about the scarlet, November 25. Painlevé, not being used to the routines, surprised everyone present by beginning to count in a loud voice unusually quickly: one, two, three. Téry did not raise his pistol. Langevin, who had first raised his, then lowered it. No shot was fired.
The journalists wrote about the silence and about the pigeons quietly feeding on education and research essay, the field. In the midst of all its gravity, the duel had turned into nurse a farce. However, the publication of the letters and mensa education and research essay the duel were too much for those responsible at essay, the Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm. Marie received a letter from a member, Svante Arrhenius, in which he said that the duel had given the impression that the education essay, published correspondence had not been falsified. He asked her to cable that she would not be coming to the prize award ceremony and to write him a letter to essay the effect that she did not want to accept the Prize until the Langevin court proceedings had shown that the accusations against her were absolutely without foundation. Of those most closely affected, the education and research essay scholarship, person who remained level-headed despite the enormous strain of the critical situation was in fact Marie herself. In a well-formulated and matter-of-fact reply, she pointed out that she had been awarded the Prize for her discovery of radium and polonium, and that she could not accept the principle that appreciation of the value of essay people, scientific work should be influenced by slander concerning a researcher's private life. On December 6, Langevin wrote a long letter to mensa education scholarship Svante Arrhenius, whom he had met previously. He described the whole situation, explained what circles were behind the smear campaign. He appealed to the Nobel Committee not to let it be influenced by are paper services legal, a campaign which was fundamentally unjust. Nor, in fact, was it so influenced.
Marie gathered all her strength and gave her Nobel lecture on mensa scholarship, December 11 in Stockholm. The lecture should be read in the light of what she had gone through. She made clear by her choice of resume, words what were unequivocally her contributions in the collaboration with Pierre. And Research Scholarship? She spoke of the field of research which I have called radioactivity and my hypothesis that radioactivity is an atomic property, but without detracting from his contributions. She declared that she also regarded this Prize as a tribute to Pierre Curie. However, this enormous effort completely drained her of all her strength. She sank into a depressed state.
On December 29, she was taken to a hospital whose location was kept secret for her protection. When she had recovered to some extent, she traveled to England, where a friend, the physicist Hertha Ayrton, looked after her and saw that the press was kept away. A whole year passed before she could work as she had done before. In her book, Marguerite Borel quotes Jean Perrin's words, 'But for the five of us who stood up for people, Marie Curie against education, a whole world when a landslide of filth engulfed her, Marie would have returned to Poland and we would have been marked by eternal shame.' The five were Jean and essay on poor Henriette Perrin, Émile and Marguerite Borel and André Debierne. Legal proceedings were never taken. Langevin and his wife reached a settlement on 9 December without Marie's name being mentioned. We shall never know with any certainty what was the mensa education scholarship, nature of the relationship between Marie Curie and Paul Langevin. It is referred to by Paul Langevin's son, André Langevin, in his biography of his father, which was published in 1971. He writes, Is it not rather natural that friendship and mutual admiration several years after Pierre's death could develop step by step into critical about the scarlet a passion and a relationship? It can be added as a footnote that Paul Langevin's grandson, Michel (now deceased), and Marie's granddaughter, Hélène, later married. Mensa? Hélène Langevin-Joliot is a nuclear physicist and has made a close study of Marie and Pierre Curie's notebooks so as to obtain a picture of how their collaboration functioned.
Marie had opened up a completely new field of research: radioactivity. Various aspects of it were being studied all over the world. Honoring Our Heroes Contest? In Uppsala Daniel Strömholm, professor of chemistry, and The Svedberg, then associate professor, investigated the chemistry of the radioactive elements. In 1909 they were close to the discovery of isotopes. However it was the British physicist Frederick Soddy who in the following year, finally clarified the concept of isotopes. Marie's laboratory became the mensa scholarship, Mecca for radium research. Eva Ramstedt, who took a doctorate in physics in Uppsala in 1910, studied with Marie Curie in 1910-11 and was later associate professor in radiology at honoring, Stockholm University College in 1915-32. The Norwegian chemist Ellen Gleditsch worked with Marie Curie in education and research essay 1907-1912. When, in 1914, Marie was in the process of beginning to lead one of the departments in gaucholink the Radium Institute established jointly by the University of Paris and the Pasteur Institute, the mensa education, First World War broke out. Marie placed her two daughters, Irène aged 17 and Ève aged 10, in safety in services Brittany. She herself took a train to Bordeaux, a train overloaded with people leaving Paris for mensa scholarship, a safer refuge.
But Marie had a different reason for her journey. She had with her a heavy, 20-kg lead container in which she had placed her valuable radium. Once in Bordeaux the other passengers rushed away to their various destinations. Essay People? She remained standing there with her heavy bag which she did not have the strength to carry without assistance. Some official finally helped her find a room where she slept with her heavy bag by her bed. The next day, having had the bag taken to a bank vault, she took a train back to mensa scholarship Paris. It was now crowded to bursting point with soldiers. Throughout the war she was engaged intensively in equipping more than 20 vans that acted as mobile field hospitals and about 200 fixed installations with X-ray apparatus. Marie driving one of the radiology cars in the scarlet letter 1917. Marie Sklodowska Curie Museum.
She trained young women in and research essay simple X-ray technology, she herself drove one of the vans and gaucholink took an active part in locating metal splinters. Sometimes she found she had to give the doctors lessons in mensa education scholarship elementary geometry. Irène, when 18, became involved, and in the primitive conditions both of them were exposed to large doses of radiation. After the application essay, Peace Treaty in mensa education and research essay scholarship 1918, her Radium Institute, which had been completed in 1914, could now be opened. It became France's most internationally celebrated research institute in the inter-war years. Even so, as her French biographer Françoise Giroud points out, the people, French state did not do much in education and research essay scholarship the way of supporting her. In the USA radium was manufactured industrially but at people, a price which Marie could not afford. She had to devote a lot of education and research, time to fund-raising for essay, her Institute.
She also became deeply involved when she had become a member of the Commission for Intellectual Cooperation of the League of Nations and served as its vice-president for a time. Essay Scholarship? She frequently took part in its meetings in Geneva, where she also met the Swedish delegate, Anna Wicksell. Marie regularly refused all those who wanted to interview her. However, a prominent American female journalist, Marie Maloney, known as Missy, who for are paper, a long time had admired Marie, managed to meet her. This meeting became of and research scholarship, great importance to them both. Marie told Missy that researchers in the USA had some 50 grams of radium at their disposal. And in France, then? asked Missy. Resume? My laboratory has scarcely more than one gram, was Marie's answer. But you ought to have all the resources in scholarship the world to people continue with your research. Someone must see to mensa scholarship that, Missy said. Essay? But who? was Marie's reply in a resigned tone.
The women of America, promised Missy. Missy, like Marie herself, had an essay scholarship, enormous strength and strong inner stamina under a frail exterior. She now arranged one of the largest and most successful research-funding campaigns the world has seen. First of essay about the scarlet, all she got the New York papers to mensa and research essay scholarship promise not to print a word on the Langevin affair and - so as to honoring essay contest feel safe - unbelievably enough managed to take over all their material on the Langevin affair. Due to mensa and research essay scholarship the press, Marie became enormously popular in America, and everyone seemed to want to gaucholink resume meet her - the great Madame Curie. Missy had to struggle hard to get Marie to accept a program for her visit on a par with the campaign. Finally, she had to turn to Paul Appell, now the university chancellor, to persuade Marie. Education And Research Scholarship? In spite of her diffidence and distaste for publicity, Marie agreed to go to America to receive the gift - a single gram of radium - from the hand of President Warren Harding. I understand that it will be of the are paper writing legal, greatest value for my Institute, she wrote to Missy. When all this became known in scholarship France, the paper Je sais tout arranged a gala performance at the Paris Opera. It was attended by the most prominent personalities in France, including Aristide Briand, then Foreign Minister, who was later, in 1926, to critical about receive the Nobel Peace Prize.
Jean Perrin made a speech about Marie's contribution and education and research essay scholarship the promises for the future that her discoveries gave. The great Sarah Bernhardt read an Ode to Madame Curie with allusions to are paper services her as the sister of Prometheus. Essay Scholarship? After being dragged through the mud ten years before, she had become a modern Jeanne d'Arc. Missy Maloney, Irène, Marie and Ève Curie in the USA. Photo kindly provided by William Brown Maloney Papers, Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Columbia University, USA. Missy had undertaken that everything would be arranged to cause Marie the least possible effort. In spite of this Marie had to honoring our heroes essay contest attend innumerable receptions and education and research scholarship do a round of American universities. Outwardly the trip was one great triumphal procession. She became the recipient of some twenty distinctions in the form of honorary doctorates, medals and membership in academies. Great crowds paid homage to her.
But for Marie herself, this was torment. Where possible, she had her two daughters represent her. Marie and Missy became close friends. The inexhaustible Missy organized further collections for one gram of radium for an institute which Marie had helped found in Warsaw. Marie's second journey to America ended only a few days before the nurse practitioner application essay, great stock exchange crash in mensa and research essay scholarship 1929. In the last ten years of her life, Marie had the critical the scarlet, joy of seeing her daughter Irène and her son-in-law Frédéric Joliot do successful research in the laboratory. She lived to see their discovery of artificial radioactivity, but not to education essay hear that they had been awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for it in 1935. Marie Curie died of leukemia on July 4, 1934. It is worth mentioning that the new discoveries at the end of the nineteenth century became of importance also for the breakthrough of modern art. X-ray photography focused art on the invisible. The human body became dissolved in a shimmering mist.
Wassily Kandinsky, one of the pioneers of abstract painting, wrote about about the scarlet letter, radioactivity in mensa education and research his autobiographical notes from 1901-13. He claimed that in his soul the decay of the atom was synonymous with the decay of the whole world. The thickest walls had suddenly collapsed. Everything had become uncertain, unsteady and fluid. He would not have been surprised if a stone had been pulverized in the air before him and critical essay become invisible. For the mensa education and research essay scholarship, physicists of Marie Curie's day, the new discoveries were no less revolutionary. Although admittedly the world did not decay, what nevertheless did was the gaucholink resume, classical, deterministic view of the world. Radioactive decay, that heat is given off from an invisible and apparently inexhaustible source, that radioactive elements are transformed into new elements just as in the ancient dreams of alchemists of the possibility of making gold, all these things contravened the most entrenched principles of mensa education essay scholarship, classical physics. For radioactivity to essay on poor be understood, the development of quantum mechanics was required. But it should be noted that the birth of quantum mechanics was not initiated by the study of education and research essay, radioactivity but by Max Planck's study of radiation from a black body in 1900.
It was an old field that was not the object of the same interest and publicity as the new spectacular discoveries. It was not until 1928, more than a quarter of a century later, that the studies on schizophrenia, type of radioactivity that is called alpha-decay obtained its theoretical explanation. It is an example of the tunnel effect in quantum mechanics. Much has changed in the conditions under which researchers work since Marie and Pierre Curie worked in a drafty shed and mensa refused to consider taking out case on schizophrenia a patent as being incompatible with their view of the role of researchers; a patent would nevertheless have facilitated their research and spared their health. But in one respect, the situation remains unchanged.
Nature holds on mensa education scholarship, just as hard to its really profound secrets, and famous studies it is just as difficult to predict where the answers to fundamental questions are to be found. Appell, Paul (1855-1930), mathematician. Arrhenius, Svante (1859-1927), Nobel Prize in education essay Chemistry 1903. Ayrton, Hertha (1854-1923), English physicist. Becquerel, Henri (1852-1908), Nobel Prize in Physics 1903.
Borel, Émile (1871-1956), mathematician. Borel, Marguerite, author, married to Émile Borel. Branly, Édouard (1844-1940), physicist. Briand, Aristide (1862-1932), eminent French statesman, Nobel Peace Prize 1926. Brillouin, Marcel (1854-1948), theoretical physicist. Darboux, Gaston (1842-1917), mathematician.
Daudet, Léon (1867-1942), editor of L'Action Française. Debierne, André (1874-1949), Marie Curie's colleague for many years. Einstein, Albert (1879-1955), Nobel Prize in Physics 1921. Giroud, Françoise (1916- ), author, former minister. Gleditsch, Ellen (1879-1968), chemist.
Hertz, Heinrich (1857-1894), physicist. Langevin, Paul (1872-1946), physicist. Lippmann, Gabriel (1845-1921), Nobel Prize in Physics 1908. Marconi, Guglielmo (1874-1937), Nobel Prize in Physics 1909. Mittag-Leffler, Gösta (1846-1927), mathematician. Moissan, Henri (1852-1907), Nobel Prize in writing services legal Chemistry 1906. Ostwald, Wilhelm (1853-1932), Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1909. Painlevé, Paul (1863-1933), mathematician. Perrin, Jean (1870-1942) Nobel Prize in mensa education and research essay Physics 1926. Planck, Max (1858-1947), Nobel Prize in Physics 1918. Poincaré, Henri (1854-1912), mathematician, philosopher.
Poincaré, Raymond (1860-1934), lawyer (president 1913-1920) Ramstedt, Eva (1879-1974), physicist. Rutherford, Ernest (1871-1937), Nobel Prize in contest Chemistry 1908. Soddy, Frederick (1877-1956), Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1921. Strömholm, Daniel (1871-1961), chemist, professor at mensa essay, Uppsala University. Svedberg, The (1884-1971), Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1926. Bensuade-Vincent, Bernadette, Marie Curie, femme de science et de légende , Reveu du Palais de la découverte, Vol. 16. Honoring Our Heroes Essay? n 157 avril 1988, 15-30. Muzeum Marii Curie-Sklodowskiej.
(Polskie Towarzystwo Chemiczne) 00-227 Warsawa, ul. Freta 16. tel: 48-22-31 80 92. fax: 48-22-31 13 04. Contact person: Malgorzata Sobieszczak-Marciniak. * Originally delivered as a lecture at the Royal Swedish Academy of education and research essay, Sciences in Stockholm, Sweden, on February 28, 1996. Translation from Swedish to English by Nancy Marshall-Lundén.
First published 1 December 1996. MLA style: Marie and Pierre Curie and the Discovery of Polonium and Radium. Nobelprize.org. Nobel Media AB 2014. Web. 3 Oct 2017. http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/themes/physics/curie/
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Strangers and Friends, Immigration and Power, in mensa and research scholarship the film The Visitor. (for Tom Buckman) Each human existence bears relation to history, and to the culture and politics of essay the scarlet its time. In the film The Visitor , an alienated American man of European descent encounters immigrants, from Syria and Senegal; and his assumptions are challenged and his life enriched. The American man is educated, knows about history, culture, and politics, but his own life seems to lack joy and wisdom. There are a lot of paintings in his Connecticut house and New York apartment, but they do not seem to speak to him, nor does the classical European music he is inclined toward seem to speak to him: and he is a lonely figure, until he meets the strangers who become his friends, one of whom introduces him to new music. The principal crisis in the film involves the incarceration of the Syrian musician due to his immigration status. The film The Visitor , directed by Tom McCarthy, allows its appreciative viewers to contemplate the pleasure and rigor of music; the unpredictability of friendship; the indifference of education scholarship bureaucratic power; the limits of white male privilege; and the irresolvable nature of human experience. One contemplates indifference and sympathy, grief and pleasure, suspicion and recognition, and anger and pain; and essay the scarlet letter the film gives us a story that does not end and yet seems complete. Mensa Scholarship! Tom McCarthy, who directed the writing services, film The Station Agent , presents in The Visitor a New York that is recognizable to me, a New York of different cultures and classes, of people of differing ages; and yet it is a film that, because it does so, because it does so with depth, seems, somehow, foreign. Part I, in 5 fragments 1.
The pleasure and rigor of music. The central character in the film, Walter, an economics professor and the husband of a pianist who has died, a pianist whose piano remains in the house and whose music remains a part of education and research scholarship his listening, tries to learn how to play piano, though he has no talent for it. Practitioner Essay! He seems not to and research essay scholarship, have the discipline, the gift, or the genuine pleasure required for playing the piano; and he seems compelled by duty or nostalgia to practice, to learn. It is as if he is being true to his wife by doing what she loved, by case studies on schizophrenia, carrying on education essay her devotion. It is an understandable but shallow commitment (he is trying to observe the form rather than the spirit of her commitment). The film begins with piano music (its score), and a man, Walter, at the window of a pleasant, private home—alone, anticipating, possibly anxious: he is honoring our heroes essay contest, not young, and and research he may be waiting for his life to gaucholink, begin anew.
He is, in fact, waiting for his piano teacher, his fifth teacher, following his pianist wife’s death. (He is trying to keep the past alive; and in some of the early scenes he is photographed, often, in the dark.) Walter cannot even hold his playing hands properly, and after his teacher resorts to a simple metaphor, telling him to education and research essay, hold his hands curved so as to leave space for the train (and using a pencil as the stand-in for the train going through a tunnel, an image that might have a sexual connotation), he decides to end his lessons with her. However, over the course of the film, Walter does come to music: when he arrives in New York for an economics conference and finds an immigrant couple living in his apartment, he befriends them; and are paper services the male in the couple, Tarek, is a drummer (his mother is mensa, Palestinian and he grew up first in Syria), and Tarek plays the djembe, an African drum. Studies On Schizophrenia! Walter finds himself attracted to mensa education essay, the energy and rhythm of legal drumming—not only in Tarek’s playing but in that of strangers he sees in Washington Square Park (black men ferociously playing, using plastic cans as drums: creativity transcends circumstance). Tarek begins to give Walter lessons; and despite whatever small foreboding Walter feels—the drum is a new instrument for Walter; and the people Tarek introduces him to mensa education, are often of a culture different from Walter’s (middle-eastern, African, or African-American)—Walter allows the music to transform him into a musician and into a participant in other people’s lives. (It is interesting that when Walter first hears Tarek play in a club, Walter listens while Tarek’s girlfriend draws new designs for the jewelry she makes, jewelry she sells to nice, ignorant Americans, who seem like tourists in parts of the people, city: is she inspired by the music; or is she ignoring the music?) One of the most captivating scenes in the film is of Tarek and Walter playing as part of a drum line in Central Park, a scene of casual community and spontaneous spirit. Another involves a prison visit, in education scholarship which Tarek plays a beat against resume, his chest and Walter drums on a table—an inventive intimacy and unpredictable beauty. The film could be about how music is born, out of education scholarship loneliness and love, out of famous case practice and improvisation—since all we see seems to converge with Walter’s playing. The unpredictability of friendship. Walter is mensa and research essay, inclined to communicate with others from a position of authority and distance, when we first observe him.
As an established professor, a longtime teacher with three published books to his name and resume a respectable reputation, he can coast on his reputation—teaching only mensa essay scholarship one class, supposedly to concentrate on a book; and on poor not actually doing work on a book, though no one seems to pursue that fact. It is surprising at the beginning of the film, seeing what a difficult piano pupil (if not bad student) Walter is, to and research essay, learn that he himself is a teacher, an economics professor; and just as he is a difficult student he is a difficult teacher, refusing to accept excuses for late papers even though he himself has not given his students a syllabus for his course. He is nurse practitioner application essay, a man alone, adrift, when the film begins. He has allowed his name to be used as co-author of a colleague’s paper, part of his and his college’s support for her tenure quest; and when that colleague’s pregnancy requires bed rest, forbidding her from going to a New York conference, he attends in her place; and, there, the drama commences. Walter lives in a way that doesn’t allow him to be significantly challenged, until he meets the immigrant couple, whose love, whose precarious existence (in terms of money and housing and citizenship), and education scholarship whose music begin to engage him. Walter arrives, initially, in critical essay the scarlet his New York apartment with a wine bottle in mensa and research scholarship hand, along with his suitcases (we have seen him drinking alone in his Connecticut house). Are Paper Writing Services Legal! He notices fresh flowers and mensa and research essay a portable table he does not recognize.
After all realize that the immigrant couple have been renting Walter’s apartment for two months from someone he does not know (illegally; a scam), Walter allows them into his life—and with simple activities (shared meals, listening to Tarek perform his music in a nightclub and then practicing with Tarek), Walter does become a friend to them, not only in appearance or in word but in deed. The couple may remind him a little of himself and his wife (a photograph of essay them together, a souvenir of education and research a past moment, seems to be what reminds him). About The Scarlet! Walter cares about the couple, he shares his resources, and he tries to help them. Walter’s work on economics touches on issues of international relations; and and research essay Walter’s life now embodies that concern. When Tarek is arrested, it is Walter who arranges for nurse practitioner essay, a lawyer, an efficient Queens-born lawyer of middle-eastern descent, and Walter visits Tarek. With friendship, the couple allows Walter to become a more complete human being again. The indifference of bureaucratic power. Early in the film, as Walter drives from Connecticut to New York, to education and research essay scholarship, deliver the paper he has supposedly co-authored, there is nurse, a “support our troops” sign on the highway. The sign is a reflexive affirmation of patriotism, presumptuous, the kind of thing—loyalty, obligation—that governments count on; and it gestures toward American soldiers fighting in Iraq, after the unrelated (or speciously related) September 11, 2001 world trade center attack. The question is not only, What do we owe our government and its mandates; but, also, What is owed to us?
Taking the subway, Tarek uses his train card to allow Walter through and is himself entangled in the turnstile, and policemen, waiting and education and research watching policemen, accuse him of jumping the turnstile, of fare-beating, and arrest him: their response to our heroes contest, Tarek is mensa education and research scholarship, cold and suspicious, and, of course, when he is brought to the police precinct and it is learned that his status is not by gaucholink, law, he is detained. Essay! (Fear of terrorists makes middle-eastern men particularly suspect, though as Tarek says, terrorists have money and gaucholink support and are not vulnerable as he is.) Even with the lawyer Walter has hired, Tarek remains vulnerable to government whim; and subject to deportation without concern for his preferences or relationships. Mensa! The irony is that Tarek’s father had been a journalist, and had run afoul of Syrian authorities, and was jailed; and by the time his father was freed the man was too sick to live: the gaucholink resume, way power works is scholarship, often the same, no matter where one finds one’s self (the land of refuge is no refuge). The limits of white male privilege. On Poor! Walter uses his authority against mensa education and research essay scholarship, a student (refusing to accept a paper) and against Tarek’s mother (refusing to describe his proposed book); and both are moments of insensitive power, lacking concern for are paper legal, the feeling or the need of the essay, other person. Walter’s increasing friendship with Tarek and with Tarek’s mother softens his responses, but, despite Walter’s hospitality to both, his private hospitality, Walter’s empathy and his money do not protect Tarek when it matters most, in his dealings with public or political power. Walter assures Tarek’s girlfriend, Zainab, that they will be able to get Tarek out of detention. Why wouldn’t Walter think that? How often has his own citizenship, his own white male privilege—his money, his security, his status—helped him to get out of critical essay about the scarlet letter or remain out of and research scholarship difficulties? Walter visits Tarek in detention, in an obscure part of essay letter town (a space on the margins, apart from the main life of the city).
Walter encounters a bureaucracy, and an indifference to mensa education, human individuality and gaucholink resume reasons, he would not have been faced with otherwise. In the prison, there is no privacy, and the lights are always on; and babies and letters are raised to the glass partition by visitors for viewing by detainees. Education Essay Scholarship! Control and surveillance are constants. It is humiliating for honoring our heroes essay, an individual, and shattering for mensa essay scholarship, relationships. Walter learns the famous case, limits of his own power: neither the lawyer that Walter has hired nor Walter’s direct (intellectual, emotional, moral) appeal helps Tarek. The rules regarding the powerless, such as Tarek, are what they are. What is ironic is that the guards in the detention center are African-American: so, blacks get to exert a power against foreigners that is otherwise turned against them. (The vulnerability of the immigrants is mensa education essay scholarship, devastating, but they are also uniquely alive, partly because of it: their joys and gaucholink griefs are vivid.) And, when, at one point, Walter confesses to Tarek’s mother Mouna that Walter’s own work is not important—that he doesn’t care about teaching and is not actively writing a book—it is a confession of the now false basis of the assumptions of Walter’s personal authority: it clarifies and diminishes his social power but amplifies his personal appeal—he has become more honest, more human. Scholarship! (To what extent is this another “education of the white man” film?) Walter’s growth is an important step (the film will conclude with Walter embracing passion and leaving behind false privilege); and Walter’s growth is not enough. The irresolvable nature of gaucholink human experience. Tarek is charismatic and confident, but his prison experience humiliates him, and challenges his sense of self and essay scholarship safety (his scenes of anger, fear, and pain are quite believable).
It is hard for the self to be stable if one’s circumstances are not stable. Tarek’s girlfriend Zainab is a more challenging personality: distrustful, haughty, and with sorrow and possibly anger beneath her disdain. She can be alienating, until one realizes her situation (her illegal immigrant status; and nurse essay why she needs to protect her privacy) and the motive for her behavior is quite clear. (She herself had been in detention for five months, when she first arrived.) She, as part of her ordinary activity, is forced to know more, to consider more, than someone like Walter does in his own daily life. Mensa Education Essay! After Tarek is taken into custody, she remains concerned but there are limits on how she can express that concern, for fear of being arrested too. (The girlfriend has a sense of essay about the scarlet letter propriety: not long after Tarek’s arrest, she moves out, going to stay with a friend in the Bronx—possibly for her personal safety and to and research essay scholarship, maintain a suitable distance between herself and Walter.) When Tarek’s mother arrives, she—also illegal—wants to know more about her son’s life and to be close to him, though she, too, faces constraints. She, Mouna, has come because her son has not called her in five days, and are paper is not answering his cell phone; and education and research scholarship she wants to see where he is being held, and know something of on poor what gave him pleasure. She wants to remain in New York, though she has no associates of her own in town. Education Scholarship! Walter welcomes Mouna; and they share meals and buy each other a preferred newspaper; and Mouna likes the music of are paper writing legal Walter’s deceased wife as well, and tells Walter that she, Mouna, likes the mensa education scholarship, Broadway music her son Tarek had sent her (cultural appreciation works both ways). Mouna is surprised by Tarek’s girlfriend’s blackness, and accepts her; and the two women in Tarek’s life share tea and conversation and worry. (The mother is both warm and contest formal, speaking in essay scholarship a way that is direct and halting; and honoring contest as the film continues she is a whole person, sweet and wise, and with her own secrets and yearnings.) Walter, the girlfriend, and mensa essay mother go on the Staten Island ferry, something Tarek enjoyed: and landmarks are pointed out, the absent twin towers of the world trade center, and the Liberty statue.
Their individual personalities, and the terms of their existence, all question something fundamental about the political order; but, I wonder, as I’ve wondered elsewhere, if people of about the scarlet color are allowed only political existence and political meaning? Feelings exist, despite social restrictions: as always; and the feelings we see in the film are complex—and they are not comforting. The film The Visitor , which begins with a man waiting for a music lesson and and research essay scholarship finishes with him playing music, does something a bit quaint, and always necessary: it allows us to resume, be part of a complete experience. Mensa Education And Research Essay Scholarship! I had not seen a new film in months, and though I have an are paper services inordinate affection for movies, thinking that I could see almost anything, I knew that I could find myself in a theater miserable and angry, repelled by the movements on the screen, and, consequently, I tried to education and research essay scholarship, be careful about my choice. The things that were being said about The Visitor made the film seem like something I might like; and luckily I did like it. The Visitor shows a world that is familiar to me; and yet it is a world that seemed strange in essay contest the cinema: the scholarship, film deals with a world of people vulnerable to famous case, chance and to power, and scholarship the film’s attention to character, to social complexity, and to nurse, irresolvable realities renders it a strange work. It is rare to see these people and acts, these emotions and ideas, in an American film; and there were moments when I thought I was watching a film from another country. The actors in mensa essay The Visitor are all remarkable; and the people in the film become understandable to us because of them. Richard Jenkins, as Walter, conveys coldness and decency, enthusiasm and our heroes contest self-restraint.
Hiam Abbass, as Tarek’s mother Mouna, creates a character that is sensitive, focused, smart, and vulnerable. The actress, Danai Gurira, playing the girlfriend, Zainab, can seem quick to anger or sadden and can look almost impersonally beautiful or ugly. The actor playing Tarek, Haaz Sleiman, is just perfect; and if there is any justice in education and research cinema, he will make many films. Haaz Sleiman’s Tarek could teach a corpse to dance. What else might Walter do with what he has learned? How might he write or teach differently? Is the answer, really, for each of us to become a musician or an artist? That The Visitor leaves us with significant questions is an achievement of art, and a compliment to application essay, our intelligence. It is not simply a work that entertains our eyes and our nerves, as is mensa education essay scholarship, much of what Hollywood produces. Resume! (I saw the mensa education and research, film a few days before seeing a museum screening of Francois Ozon’s Under the Sand , which was similar to The Visitor in that its story seemed simple yet revealed complexity of character and situation the services, way literature might: in Under the Sand , a contented woman’s possibly unhappy husband disappears at the beach and she refuses to admit he may have drowned. In Under the Sand , Charlotte Rampling, who is aging beautifully, creates a woman whose life has been perfect until the and research, foundation of that life disappears; a woman in whom both reason and essay on poor madness, and humility and anger, begin to reside.) When The Visitor appeared as part of the Toronto International Film festival, the Hollywood Reporter ’s Kirk Honeycutt wrote that director Tom McCarthy “is a terrific storyteller, letting characters move into a story so naturally that the story develops and deepens his characters while their actions and behavior propel the story” ( The Hollywood Reporter , September 12, 2007). Kirk Honeycutt commended the director’s visual artistry, how he placed Richard Jenkins in large spaces and and research essay crowds in Connecticut and more intimately in studies on schizophrenia New York, suggesting a greater humanity. “He both uses real locations unselfconsciously and discovers their pockets of poetry,” asserted Michael Sragow ( The Baltimore Sun , April 25, 2008).
Truly, while watching the film I kept wondering whether it was a difficult film to make. The attractive, comfortable homes that looked lived in and the inviting cafes, as well as the trash blowing on the streets in one place, and the two trains moving behind the characters (criss-crossing the tracks) in mensa and research essay scholarship another, suggested verisimilitude: how much conscious choice went into what I was seeing? The director presents a believable world in which his people live; and his people breathe, think, feel, and live, and live naturally, in that world. “Jenkins is extraordinary here, not because he does anything big, but because everything he does is essay contest, so economical and mensa and research essay scholarship intuitive,” wrote Stephanie Zacharek in Salon (April 11, 2008). (“He’s always hesitating to do what turns out to be the right thing,” astutely observed the Baltimore Sun ’s Michael Sragow of Walter.) Haaz Sleiman’s character Tarek was described as a bridge “between the taciturn Walter and the always wary Zainab” by our heroes, Variety ’s John Anderson (September 9, 2007); and mensa education and research essay scholarship it is a bridge that one can see more easily in art than in similar situations in life. Essay About The Scarlet! (The film can be a bridge for mensa education essay, us between different kinds of experiences.) How else are many of us to learn about the strangers in our midst? Often, the crudest explanations for other people’s choices and lives are given in our daily lives; and art, such as The Visitor , can help us to resist that stupidity. When Walter first arrived in writing legal his New York apartment for mensa and research essay, the conference his dean compelled him to attend, and found strangers living there, he might have allowed, or forced, the immigrant couple to leave his apartment and not return, just as many of us turn our faces from strangers in need. “I knew I liked this movie when a single cut shows Tarek and Zainab back in Walter’s apartment. McCarthy could have shown us Walter changing his mind and the three of them trudging back to services legal, his place. But the vagueness of their return is actually beautiful in its simplicity,” wrote Wesley Morris of The Boston Globe (April 18, 2008). Many of us fear kindness will be exploited: sometimes it is. By showing us an unplanned kindness, the film allows us to intuit its motive and nature.
Sometimes our safe isolation is mensa and research scholarship, a living death, as it might be for Walter in The Visitor . Wesley Morris called the film “a melodrama whose dam respectfully refuses breaks.” The film is more likely to register emotion rather than to exploit it. “It’s a film about nurse application essay, relationships, their randomness and unpredictability, and mensa education what happens when bureaucracy attempts to make life conform to its rigid, parochial and often ignorant standards,” declared Carina Chocano, who called Haaz Sleiman “radiant,” creating a character with “uncommon warmth, openness, and humanity” ( The Los Angeles Times , April 11, 2008). Individuals may be able to achieve a freedom and an understanding that it takes institutions longer, if ever, to find; and Tarek is himself an embodiment of many good things. Tarek is an easily seductive character, one not every actor can play: “He loves his art, he loves his life, and he tends to resist acknowledging the nurse practitioner application essay, daily risks” of his illegal status, wrote Cynthia Fuchs of PopMatters.com (April 17, 2008). Tarek seems free; and that makes his imprisonment truly felt. Yet, the film has not been welcomed by all: what is? Peter Rainer was skeptical in The Christian Science Monitor (April 11, 2008), wondering about the likelihood of Walter allowing two strangers to stay with him in his apartment; and about the and research essay scholarship, need for a dull, pale man to need the spiritual rehabilitation of people of color. Rainer did appreciate that “the most emotionally piercing moments in the movie belong not to Walter but to Zainab, who cannot even visit Tarek at the immigration detention center for fear of being arrested herself. Zainab is prideful and ferocious but, faced with the loss of critical essay the scarlet her love, she seems to collapse in on herself. Mensa! Gurira is famous case studies on schizophrenia, a marvelous actress who can express more in a glance than most performers can with a full monologue. Abbass, too, has a melancholic dignity that reaches out to us.” Rainer may err on the side of pessimism rather than optimism (sometimes what seems true to people is what seems to negatively implicate humanity). It depends how one reads his comment: is Rainer rejecting idealism or rejecting a stereotype?
Rainer’s reservations were shared by Cynthia Fuchs of PopMatters (April 17, 2008): “Walter’s education is education essay, achieved by his engagement with this set of honoring our heroes essay contest brown and black people. And Research! It’s a grating conceit, and it’s hard to forget even as the film does work so hard to show the ‘others’ not as objects of his experience, but as subjects who invite his understanding.” I can think, of course, of worse situations and stories: stories in application essay which people of color have no consciousness, no significant talent, no value; stories in which people of color exist for sex and violence. The value of mensa and research essay scholarship people of color, native-born and immigrants, is not something that has been, or can be, positively taken for practitioner essay, granted (yet): in fact, both have been subject to great skepticism. Questions regarding culture, morality, economics, and politics have affected how they have been seen and scholarship received. Do they share the culture of the dominant society? Are their moral standards lax? Do they aid the economy as able workers or drain it as lazy people taxing social welfare? Do they possess rights that must be obeyed? Do they respect the laws? Arguments can be made, and have been made, from different perspectives. In the resume, 2004 edition of the Thomson/Gale book Immigration , edited by Tamara L. Roleff, a history of immigration in the United States is given by diverse contributors, with some arguing that people with bad characters are being allowed in, and mensa education and research essay others arguing that immigrants are more grateful, more loyal, and more law-abiding because they have chosen to come to the country; and some writers argue that immigrants contribute to culture and economy and others that they dilute and subvert what they find: the arguments that we hear now are not new.
Another book, Michael LeMay’s Illegal Immigration , a reference work published by ABC - CLIO in California in 2007, notes that there are about eleven million illegal immigrants now in the United States. Obviously, such a fact would be of significant concern in the best of times and is a greater, more ominous concern when the essay, country has reason to be concerned about its security. Scholarship! The USA Patriot Act, legislation passed after September 11 and affecting the civil liberties of all American residents, and admission to the country, and surveillance of critical the scarlet letter citizens and residents, has resulted in harassment of people of and research middle-eastern origins. People are arrested on the slightest provocation and can be detained for on poor people, years, with some of them deported. Education And Research! Obviously, that is not fair or wise, and it is certainly not efficient, as rules are established not simply to gaucholink resume, exercise power or express prejudice but to mensa education essay, achieve particular effects, ideals and practical goals. What are Americans to do?
What else might Walter do with what he has learned? How might he write or teach differently? Is the answer, really, for essay people, each of us to essay, become a musician or an famous case artist? It would seem to me that Walter could use his encounter with Tarek, Zainab, and Mouna as a source not only mensa essay scholarship of emotion or energy, but as a source for new knowledge, knowledge that could invigorate his writing and teaching, giving him a new or sharper focus and purpose. Walter could actually write about critical letter, why immigrants come to the United States—the economic and political promise they see in the country; and the economic and and research essay political problems they face at home, some of which the United States may be directly implicated in (a connection may exist already between the country they leave and the country to which they flee). Nurse Practitioner! Walter could become involved in immigrants rights’ groups, involved in an activism and politics that might directly affect how people such as his new friends are treated. In other words, Walter could use his privileged place in society for mensa, transformational work: rather than finding comfort, pleasure, release on the margins, he could have his pleasure and use his power for good in the center of society. Nurse Application Essay! It’s a thought. Often American films give us endings that affirm love, moral judgment, or another ideal, such as art or friendship or maturity or patriotism, but while offering gestures in mensa education essay scholarship these directions—with the intimacy between Walter and Mouna, and Walter’s sense of the injustice of Tarek’s treatment, and Walter’s mastery of the gaucholink resume, drum— The Visitor does not make easy affirmation acceptable: Tarek and Zainab are separated by his detention, and Walter and Mouna say goodbye to each other; Tarek is not freed; and we last see and hear Walter playing his drum ferociously in the subway, the and research, subway being the site of Tarek’s arrest.
The film has shown us too much, told us too much, and we understand too much. Application! The familiar life has produced a strange film, and mensa and research essay scholarship the strange film—with its focus on four truly distinct characters and practitioner the pleasure and rigor of music, the unpredictability of friendship, the education essay scholarship, indifference of contest bureaucratic power, the limits of white male privilege, and the irresolvable nature of human experience—delivers us not into mensa the consolations of art but into life, into gaucholink resume the complexities of life. Daniel Garrett, a child of the American south, Louisiana, where he grew up reading, taking photographs, and enjoying fishing and a good summer barbecue. Daniel moved to New York and mensa essay became a graduate of the studies on schizophrenia, New School for education essay scholarship, Social Research, was an intern at Africa Report , poetry editor for the male feminist magazine Changing Men , founded and application essay acted as principal organizer of the mensa education, Cultural Politics Discussion Group at ABC No Rio and Poets House, wrote about painter Henry Tanner for writing, Art Antiques , and scholarship organized the first interdepartmental environmental justice meeting at Audubon. Long interested in human complexity, intelligence, experiment, and cultural diversity, Garrett has researched various cultures, and he wrote about fiction and poetry for World Literature Today and international film for critical essay about letter, Offscreen , and has done music reviews that constitute a history of popular music for The Compulsive Reader . His work has appeared as well in The African , All About Jazz , American Book Review , Black Film Review , Cinetext , Contact II , Film International , The Humanist , Hyphen , Illuminations , Muse Apprentice Guild , Option, Pop Matters , Quarterly Black Review of and research essay scholarship Books , Rain Taxi , Red River Review , Review of Contemporary Fiction , and Wax Poetics . He returned to the south, where he worked on philosophical fiction, the novel A Stranger on Earth . Turkish Films: The Prisoners , Love and Honor , Bliss and Dry Summer. From Cop Killer to Killer Cop: Black Masculinities in Jamaican Cinema.
Audiovisual Glass: Eisenstein and Frank Lloyd Wright on Light, Space and Music. This Land is essay people, Your Land: Dogville . Reason and Redemption, Rage and Retribution. A Study of Mohsen Makhmalbaf’s “Time of Love’s” intertextual references to Maulana Jalal al-Din Rumi’s poem “The Three Fish” What I Remember of the Films I’ve Seen : Hero, We Don’t Live Here Anymore, Vanity Fair, Sky Captain and the World of mensa and research scholarship Tomorrow, Motorcycle Diaries, Kilometer Zero, Stage Beauty, Kinsey, Alexander , and on poor people more. 1997 2017 Offscreen, ISSN 1712-9559.
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Comprehensive Essay on the Maasai People (African Tribe) The Maasais belong to the pastoral society. They are a mixture of the Mediterranean and Negroid peoples, and are known as the best and most typical cattle herders of essay scholarship, East Africa. They occupy the interior plateau of the northern parts of East Africa in Kenya, northern Tanganyika (Tanzania) and eastern Uganda. Although dark in skin colour, they are clearly distinct from the essay people more Negroid people who surround them on the south and east. They live in the swampy grasslands of the mensa education and research essay upper Nile. They were estimated to number close to 300,000 in the late 1990.
Image Source: upload.wikimedia.org. In appearance, the Maasais are tall and slender, with long, small limb bones, narrow feet and hands, and long fingers. The colour of their skins varies from light chocolate to very dark brown. The head is high and narrow. The face is thin and many of them have fine-cut features, thin nose, the are paper legal lips are less thick than those of Negroid people.
The men have little hair on the face but on the head it grows longer and with a less crinkly curl than among Negroes. The girls and older men shave off their hair closely to education and research essay scholarship, the head. The Maasais occupy the equatorial plateau of application, Africa to the east of Lake Victoria. Their territory extends from north to south for about 800 kms and from west to and research scholarship, east 550 kms. This elongated highland is traversed from north to south by the Great Rift Valley which extends from Jordon (Dead Sea) in the north up to the Nayasa Lake in the south. Geologically, lava has been deposited on this plateau by the numerous volcanoes in which Kilimanjaro, Meru and Mt. Kenya are quite pronounced. The floor of the Rift Valley rises and falls in a number of separate and closed lake basins. The territory of the Maasais (including all the lands occupied at nurse practitioner the period of their greatest strength in the later part of the 19th century) extends from about 1°N to about 6°S.
It covers all the rift valleys in education and research essay scholarship, this section and spreads irregularly across wide tracts of high plateau. Owing to considerable altitude, the climate of the Maasai territory is much cooler and mild than the climates of the lower valleys, coast lands and the floor of the Congo basin to the west. Though the habitat of the Maasai lies in the equatorial region but owing to high altitudes the temperature reads around 14°C which varies very little from people month to scholarship, month. The days are sunny and nights cool. There are significant micro-level variations in contest, the mean annual rainfall. The rainfall rarely exceeds 100 cms which is convectional in mensa education scholarship, character. In lower altitudes, less than 75 cms of nurse application essay, rainfall is mensa and research essay, recorded.
The major rains of the year fall in April and May, when a strong monsoon blows inland from the about letter Indian Ocean. June to September is the period of severe drought, especially in the areas which lie below 1,230 metres (4,000 feet) above the sea level. Under the prevailing geo-climatic conditions, the Maasai territory has tropical grassland climate. In the areas of low rainfall (below 50 cms), the grass reaches only a foot or so in height. In the more favourable areas, it forms a complete cover; elsewhere it grows in tufts separated by patches of bare soil. Most of the territory has scattered trees of mensa education and research, Babul (acacia). During the long drought, the grass dries, the land becomes parched, and the trees lose their leaves. With the rains in January, a new growth springs up. Where the conditions are more favourable and sub-soil water is available, the thorny trees and bushes close up, especially on the lower heights above the margins of the rift. These low thorny forests are often impenetrable with trees and bushes of ten to twenty feet high. Honoring. Such areas are not very conducive for the cattle herders.
The areas which receive over 75 cms of rainfall are covered by tall savanna grass studded with loftier Babul (acacia). The savanna grass is more than one meter in height and the flat topped Babuls (acacias) reach a height of about twelve metres. The grass becomes brown in the dry season but still may be grazed. Many a times the grass is burnt in the dry season so t-hat better grass may grow in the subsequent season. At higher altitudes (above 2,000 metres), the drought is mensa education essay, much shorter and case on schizophrenia, mountain grass pastures are more perennial. The grass grows about two metres which resembles to the temperate grasslands.
The Maasai ascend the high altitude pastures during the period of drought and descend in lower pastures in mensa education essay scholarship, the rainy season. Cattle are the critical the scarlet basis of the Maasai economy, providing food, mainly in essay, the form of milk and blood, and property for payment of bride-price. Maasais also keep many sheep, and some goats and donkeys. Cattle are by far the more important livestock and in honoring essay, normal time each family has its own herd. Essay Scholarship. Sheep are also abundant, but their economic and social importance cannot be compared to that of cattle. Both are used for their meat and essay about the scarlet, blood, this being a favorite Diagrammatic Plan of a Maasai item in the Maasai diet. Milking is done by women; only some milk products, as cream and butter, are used; cheese is mensa and research essay scholarship, unknown among them. Are Paper. The milk and other foods are stored in wild gourds cut for this purpose. Pastoralism among the Maasais, more than an economic activity, is mensa and research scholarship, a cultural pursuit. Cattle are kept not because they can be sold or consumed, but because they can be immolated in religious rites and magical ceremonies; because to have them in large number, no matter how uneconomic it may be, gives a man status and prestige before his own fellowmen. Moreover, a cow, or even a lamb or goat is an object of affection which is known to the master by its name.
Among the Maasai nobody is allowed to kill any domestic animal. If any killing is to resume, be done for them, it is performed by their neighbors—the Wandarobo. But as regards cows, on no accounts, may they be slaughtered, though when they die of natural or accidental death, their flesh may be eaten. Second to and research scholarship, pastoralism, the major occupation of the Maasais is warring. Practically all the young men from sixteen to twenty years of age have to undergo a special training as warriors. The primary objective is to defend their cattle against the hypothetical incursion of their neighbours; but in reality it is case on schizophrenia, they who mostly organize predatory cattle raids against neighboring tribes creating thereby a chronic state of mensa education and research, cold war seldom interrupted by hot outbursts. The main arms used by the Maasai are iron weapons such as the long-bladed spear, leaf-shaped sword, and the arrow.
The demand for forged iron has given rise to a caste of essay letter, smith-forgers who, being they Maasais, are strictly endogamous. Marriage and inheritance of education, property are ruled by clan membership which is patrilineal and exogamous. Case Studies. Polygamy is generally permitted, though monogamy prevails. Cattle are the main wealth of every Maasai family. The cattle are mixed in type, for as a result of predatory raids on education essay scholarship, all neighboring peoples every variety of cattle in East Africa has found its way into the Maasai kraal (enclosure). But all are humped cattle. The humped cows yield only about 2.5 kg milk per day. The cows are mulched by the women before sunrise, after which the cattle are taken out to pastures by men and boys, and again in the evening when they return after sunset. Are Paper. Milk vessels are washed out with cow urine and fumigated before use. Male calves are slaughtered for meat and hides for the payments, gifts and feasts. Waldoboro (a tribe) are employed to do the and research scholarship slaughtering, for no Maasai should kill a domestic animal.
Cows are treated with great care and affection. Each has its personal name and the herdsman has his favorite among them. They are branded with cuts or burns on the ears and flank, but with the clan mark, not the individual mark of a particular owner. The main food is gaucholink, obtained from livestock. Milk is taken either fresh or sour; it is boiled only for the sick. Butter is made from milk by laboriously shaking it in mensa education scholarship, a large gourd, but cheese making is unknown. Ox blood is a favorite and important ingredient in the diet.
For obtaining the blood of bullocks, his neck is tightly strapped with a leather Cora so that a large vein swells up. The swollen vein is gaucholink resume, then pierced with a special arrow having a wide, transverse blade which is released from a light bow. A considerable quantity of education and research essay, blood is collected and drunken fresh, clotted or mixed with milk. Sheep are almost as numerous as cattle, and their milk, blood and meat are eaten, but they play a far less important role in the life of the Maasai. Most of them are of a white fat-humped breed with a coarse curly fleece. The ewes are regularly milked after lambing. Essay. Goats are less numerous and education and research, are herded with the sheep. To prevent mating at the wrong season or between different herds, leather flaps are often tied to critical essay, the bellies of bulls and rams. Donkeys are used as the beasts of burden while some of the Maasais, living in education scholarship, the eastern parts, have acquired camels from Somalia for transportation. No animals are ridden and famous case, all herding and travel is done on foot. The livestock of a kraal is essay scholarship, herded as a unit by the young men under the guidance of a married man.
The Maasai dogs are of little use in herding, and only give warning of the presence of strangers and beasts of prey. On special occasions and essay people, public ceremonies, animals are slaughtered, but meat must not be eaten in scholarship, the camp. It is cooked and served in secluded spots. Meat and milk may never be eaten on the same day, nor these be allowed to come into contact with one another. The infringement of this rule would, it is believed, cause serious disease among the cattle. Millet and famous case studies, maize are the staple food.
Root crops and banana, although scorned by the men, are eaten by women and children. These cereals and vegetable foods are obtained in exchange for education and research essay hides and livestock from wandering groups of about, Negro traders. Mensa Essay Scholarship. They are boiled and mixed with milk and butter. Some wild game and birds are hunted or obtained by barter for their skins, horns, and feathers, but their flesh is almost never eaten. Critical Essay The Scarlet. Wild honey is eaten fresh or fermented into a beer which is a favourite food. The clothes of the Maasais are simple and mostly made of skin. But, the young women and warriors wear elaborate ornaments, especially on ceremonial occasions.
The preparation of skin is done by mensa education, women. The warrior’s only garment is a calf’s skin with hair left on. A triangular flap of skin is sometimes worn over the buttocks to give protection from thorns when sitting down. Apart from thick bull hide sandals, which are worn by practitioner essay, all, the rest of the body is naked. Mensa Education Essay. Women wear goat skin aprons. For religious and social ceremonies, dances and wars, the warriors wear elaborate feather head dresses set on a frame of leather or wood and held by are paper writing, a chin strap. At other times are worn high pointed caps of lion, baboon and other skins of wild game. Bracelets and neck bands of iron and sheep skin and mensa scholarship, girdles closely covered with beads are the other items of a warrior’s attire. The daughter of essay people, a well-to-do family prides herself on the size and massiveness of the long, close coil of iron wire that is fitted on her lower arms, legs and neck.
The huts in which the Maasais live are about 4 or 5 metres long and about four metres wide. These are walled and roofed with layers of long grass well set with poles and ropes, and plastered with mud or cow-dung. A number of these huts, from mensa about 20 to 50, constitute one kraal. This is made up of nearly closed circle of huts, protected by an outer ring of thick thorn fence, with two entrances at the opposite sides for case on schizophrenia the cattle. The circular plan of the kraal is particularly suited for defence. In the Maasai society, community is more important than individual. The clans are patrilineal exogamous groups, and some of education, them are divided into smaller divisions or sub-clans which are they exogamous. The clans in Kenya are grouped into two major divisions: (i) the people of the Black Ox, and (ii) the people of the honoring our heroes contest Red Bullocks.
These clans can intermarry. The clans are of domestic rather than of political importance and mensa essay, coincide only to a limited extent with territorial division. Although a girl may be engaged to a boy when he is an infant or even unborn, marriage does not take place until he has passed through his warrior hood and becomes an elder, i.e., when he is over twenty years of age. At the time of marriage, a few cattle and sheep are given to the bride’s father, but large quantity of honey beer is given to the girl’s father at writing services legal the birth of first child. Polygamy is popular and most elders marry several wives at intervals and at a time acquire three, four or even more. The herds are generally looked after by these wives. At the death of the head of the family, the livestock’s are equally divided among the sons.
An elderly father, his wives and education and research, married sons constitute a household or family, and has its own encampment or kraal of about twenty huts. Each wife has her own hut which she builds and famous case studies, repairs. The huts are made up of stakes and grass. Some small huts are covered with ox-hides. Education And Research. Cattle are also kept in the enclosure of the essay on poor encampment. Each family has a smith who makes weapons for the family.
The smiths are known to be unclean because the education and research essay scholarship weapons they make lead to famous on schizophrenia, the spilling of blood. And Research Essay Scholarship. The weapons must be purified by rubbing with cow fat or butter when they are taken over. The sons of smith do not become warriors, but settle down to the business of something after their initiation at puberty. One of the remarkable features of the Maasai society is the system of dividing the boys into warrior groups, who take the place of retiring warriors. This is known as a system of age-groups. Traditionally, Masai males have been age-graded in the stages of nurse practitioner essay, boy, warrior and elder. A man may marry only after he has served as a warrior, at about age 30. And Research Essay Scholarship. Maasai residence groups are divided into elders’ and critical about the scarlet letter, warriors’ kraals or villages. When the boys of a micro region have attained puberty, they form small bands which visit all the mensa education essay scholarship encampments, demanding presents, which they present to influential elders while asking them to arrange for their initiation. Initiation covers a period of four years or more during which the boys are circumcised one by one in their own kraal (camp) by a skilled Wandarobo (tribe), not Maasai, who travels from camp to resume, camp.
When all the eligibles have at last circumcised and the elders are prepared to admit a new group into mensa and research scholarship the warrior class, they are assembled for hair-shaving ceremony, which is the are paper writing services legal signal for mensa education essay their entry into the warrior stage. All youths who are shaved at honoring essay contest the same time form a single age-group. They receive weapons from their fathers and take a common name, such as Raiders, the White Sword, etc. From three to five years after its first initiation into the warrior’s class, an age-group holds a festival which is mensa education, attended by critical essay, all members of that age-group in the district. All members of an age-group are expected to give mutual help in any difficulty, and the mourning of a dead man is conducted by his age-mates. Thus, among the essay Maasais, there are three stages through which every male passes—the boy, the warrior, and the elder. At any given time, there is a large fighting force divided into a number of separate encampments, each wholly devoted to the defence of its territory and to the raiding of neighboring people.
Besides defence and raids, the purpose of the Maasai warriors is to critical about letter, protect their sacred herds and to education and research, extend the range of gaucholink, their pastures. They also mitigate the influence of Laibon (magic man) on the Masai society. Among the Maasais, cattle determine a man’s rank. In some of the Maasais, chiefs are appointed to rule over a given number of cattle instead of a given region. Among the Maasais, a man has an ox that he treats like a pet that sleeps in his hut and is called by name. Mensa Scholarship. When this man dies, the skin of the resume ox is his shroud, its flesh supplies his funeral feast. The Maasais have a developed system of mensa, law than among the hunters like Pygmies and Bushmen.
Rape, seduction and adultery, homicide and wounding as well as theft have their well-defined penalties and punishments. Due to religious reasons, asylum is also well developed. The administration of justice lies in critical essay about the scarlet letter, the hands of the chiefs and elders of the clans and tribes. Their duty is to interfere in disputes and feuds of education essay scholarship, families and clans, bring about reconciliation between the contending parties, and to fix the amount to essay about, be given as blood money. Like all the mensa other tribal groups, the Maasai tribes also have a religious leader locally known as Laibon. He has little executive power, and is very much respected.
He is a religious (priest) rather than an executive authority, and his influence is based on the firm belief in the success of his prophecies, the great power of his magic and the efficacy of his intercession with the God of Maasais. The office is hereditary and essay on poor people, descends from father to son in one family. Whenever the Laibon has political and education essay, strategic ability, he can use his influence to control and unify the action of essay about letter, all divisions of the education scholarship people. He can direct and concentrate the attacks of the various warrior groups and can maintain a policy calculated to safeguard the tribe against external attack. Neither he nor any of his clansmen take part in actual warfare, but he alone can prepare and give power to the war magic necessary for success in raids and our heroes contest, victory in more serious fighting. Defeat must come, on the other hand, if he foretells it and withholds the magic. He also controls the and research essay most effective magical remedies against diseases among both men and cattle, and he can perform miracles of healing. His diet is carefully restricted to are paper services legal, goat liver, milk and honey, for other food would deprive him of his power. In his decisions he is often advised by other elderly people.
Thus, by divination, prophecy and oracle the Laibon” serve spiritual needs as well as curing physical sickness. The Maasais provide a unique example of the ethnic groups who deliberately limit the exploitation of their resources and physical environment. Despite their many contacts with peoples of other economies, they have rejected hunting as well as cultivation of crops. Moreover, they have dispossessed cultivating peoples of land which they themselves use only for grazing and have driven their agricultural relatives (the Lumbwa) into the more arid parts of the region. Their life in an unusually clear way shows how completely a cultural bias and traditional mode of life may determine and restrict the use of territory and land resources which offer other possibilities. Maasai, being pastoral people, is a masculine society. Its religion is more concerned with the heavens than with Mother Earth. The sky, the sun, the thunder, and the storm are the mensa education powers under which the herder spends his life and to which he renders adoration. Welcome to Shareyouressays.com!
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Free Essays on Graffiti Art Or Vandalism Discursive Essay. Essay Structure: The Secret To A Good Essay Essays are like the people that write them; each one is unique and individual. A good essay topic seems the mensa scholarship most important aspect for a paper; but if the writer can’t effectively convey their argument or idea in a fluid procession the paper’s topic will. Graffiti : Art or Vandalism ? Sam Cowey Graffiti has been around for more than half a decade and practiced worldwide. However there is debate between whether it is a form of art or vandalism . Graffiti artists’ debate that many do not understand the reason most graffiti artist take the risk of incarceration. | Graffiti is critical essay about letter Vandalism , Not Art | | | STUDENT NO: | 16 MARCH 2011 | The thread of this simple essay will centre on essay the controversy surrounding “ graffiti art ”—is it art or simply vandalism . The paper will explore the resume true meaning of graffiti art , characteristics of education essay scholarship common graffiti which. ?Michael Cantwell Essay #2 Professor McAllister Graffiti : The Illegal Art It could be under a highway overpass, it could be on an old billboard, or it could be found on the side of a box truck. No matter where you find it, graffiti will be met with mixed feelings. Many people see it as nothing but. Art or Vandalism? : The acceptance of graffiti as an resume art form. I believe that Graffiti is essay most certainly a valid art form.
The question as to whether any forms of graffiti can be considered art is a controversial area. Is it vandalism when it is placed on the side of a building or a car and art when it is on a canvas on someone's wall or in a gallery- what is the. According to Goldman (1997), The first stage of existence of graffiti go back to the beginnings of human, societal living. Graffiti has been found on uncovered, ancient, Egyptian monuments, and nurse application graffiti even was maintained on education walls in Pompeii. Honoring Our Heroes Contest. Graffiti is the plural form of the Italian word grafficar. In plural. Research Paper Visualization For some people, experiencing art is a form of entertainment, for others it can become lassitude and education and research essay scholarship may think of art primarily as a worthless investment , or something to be consumed. But for some people, visual art can be a life changing experience. Our brain perceives everything. What Is the essay people Role of an Artist in Todays Society? Charman Ian Tucknott For this essay I will be looking at and exploring the question, ‘what is the role of an artist in today’s society?’ I will be looking at contemporary artists, and also artists of the 20th century, I will also be exploring the relationship between art and fame, what do artists bring.
Arts, Man on Wire, and Bomb the mensa education essay scholarship Suburbs. August 2012 Arts , Man on Wire, and Bomb the Suburbs Pan to Houston, Texas at night. On an on poor episode of Stephen Fry in mensa essay scholarship, America, produced by Andre Singer, standing on a stage in a dimly lit room, surrounded by Houston’s elite, actor and comedian Stephen Fry speaks of the importance of the arts . “Oscar Wilde. Graffiti or Vandalism ? All around the world, you will find drawings on buildings. On Poor People. But they're not just regular drawings. It's known as Graffiti . Graffiti has its own characteristics. Not many people are fond with this type of Art as some call it. A question which concerns all graffiti artist and.
follow instructions accordingly . Failure to give her an answer in the morning on why can we not follow the rules, Chef Felder handed us this 10 page essay to reflect upon education, the actions done by us and the rest of our classmates. This is to serve as a reminder to writing services legal, abide by the rules set by an organization . Banksys Fairey; 2 of the Best Street Artists. specialist Shepherd Fairey, creator of the famous Obama “Hope” poster and 2.) the elusive British graffiti artist, political activist, film director, and mensa education scholarship painter, Banksy, who turns buildings into priceless works of art . ot to mention Banksy’s documentary movie about street artists, “Exit Through a Gift Shop”shown. Graffiti is not art , because i define art differently. Art to me is something that invokes a response or emotion, which graffiti absolutely does, but its much more then that too. Art is also something that inspires us by showing us how to view the world in a different way. While graffiti does this graffiti. ? Vandalism A problem that occurs in most states is honoring our heroes essay vandalism . Vandalism is education and research essay a growing national problem.
Last year this senseless crime cost United States Citizens over one billion dollars. Vandalism is a problem that gets to everyone in some form or another. It can affect your family, friends, property. further entering the honoring essay country. After this, tourism undermines culture by commercializing it and essay scholarship this is often connected with increasing litter, graffiti , vandalism and noise - tourists do not always respect traditional cultures, which is sad but true. On Poor People. Disadvantages 1. More traffic in the air, skies. (Powers 6). Graffiti writers put their names up on walls using markers, spray paint, or what ever can mark the surface. Mensa Education Essay Scholarship. Often called a tag, the essay on poor marking signifies that somebody is telling you a story about who they are and what they are prepared to do to mensa education essay scholarship, make your aware of it (Powers 6). Graffiti is about.
In countries like the United States, essays have become a major part of a formal education in the form of free response questions. Honoring Essay. Secondary students in these countries are taught structured essay formats to improve their writing skills, and essays are often used by universities in these countries in. Art Meets the mensa education and research scholarship Streets Is graffiti art or vandalism ? Of course writing your name on the side of a building could never really be classified as art , but about the works of case on schizophrenia graffiti artist’s such as Banksy. Is his work really any different. ? The World is a Canvas: A Definition Argument Essay on Graffiti Chloe Roy Grand Canyon University: ENG 106 January 30, 2014 Art is generally seen as a canvas transformed into a beautiful and thought – provoking decoration. Genres and technique styles continue to evolve and transform over. in Bristol, England, what we do know is that Banksy is an anonymous England based graffiti artist, as well as a film director and mensa education and research essay a painter.
He is known for his satirical street art and tongue-and-cheek humor graffiti done in a peculiar stenciling technique. Critical Letter. Such artistic works of mensa political and social. Graffiti : Art or vandalism Graffiti is a growing problem in honoring our heroes contest, the United States, costing over 12 billion dollars a year in clean-up. Some people argue the essay scholarship fact that graffiti is gaucholink resume art not vandalism and should be left alone while others completely disagree and feel there should be harsher punishment for. Now, write an essay addressing all of the following questions. Your essay should be 5-10 sentences long. Use complete sentences and correct grammar! 1. Which of the four Philosophies of Art best reflects your own beliefs about art ? 2. Why do you hold that belief? 3. Where do you think your. painted pink and turquoise; old homes tastefully gentrified by mensa education and research essay scholarship the aspiring young; the rundown Sunset Grocery store decorated with the case studies protest art of graffiti on one end and plastic-ended “Circle K” on the other (Saenz 20).” He paid attention to the details to El Paso. He recognized the beauty of that.
Amelia Jones - «Presence in mensa education and research essay, absentia: experiencing performance as documentation» in Art Journal. Volume: 56. Issue: 4, Publication Year: 1997, Page Number: 11ss. I was not yet three years old, living in central North Carolina, when Carolee Schneemann performed Meat Joy at gaucholink resume, the Festival of Free Expression. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of and research essay scholarship writing giving the author's own argument, but the critical letter definition is vague, overlapping with those of an article, a pamphlet or a short story. The concept of an essay has been extended to mensa, other mediums beyond writing. A film essay is a movie that often incorporates.
Oliver Goldsmith’s essays reflect two significant literary transitions of the late eighteenth century. Famous Studies On Schizophrenia. The larger or more general of these was the beginning of the gradual evolution of Romanticism from the Neoclassicism of the previous one hundred years. Oppressed by mensa education and research essay the heavy “rule of reason” and our heroes contest ideas. Graffiti Art as a Contemporary Art Form. Graffiti SAC Graffiti art is an art form. The reasons, including aesthetic criteria, as to and research, why it is an art form far outweighs the criticism of illegality, incoherence, and nonstandard presentation. Suppose that Leonardo, Picasso or any of the recognized artists of Western Europe were alive today. ENG 121 WEEK 4 DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY DRAFT. 121 WEEK 4 DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY DRAFT To purchase this visit here: http://www.coursehomework.com/product/eng-121-week-4-descriptive- essay -draft/ Contact us at: email@example.com ENG 121 WEEK 4 DESCRIPTIVE ESSAY DRAFT Descriptive Essay (Draft). The body of the essay draft must be 500 to 600. Hip-hop is a musical art form, created by African-Americans and Latino-Americans in the mid seventies.
Its conception came from a young generation of African-Americans in the Bronx, who created a beautiful, prideful expression of music, art and dance from a backdrop of poverty. Since that ignition in. fine distinction between what is recognized as art and nurse practitioner vandalism . The individual is often faced with uncertainty when the topic of graffiti arises. The public often portray graffiti as a destructive act towards his or her surroundings however; graffiti can also be considered a form of self-expression. ? Art encompasses everything.
It is such a broad subject that it can be found in the most bizarre places - like a house's structural wall built out of beer cans. Mensa And Research Scholarship. Someone once said, “Vision is the art of writing seeing what is invisible to mensa and research scholarship, others.” In art , one is able to make something beautiful out of the. National 5 Writing Folio Discursive essay Should the death penalty be brought back in the United Kingdom? The topic I have chosen to argue about is honoring essay whether the death penalty id a good thing or bad thing to bring back to Britain, Throughout the Assessment I will be mostly focusing on the question. need means of passing the ideas and feelings which build the Identity. That is when art steps in. When I think of and research Mexico I see Edgar Koi, El Curiot, Spaik and writing services legal Graciela Iturbide. As I am mainly interested in mensa essay, street art and photography, I directed my research towards these areas. In the essay beginning of this. ? SAMPLE ESSAY (MLA Style) cover page (may not be required by some instructors) What Limits to mensa and research scholarship, Freedom? Freedom of Expression and the Brooklyn Museum’s “Sensation” Exhibit by Melissa Davis all text centered Prof.
K.D. Smith Humanities 205 16 May 2009 85 03f-BGtW-AmEd 85-106. English Graffiti or Vandalism ? All around the world, you will find drawings on essay buildings. But they're not just regular drawings. Mensa. It's known as Graffiti . Essay. Graffiti has its own characteristics. Not many people are fond with this type of Art as some call it. A question which concerns all graffiti artist.
Graffiti : art or vandalism . Some people think that graffiti is an art , others - that it is vandalism . What’s right? There are so many different opinions. Back in the 70s, graffiti was an example of anti-social behavior. Nowadays, we call it “Street Art ” and you can see it in mensa scholarship, unexpected places and on. The essays included in The Insubordination of legal Signs were originally published between 1990 and 1994 as lectures or journal articles. Richard seeks to account for the ruptures, discontinuities, and and research essay fragmentation wrought on cultural expression during the essay letter dictatorship, what she calls semiotically the and research scholarship catastrophe. today.
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