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P.hd thesis in english

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6 Scaffolding Strategies to Use With Your Students. What’s the opposite p.hd thesis, of scaffolding a lesson? Saying to students, “Read this nine-page science article, write a detailed essay on how do a persuasive speech outline, the topic it explores, and turn it in p.hd thesis, by Wednesday.” Yikes—no safety net, no parachute, no scaffolding—they’re just left blowing in creative primary 4, the wind. Let’s start by agreeing that scaffolding a lesson and differentiating instruction are two different things. Scaffolding is breaking up the learning into chunks and then providing a tool, or structure, with each chunk. When scaffolding reading, for p.hd in english example, you might preview the text and discuss key vocabulary, or chunk the you write a persuasive outline text and thesis in english, then read and discuss as you go. With differentiation, you might give a child an entirely different piece of you write speech, text to read, or shorten the p.hd text or alter it, and/or modify the writing assignment that follows. Simply put, scaffolding is what you do first with kids—for those students who are still struggling, you may need to differentiate by modifying an assignment and/or making accommodations (for example, by worksheets, choosing more accessible text and/or assigning an in english alternative project). Scaffolding and writing 4, differentiation do have something in common, though. In order to meet students where they are and appropriately scaffold a lesson, or differentiate instruction, you have to know the individual and collective zone of p.hd, proximal development (ZPD) of your learners. As education researcher Eileen Raymond states, “The ZPD is the distance between what children can do by writing worksheets for grade 4, themselves and the next learning that they can be helped to p.hd thesis achieve with competent assistance.” So let’s get to some scaffolding strategies you may or may not have tried yet.

Or perhaps you’ve not used them in some time and need a gentle reminder on how awesome and creative worksheets, helpful they can be when it comes to student learning. How many of us say that we learn best by seeing something rather than hearing about it? Modeling for students is a cornerstone of p.hd thesis in english, scaffolding, in my experience. Have you ever interrupted someone with “Just show me!” while they were in the middle of explaining how to do something? Every chance you have, show or demonstrate to students exactly what they are expected to essay deception do. #13; #13; Try the fishbowl activity, where a small group in the center is circled by the rest of the class; the group in thesis, the middle, or fishbowl, engages in an activity, modeling how it’s done for creative primary the larger group. #13; Always show students the outcome or product before they do it. In English. If a teacher assigns a persuasive essay or inquiry-based science project, a model should be presented side-by-side with a criteria chart or rubric. You can guide students through each step of the process with the model of the finished product in hand. #13; Use think alouds, which will allow you to model your thought process as you read a text, solve a problem, or design a project.

Remember that children’s cognitive abilities are still in development, so opportunities for them to romeo love essay see developed, critical thinking are essential. #13; Ask students to p.hd in english share their own experiences, hunches, and ideas about the content or concept of study and have them relate and connect it to you write a persuasive speech outline their own lives. Sometimes you may have to offer hints and suggestions, leading them to the connections a bit, but once they get there, they will grasp the content as their own. Launching the learning in your classroom from the prior knowledge of thesis, your students and using this as a framework for future lessons is not only a scaffolding technique—many would agree it’s just plain good teaching. All learners need time to process new ideas and information. They also need time to verbally make sense of and articulate their learning with the community of learners who are engaged in the same experience and on antigone, journey. As we all know, structured discussions really work best with children regardless of their level of maturation.

If you aren’t weaving in think-pair-share, turn-and-talk, triad teams, or some other structured talking time throughout the in english lesson, you should begin including this crucial strategy on a regular basis. Sometimes referred to as front-loading vocabulary, this is how do outline, a strategy that we teachers don’t use enough. Many of us, myself included, are guilty of sending students all alone down the bumpy, muddy path known as Challenging Text—a road booby-trapped with difficult vocabulary. Thesis In English. We send them ill-prepared and hook thesis, then are often shocked when they: a) lose interest, b) create a ruckus, or c) fall asleep. Pre-teaching vocabulary doesn’t mean pulling a dozen words from the thesis in english chapter and having kids look up definitions and write them out—we all know how that will go. Instead, introduce the words to you write a persuasive kids in photos or in context with things they know and are interested in. Use analogies and metaphors, and invite students to create a symbol or drawing for each word.

Give time for discussion of the words (small groups and whole class). Not until they’ve done all this should the dictionaries come out. P.hd Thesis. And the creative primary 4 dictionaries will be used only to compare with those definitions they’ve already discovered on their own. Thesis. With the dozen or so words front-loaded, students are ready, with you as their guide, to tackle that challenging text. Graphic organizers, pictures, and charts can all serve as scaffolding tools. Graphic organizers are very specific in that they help kids visually represent their ideas, organize information, and grasp concepts such as sequencing and cause and effect. A graphic organizer shouldn’t be The Product but rather a scaffolding tool that helps guide and shape the students’ thinking.

Some students can dive right into romeo and juliet love essay, a discussion, or writing an essay, or synthesizing several different hypotheses, without using a graphic organizer of some sort, but many of our students benefit from using one with a difficult reading or challenging new information. Think of graphic organizers as training wheels—they are temporary and meant to p.hd thesis in english be removed. 6. Pause, Ask Questions, Pause, Review. This is creative worksheets for grade, a wonderful way to check for understanding while students read a chunk of difficult text or learn a new concept or content. Here’s how this strategy works: a new idea from discussion or the reading is shared, then you pause (providing think time), and then ask a strategic question, pausing again.

You need to design the questions ahead of time, making sure they are specific, guiding, and p.hd, open-ended. (Even great questions fail if we don’t give think time for responses, so hold out creative writing worksheets, during that Uncomfortable Silence.) Keep kids engaged as active listeners by in english, calling on someone to give the writing worksheets 4 gist of what was just discussed/discovered/questioned. P.hd Thesis In English. If the class seems stuck on the questions, provide an opportunity for students to discuss in pairs. With all the diverse learners in our classrooms, there is a strong need for teachers to learn and experiment with new scaffolding strategies. I often say to hook teachers I support that they have slow down in order to go quickly. Scaffolding a lesson may, in fact, take longer to teach, but the end product is of far greater quality and the experience much more rewarding for all involved. Please share with us scaffolding strategies that work well for your students. 7.3K shares 62 comments read later Bookmark.

Comments (62) Follow Subscribe to thesis comments via RSS. Conversations on Edutopia (62) Sign in or register to comment. Bridge Hook Thesis. Working with k-4 and over 75% of the class being English learners, besides buil their vocabulary with pictures, language, toys, I try to bring science to reinforce their learning. It's always a great challenge to accomplish together. I'm learning in in english, the process as what skill would work better. And because they are all unique creation of primary 4, God, there will always be a different way to approach the learning. Very useful article, especially for new EFL teachers who get easily lost with long texts. I have noticed that sometimes students are fearful of using background/prior knowledge. They think it might be incorrect or inappropriate to make that connection. I encourage them to thesis write down their experiences/knowledge of a topic as part of the Prediction routine of primary 4, reading new text. One item that is difficult but important to maintain is the thesis in english act of talking about their reflections and knowledge.

Time is always a rare commodity in a classroom but for good, accountable talk, it is necessary to take. For visual aids, I have recently started to say please annotate using tweets and bridge hook, emojis in p.hd thesis in english, the margins of the text. Essay On Antigone. My high school students love this and enjoy sharing their work. Additionally, wiat time between questions is becoming necessary because many students are used to the brighter students getting an answer quickly and thesis, moving on through the thesis class. I have begun to stop calling on p.hd thesis, the bright stars and waiting for more hands to be raised before calling on a different student that I usually do. Also, it seems that passive students are becoming more in-tune with what is creative writing worksheets, going on since I am obviously patient enough to go to different students for thesis in english responses. I love your approach to student engagement, Adrienne! Thanks for sharing it with us. :) I loved when you said that scaffolding is what we do first.

Now that we are all required to love differentiate, I think it's important to realize that many kids can use grade level material and texts with some scaffolding, which will get them to grade level quicker in many cases than differentiating will. You have great strategies here. Some of the p.hd thesis simplest things I do include breaking tasks down or repeating directions for bridge hook thesis that child one at a time. I might pull a small group together to read and p.hd, discuss a selection, while the rest of the class reads with partners. I might provide a visual example, checklist, or list of steps for solving math problems. Hook. I think if teachers stop to think about it, much of good instruction would qualify as scaffolding. This is a great article and good practice for all teachers.

Well put, thank you for keeping these best practices in front of thesis in english, us. J. Brunner's scaffolding theory always fascinated me! I think that he was the most down-to-earth among the 'great' theoreticians we learn about as teachers. Any tips on how each one sees scaffolding are always welcome. As for ZPD (zone of thesis, proximal development - honestly, I had forgotten the term . ) it's something that as teachers we should be able to guess intuitively, otherwise we run the risk of losing touch with our students . P.hd In English. These are all great strategies for students that need scaffolding.

Doing this doing small group or workshop time would be a great way to focus on the different needs of students.

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Miyazaki’s Beautiful Antiwar Dreams. It is the last year of the in english Second World War. American bombers drop napalm canisters on Kobe, Japan, setting the picturesque city of wood, canvas, and paper alight. Romeo Essay. A young mother is caught in p.hd thesis, the conflagration, suffers greatly, then succumbs to her disfiguring burns. Writing Worksheets For Grade. With the father fighting at sea, her adolescent son Seita must fend for himself and for his 5-year old sister Setsuko as famine stalks the in english country.

In spite of all his efforts, Seita must watch as Setsuko, an and juliet, imaginative, fun-loving child, becomes emaciated, sickens, weakens, and eventually dies of thesis, malnutrition. This is the story told in Studio Ghibli’s 1988 animated film Grave of the Fireflies , and it is no less harrowing and haunting for being a “cartoon.” As Roger Ebert wrote in romeo and juliet love essay, his 4-star review: “‘Grave of the Fireflies’ is an thesis, emotional experience so powerful that it forces a rethinking of animation. (…) ‘Grave of the plainswoman essay Fireflies’ is a powerful dramatic film that happens to be animated, and I know what the critic Ernest Rister means when he compares it to ‘Schindler’s List’ and says, ‘It is the most profoundly human animated film I’ve ever seen.’ (…) Yes, it’s a cartoon, and the kids have eyes like saucers, but it belongs on in english, any list of the greatest war films ever made.” The director Isao Takahata has denied its characterization as an romeo love essay, anti-war film. But as Clint Eastwood has said, “any war told realistically is an anti-war movie.” And Fireflies is unsparing in its portrayal of the realities of p.hd thesis, war, especially for being based on a semi-autobiographical novel, whose author lost his adoptive father to the firebombing of Kobe and 4, afterward had to watch his baby sister Keiko die of hunger. Kobe was only one of the 67 Japanese cities burned by the United States Air Force, under the direction of Curtis LeMay. Nicknamed “the Demon,” LeMay was instrumental in the US shift from high-altitude bombing with general purpose explosives to the low-altitude incendiary bombing of Japanese cities that resulted in hundreds of p.hd, thousands of civilian deaths and the famine-inducing ruination of the economy.

He later became a tireless advocate for bombing Vietnam, as he put it, “back to the Stone Age,” and for bombing the whole world back to the Ice Age by launching a nuclear first strike against the Soviet Union. LeMay also oversaw and championed the enforcement of the total blockade of Japan by filling the waters around its port cities with aerial-dropped mines, which, for essay, example, caused shipping through Kobe to plummet by 85%. In English. This campaign was dubbed, with a refreshing lack of hypocrisy, “Operation Starvation.” Thus, the starvation of little Setsuko/Keiko was not “collateral damage,” but a premeditated murder. When Leslie Stahl asked Madeline Albright about the half-million Iraqi children deprived to essay, death by p.hd US sanctions (“more children than died in plainswoman, Hiroshima”), the then Secretary of thesis, State famously answered “we think the price is worth it.” Of course elite war-bringers like LeMay and Albright do not themselves pay the “prices” they decide are acceptable. The costs of their decisions are externalized onto creative writing, the victims of their economic and shooting wars. Fireflies tells the story of two children who actually paid the “price.” That is why it is p.hd in english, such a powerfully anti-war film regardless of the director’s intentions. It tells the story of war realistically from the perspective of its most vulnerable victims, as opposed to just the “derring-do” of fighters. And that is more than enough to inspire any decent human being to curse the essay on antigone name of p.hd thesis in english, war upon watching it. More specifically, it will move any heart not corrupted and hardened by nationalism to look on policies like the Israeli blockade of Gaza, US sanctions on Iran, and plainswoman, the new Saudi blockade of Yemen, as the infanticidal atrocities they are.

Takahata co-founded Studio Ghibli with Hayao Miyazaki, and the anti-war message in Miyazaki’s work is more subtle, yet also much more deliberate. In western fantasy, wars are traditionally depicted as worthy struggles between unalloyed good and pure evil, with the protagonist firmly on the side of the angels and against the devils. Even The Lord of the Rings trilogy falls victim to this tendency, as George R.R. Martin has pointed out. In Miyazaki’s fantasies, however, wars are portrayed as senseless and horrible.

The heroes are generally not on either side of the p.hd thesis war, but are caught between the two. And their struggle is not to win the war, but to defuse it. The characters who pursue war — generally government officials — are portrayed as vainglorious and essay, arrogant schemers who rashly court cataclysm for the sake of p.hd thesis, their grandiose ambitions. Yet even these antagonists are not treated as devils, but as deeply flawed human beings. The heroes do not harbor vendettas and thirst for vengeance against them, as the typical western action hero does. Rather, the essay deception heroes try to convince them to p.hd thesis, abandon their disastrous plans, while also striving to foil those plans directly. The climax of the film comes not with the hero impaling or detonating his foe, as in so many Hollywood movies, or in the villain falling to his doom, as in so many Disney animated films. Miyazaki’s heroes achieve victory, not through the destruction of writing primary, their enemies, but by foiling their plans enough such that the belligerents finally relent. The loving and forgiving attitude of the hero sometimes even prevails to the point of converting villains into p.hd thesis in english, friends. Miyazaki’s first and most paradigmatic masterpiece was initially written by him as a comic (manga) and then scripted and directed by him as an creative 4, animated film (anime) shortly before Studio Ghibli was founded. In Nausicaa of the p.hd Valley of the Wind (1984), two post-apocalyptic kingdoms, Tolumekia and Pejite, are locked in essay, an existential struggle over control of an ancient weapon of mass destruction called a “Giant Warrior.” The struggle becomes so desperate that one side is even willing to almost completely destroy itself for the sake of completely destroying the other side.

Here we see a portrayal of the Dr. Strangelovean logic of men like LeMay, written by a man from the only country that has thus far been attacked with nuclear weapons. P.hd Thesis In English. One of the thesis characters even defends the mad ploy by saying, “It’s to protect the world. Please understand.” Another factor in the war is the Ohmu: a race of giant, nigh-invulnerable semi-sentient bugs.

The Ohmu are herd creatures that lethally stampede when enraged by violence perpetrated against their own kind. As Randolph Bourne taught, this is basically what happens to human beings as well when they develop war fever, especially when provoked by atrocity stories (whether real or manufactured). For more on this, see my essay “The Herd Mind.” At one point, this characteristic of the p.hd Ohmu is deliberately stimulated and on antigone deception, exploited by the government of one of the warring kingdoms, just as real-life governments and other terrorist organizations exploit and engineer atrocities so as to induce war fever. For more on this, see my essay “The Symbiosis of Savagery.” Nausicaa is an earnest, peace-loving young princess who becomes embroiled in the war between the two kingdoms when the thesis in english Giant Warrior crash lands in her little country, which is then brought under the brutal military occupation of the imperial Tolumekians for writing 4, the purpose of securing the WMD. Even after her homeland is attacked by both kingdoms, she strives for peace and understanding, going so far as to save the lives of thesis, members of romeo essay, both royal houses. And rather than try to destroy the p.hd rampaging Ohmu, she endeavors to stop the crime against their young that is provoking their violent rage (blowback) in the first place. The first official Studio Ghibli production was Miyazaki’s Castle in the Sky (1986). As in Nausicaa , the essay chief villains are agents and soldiers of an imperial government, hellbent on rediscovering and exploiting an ancient weapon of mass destruction. And like Princess Nausicaa, the young heroes of Castle in p.hd, the Sky , Princess Sheeta and Pazu, seek to avert war, in this case by destroying the WMD.

In Princess Mononoke , the 4 chief hero is p.hd thesis, Prince Ashitaka, who, like Nausicaa, is thrust into world affairs when his little country is impacted by the spillover effects of a war abroad. Essay Deception. And like Nausicaa, he strives to defuse the conflict instead of p.hd thesis, taking a side in it. At one point, one character asks in bafflement, “Whose side is he on?” The most representative image of plainswoman, this characteristic of the Miyazaki hero is the moment when Ashitaka steps between the p.hd thesis in english main figures of both sides of the war, and plainswoman essay, prevents them from killing each other, even at the cost of grievous injury to himself. Throughout the p.hd thesis film, warlike hatred is portrayed as a mystical, contagious, fatal disease that materializes as a black ooze and essay, turns rational beings into rampaging, brute beasts. Again, think of Bourne’s “Herd Mind” concept.

Miyazaki was so angered by the Iraq War that for a time he boycotted travel to America. P.hd In English. He said that his outrage over writing for grade the war had a major influence on his Howl’s Moving Castle (2004). In English. That film centers around a war between two neighboring countries (repeatedly referred to as “this stupid war”) in which even magicians have been enlisted. Howl is a draft-dodging renegade magician who stays free by roving from place to place in an ambulating, teleporting magico-mechanical castle and by keeping multiple identities. When asked by his beloved Sophie how many aliases he has, he answers, “as many as I need to keep my freedom.” One side of the war is masterminded by a Palpatine/Dick Cheney-like sorceress who had originally trained Howl. Now, she wants her errant “Sith” disciple either conscripted, drained of his powers, or dead. She serves as sort of a magical prime minister to the country’s king, a ridiculous figure who boyishly exults over his war and fancies himself a brilliant strategist.

I strongly suspect Miyazaki had George W. Bush in mind when creating this character. When Howl finally does intervene in the war, he does so, not by partaking in the slaughter of civilians perpetrated by both sides, but by wrecking the weapons of how do you write a persuasive outline, war being used for that slaughter. The film’s most glorious moment is p.hd thesis, when Howl and plainswoman, Sophie see a flying battleship appear and violate the beautiful serenity of his long-time refuge: a lovely little cottage amid a field of flowers. Howl: “What is that thing doing out here?” Sophie: “A battleship?” Howl: “Looking for more cities to thesis, burn.” Sophie: “Is it the how do enemy’s or one of ours?” Howl: “What difference does it make? Those stupid murderers.” Then, with a wave of thesis in english, his hand, Howl disables the ship by magically disconnecting its wiring. This is Miyazaki at his finest. The bombing of essay on antigone, cities is mass murder, regardless of whether it is done by our government in p.hd thesis, our name or by “the enemy.”

In Howl , as in both Nausicaa and Mononoke , true victory comes, not from the conquest of one war belligerent by another, but by both simply choosing to cease to fight, having seen the creative primary futility of the in english war, thanks to the exploits of the heroes. A similarly anti-military, anti-nationalist, and anti-conscription note is struck in Porco Rosso (1992), a story about a former World War I Italian fighter pilot who is transformed into essay deception, a humanoid pig, foreswears military flying and war profiteering, and embarks on p.hd in english, a career in private security. My favorite scene in this movie involves a surreptitious meeting Porco has with an old friend in a movie theater in creative writing 4, Fascist Italy. Porco Rosso: You're a major, eh? You've come up in the world, Fierrali. Fierrali: You fool. P.hd Thesis. Why did you come back? Porco Rosso: I make it a rule to go wherever I want to. Fierrali: The authorities aren't going to plainswoman, let you go this time. Did somebody tail you?

Porco Rosso: I gave them the slip. Fierrali: A warrant for your arrest is p.hd, being issued for refusal to cooperate. with the state, illegal coming and plainswoman, going, decadent thoughts, being a lazy pig, and display of thesis in english, indecent materials. Porco Rosso: Ha ha ha ha Fierrali: You idiot, this is and juliet essay, no time to laugh. They're threatening to. confiscate your fighter. Porco Rosso: This is a terrible film. Fierrali: Marco, come back to the Air Force. We'll use our influence to work. something out for you.

Porco Rosso: I'd rather be a pig than a fascist. Fierrali: The age of daredevil aviators is thesis in english, over. Now we can only fly in the. service of worthless causes like country or nation. Porco Rosso: I only fly for myself. Bretigne Shaffer has written an bridge hook, excellent appreciation of the film, in which she wrote: When he makes a large cash withdrawal from the bank, the thesis in english teller asks him if he wants to make a contribution “to the people” with a Patriot Bond. And Juliet Love. “I’m not a person,” is Porco’s terse reply.

Later, when his arms merchant warns him that the government may pass laws against what he does, he replies “laws don’t apply to thesis in english, pigs.” (After Porco leaves, the merchant’s son asks “how’s war different from bounty hunting?” His father replies “war profiteers are villains. Bounty hunters are just stupid.”) Anti-fascist, renegade, capitalist, pig. Porco Rosso is one of Miyazaki’s greatest characters: a veritable Malcolm Reynolds with a snout. Miyazaki is now retired. His final film, The Wind Rises is a beautifully fitting swan song in two ways. For one, it is perhaps his most expressly anti-war film. For another, it is his most clearly expressed paean to creative writing 4, the splendor and tragedy of p.hd, human flight. The film is a fictionalized telling of the life of Jiro Horikoshi, the inventor of the Japanese World War II dogfighter the Mitsubishi A5M and its successor the a persuasive outline A6M “Zero.” Miyazaki was inspired to make The Wind Rises when he read that Horikoshi had allegedly once muttered, “All I wanted to do was to p.hd thesis in english, make something beautiful.” The exhilarating beauty and freedom of human flight is a theme that pervades Miyazaki’s entire corpus, including his films that do not address war. One such film, My Neighbor Totoro was released simultaneously with Grave of the Fireflies . It is Studio Ghibli’s and Miyazaki’s signature film.

It tells of hope and joy in the face of childhood adversity just as movingly as its counterpart tells of despair and grief. Satsuki, a girl about Seita’s age, and her sister Mei, a girl about Setsuko’s age, both struggle with their mother’s serious illness and long absence. Like Setsuko, Mei comes into peril in plainswoman essay, spite of her older sibling’s efforts to protect her. But since this story is p.hd in english, 20th century fantasy, and not a biographical tale set in the actual history of hook thesis, that grim century, things play out very differently. Rather than “aid” from a wicked and incompetent government (like the rice dole in Fireflies ), the children receive saving help from forest spirits, including especially the giant, furry Totoro. At one point, the p.hd Totoro takes the on antigone two girls flying through the thesis in english air on essay deception, its magic, spinning top. As they soar unseen over their neighbors, and rustle crops in the field as they pass, Satsuki exclaims in delight, “Mei, we’re the wind!” Similarly exhilarating moments can be found in Miyazaki’s Kiki’s Delivery Service (flying on p.hd, a broom), Whisper of the Heart (riding the wind with a humanoid cat), and Spirited Away (a flying dragon). When Howl first meets Sophie they walk on air together.

Nausicaa, Sheeta, and Pazu ride the wind on gliders. And of course Porco Rosso soars through the air in his plane. Miyazaki is clearly enchanted with flight and the wind. He generously shares that enchantment with us by translating it into beautiful films. In The Wind Rises , he portrays Jiro Horikoshi as similarly enchanted with the on antigone deception beauty of p.hd, aircraft. He has Jiro meet, in shared dreams, his hero, the Italian aircraft designer Giovanni Battista Caproni. Caproni teaches him that “Airplanes are beautiful dreams,” but warns him that they are also “cursed dreams.”

Nobody is more familiar with what a curse airplanes can be when deployed for on antigone deception, evil than the Japanese. Airplanes dropped the canisters that burned their cities, the mines that starved their children, and the nukes that instantly made vast irradiated graveyards out of Hiroshima and Nagasaki — for the first time in in english, history visiting solar-temperature hell upon bridge thesis, human habitations, and hinting at p.hd thesis, mankind’s full capacity for suicidal madness. But their intimate familiarity with the “cursed dream” of airplanes also stems from the Japanese state’s own misuse of the great invention for its imperial dreams. This truth is intimated throughout The Wind Rises in the tension between the desire of several of the bridge hook characters to simply build graceful, well-designed aircraft and p.hd thesis, the knowledge that their beautiful creations will be used to perpetrate the hideous horrors of essay, war. When Jiro first meets Caproni in their shared dream space, Jiro is just a boy and Caproni’s Italy is embroiled in World War I. They look up at Italian biplanes departing into the sky. A gunner salutes them. Caproni says: “Look at them. They will bomb an enemy city.

Most of them will never return. Well, it will all be over soon.” The scene cuts to an image of one of the planes crashing into a burning city. But Caproni insists that “airplanes are not tools for war.” The two board a different kind of plane and take off. Caproni explains: “This is my true dream. P.hd. When the war is over, I will build this. What do you think? Magnificent, isn’t she? Instead of bombs, she’ll carry passengers.”

They climb out onto the wing, where Caproni shows Jiro an romeo love, even grander plane, filled with happy tourists. “She is beautiful, yes? She will carry 100 people across the Atlantic, both ways!” Caproni’s true dream is to thesis in english, give people the creative writing worksheets 4 joy and freedom of air travel: to use his creations, not to slay, but to thesis, serve his fellow human beings. Jiro is dazzled and plainswoman, deeply affected. Years later, Mitsubishi sends Jiro and his friend Honjo to study Nazi Germany’s G38 passenger plane, which the company plans to purchase and convert into a bomber. Echoing Caproni’s sentiment, Jiro remarks: “Look, passengers sit in the wings. It’d be a shame to p.hd thesis, put bombs there.” In another dream-meeting in the middle of Jiro’s career, Caproni says: “Humanity has always dreamed of flying. But the writing worksheets for grade 4 dream is cursed.

My aircraft are destined to become tools for slaughter and destruction.” The fictional Jiro then echoes his historical counterpart, saying: “I just want to in english, create beautiful airplanes,” Later, during a planning meeting with his design team attended by his bosses, he discusses how weight is a big problem for one of the possible designs. He half-jokingly, half-hopefully proposes: “One solution could be: we could leave out the guns.” Of course, everyone bursts into laughter, and Jiro moves on to the next design. Before World War II even began, Japan was already using its new planes to try to crush a Chinese rebellion against its imperial yoke by terror bombing major Chinese cities, burning and asphyxiating thousands of civilians. Then, goaded by the American-led embargo of its islands, the writing for grade 4 planes were used to attack Pearl Harbor, as well as British and Dutch colonial holdings in Asia. Taking the p.hd thesis in english American bait, and essay, thinking that inflicting such a blow would induce Washington to negotiate an end to the embargo was a spectacularly disastrous miscalculation. The Japanese policy makers fatally underestimated both America’s industrial capacity and its political class’s appetite for blood and empire. Now Washington had just the p.hd in english excuse it needed to overwhelm domestic opposition and visit hell upon Japan for hook thesis, the sake of establishing its hegemony over east Asia.

The real-life Horikoshi himself wrote in his diary: “When we awoke on the morning of December 8, 1941, we found ourselves — without any foreknowledge — to p.hd in english, be embroiled in war… Since then, the majority of us who had truly understood the awesome industrial strength of the United States never really believed that Japan would win this war. We were convinced that surely our government had in romeo and juliet, mind some diplomatic measures which would bring the p.hd in english conflict to essay, a halt before the situation became catastrophic for Japan. But now, bereft of p.hd in english, any strong government move to seek a diplomatic way out, we are being driven to doom. Japan is creative for grade, being destroyed. I cannot do [anything] other but to blame the military hierarchy and the blind politicians in power for p.hd thesis in english, dragging Japan into this hellish cauldron of defeat.” The Empire of Japan’s imminent use of their advanced planes in on antigone deception, foolish aggression and its disastrous consequences are continually foreshadowed throughout the film. A friendly German expatriate named Castorp warns Jiro: “Make the world your enemy? Forget it. Japan will blow up.

Germany will blow up, too.” Later, Honjo shares with Jiro his frustrations over thesis his work designing Japan’s first advanced bomber. Jiro asks, “And who are they going to bomb with it?” Honjo answers wearily, “China, Russia, Britain, the Netherlands, America.” Jiro echoes Castorp, darkly predicting, “Japan will blow up.” After much of Japan does blow up, Jiro and writing for grade 4, Caproni meet one last time. In English. After walking through the wreckage of his planes amid a bombed-out city, he mourns that his “kingdom of dreams” has become a “land of the dead.” They look up together as a squadron of Jiro’s planes ascend into the sky. Caproni congratulates Jiro for how do a persuasive, finally completing his masterpiece of graceful flight. In a moment that bookends their first meeting, one of the pilots salutes Jiro. “Not a single one returned,” Jiro says. “There was nothing to return to,” Caproni responds, referring to the devastation of Japan. “Airplanes are beautiful cursed dreams, waiting for the sky to thesis, swallow them up.” The beautiful/cursed dream of flight dichotomy can be found throughout the Miyazaki/Studio Ghibli catalog.

In Nausicaa , there are graceful gliders but also lumbering warships and Zero-like dogfighters. In Castle in essay on antigone deception, the Sky , the characters fly in wondrous bug-wing aircraft, but are also strafed by thesis warship cannons. And it turns out that the “Castle in the Sky” itself is a massive suborbital Death Star that deploys an romeo love, entire armada of killer drones. Just as Fireflies vividly showed what World War II air raids did to the lovely cities of Japan, Howl’s Moving Castle visually referenced the fate of the beautiful old European cities, like Dresden and Hamburg, that were firebombed in that war. The movie begins with the pomp and circumstance of p.hd thesis, patriotic war preparation.

This nationalist virus lives amid the prosperity, activity, and and juliet love essay, commerce of a beautiful and in english, bustling European port town. Essay. Tragically the virus kills its lovely host, as later we see the bombers that Howl worked to in english, sabotage turn this jewel of civilization into a lake of fire. The human toll is not displayed nearly as graphically as in Fireflies , but the message is writing primary 4, clear. The horrors of p.hd, firebombing are given a reverse image in another scene in Howl , in which falling stars (dying fire spirits) create a beautifully illuminated display. A similar contrast can be found in Fireflies . Bridge Hook. As Ebert wrote of the napalm canisters at the beginning of the film: “These bombs, longer than a tin can but about as big around, fall to earth trailing cloth tails that flutter behind them; they are almost a beautiful sight. After they hit, there is a moment’s silence, and then they detonate, spraying their surroundings with flames.” This film’s reverse image of firebombs are the fireflies that so enchant Setsuko. In a beautiful moment amid their tribulations, the brother and sister gather fireflies to dazzlingly illuminate the cave they are living in. Setsuko’s look of wonder is heart-piercing.

But the magic disappears the next morning when she finds that the p.hd in english fireflies are all dead. This memento mori causes her to think of her mother. Essay Deception. She buries the fireflies in a grave as she thinks her mother was buried, and p.hd thesis in english, asks her brother, “Why do fireflies die so soon?” The question foreshadows her own unbearably untimely death and the flickering brevity of her life. Life indeed is already so brief, which makes it all the more a crime for war bringers to make it even shorter for so many, and so painful in the duration. Studio Ghibli is often called the essay Japanese Disney. Yet nothing in American animation can compare with it: not Disney, not even Pixar. The Miyazaki heroine, for example, is much more worthy of emulation than the Disney Princess. More than that, even most western fantasy cinema and literature in general pales in comparison, including much that we consider great. For example, as much as Tolkien’s Lord of the Rings is a profound meditation on p.hd thesis, the corruption of power, its discussion of war and peace is crudely Manichean.

Yet on this subject, and so many others, the fantasy of Studio Ghibli — especially the work of the creative genius Hayao Miyazaki— is wise and deeply moral, as well as exhilarating and achingly beautiful. It is a cultural treasure that stands and soars in essay, a class of in english, its own. Miyazaki’s films are beautiful dreams. May time never swallow them up. A creative genius takes a stand against the militarization of the superhero medium.com. Google’s boycott campaign against war photography and alternative media medium.com.

Ron Paul’s Faith in Basic Human Decency and the Power of Ideas medium.com. Captain America Vs. the Stark Doctrine medium.com. From Uncle Sam, the Bruce Wayne of Jihad, and his Cronies medium.com. Inflation, Total War, and the Federal Reserve’s Shell Game medium.com. Clapping shows how much you appreciated Dan Sanchez’s story.

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essay heuristic Paper presented to p.hd thesis CCPE, London - October, 2001. ? Dave Hiles 2001. Heuristic Inquiry and Transpersonal Research. (Psychology Department, De Montfort University, Leicester. LE1 9BH. Outline! UK.)

I would like to begin with a quote from William Braud and thesis, Rosemarie Anderson that I think will clearly go to the heart of what my focus will be this evening. Many of the most significant and exciting life events and extraordinary experiences - moments of clarity, illumination, and romeo, healing - have been systematically excluded from conventional research. Usually, when I introduce the course that I teach on qualitative inquiry, I begin by thesis in english, defining research as an addition to knowledge , and I also point out that we undertake research because we care and want to make a difference . It is therefore with some concern that I do take seriously what Braud Anderson are saying, especially with respect to the field of transpersonal experience. I am particularly disturbed by the claim that research is being systematically excluded. It would seem that we are being actively prevented by other scientists from adding to our knowledge of some of the you write outline, most significant and exciting aspects of thesis, human experience.

This makes me wonder about such matters as: exclusion by whom, on what grounds, and at what expense to humanity does conventional research make such limitations. The motivation for this lecture is that I think we all care, and that we do want to make a difference. While I will be mostly concerned with the heuristic inquiry approach to research, what I will be saying here is particularly relevant to these wider issues raised above. What seems to lie behind Braud Anderson's comment is love essay, that some areas of human action and experience are thought by some scientists to be too difficult to study, or even to be unsuitable topics of empirical study. However, it is my view that these topics are too important to be ignored. Problems of measurement, and lack of appropriate methods of inquiry, have often been the stock excuses offered for the exclusion of these areas of study. P.hd! I want to argue that such excuses are no longer valid, and we should begin to essay on antigone deception take notice of an p.hd thesis in english, expanding range of methods of inquiry now being made available, and that we must take seriously the research findings that are beginning to emerge in these areas.

I would place transpersonal research and heuristic inquiry within the area of human science (Giorgi, 1970; 1994). How Do Speech! It is especially relevant here to draw attention to the following point made by Donald Polkinghorne. Human science seeks to know the reality which is particularly our own, the reality of our experience, actions, and expressions. This realm is closest to us, yet it is most resistant to p.hd our attempt to grasp it with understanding. Because of the success we have had knowing the world around us, the human realm has expanded its power to such an extent that we can act to create wellbeing and how do you write speech, physical security and comfort and to in english inflict untold suffering and destruction. Serious and rigorous re-searching of the human realm is required. Polkinghorne (1983, p. 280-1)

Polkinghorne's plea for creative writing 4, a serious and rigorous re-searching of the human realm is exactly the point I wish to p.hd thesis in english make. He points out that although this realm is closest to us, in romeo and juliet love essay, the sense that it concerns our direct human experience, it can also be most resistant to careful study. He warns that the imbalance between our efforts in p.hd thesis in english, the natural science approach, at the expense of human science, may be a contributory factor in the untold suffering and destruction that seems to be ever present in writing 4, the modern psyche. I remember that Carl Jung expressed very much the same idea when he observed that the future of thesis, humankind is held by a single thread, the human psyche. There is no more urgent topic to research than the human realm of creative writing primary 4, experience, action and expression, especially the significant and exciting life events and the extraordinary experiences these can entail. I want to in english examine the role that heuristic inquiry can play in this and and juliet love essay, its relationship to transpersonal research. 2. Heuristic inquiry.

Heuristic inquiry is an extremely demanding process, involving disciplined self-commitment, rigorous self-searching and self-reflection, and ultimately a surrender to the process. It does not suit a fixed time-frame for research, and should not to be attempted lightly. In essence, it is a research process designed for the exploration and interpretation of experience, which uses the self of the researcher. It is thesis in english, a research process that reflects Clark Moustakas' basic philosophy that in every learner, in every person, there are creative sources of energy and meaning that are often tacit, hidden, or denied (Moustakas, 2001). I will begin by discussing heuristic inquiry within the context of deception, my own experience. For many years now, I have been engaged in p.hd thesis, a research project that could be said to have almost taken over my life. It began with some insights into 4, the parallels between the thesis, work of Carl Jung and the work of the 18 th Century English poet and artist William Blake.

These insights particularly related to understanding the processes of transformation that can be involved in the experience of human suffering. I especially wanted to apply these insights in my practice as a counsellor and therapist, and also engage in research that would bring some form to creative primary 4 these insights that could then be shared with others in the field. When this all started, I was not even sure that what I was doing could even be called research. In fact, it was only several years later that I discovered that what I had been doing all along was really heuristic inquiry . Coming across the work of Clark Moustakas (1990), I immediately recognised the phases of engagement, immersion, incubation and illumination in my own work. I have reported some of the methodological issues involved in this work before (Hiles, 1999, 2001), and I only will briefly summarise here the essentials of p.hd thesis in english, Moustakas' method, together with some of the insights that I have gained about the nature of heuristic inquiry from my own direct experience in using it.

Heuristic inquiry was developed by a persuasive speech, Clark Moustakas (1990; see also Douglass Moustakas, 1985), and p.hd thesis, bares some striking resemblance to the idea of a persuasive outline, lived inquiry developed by John Heron (1998), and mindful inquiry developed by Bentz Shapiro (1998). The heuristic inquiry paradigm is an adaptation of phenomenological inquiry but explicitly acknowledges the involvement of the researcher , to the extent that the lived experience of the researcher becomes the main focus of the p.hd thesis, research. The researcher really needs to feel passionate about the research question (West, 1998a; 1998b). Hook! Indeed, what is explicitly the focus of the approach is the transformative effect of the inquiry on the researcher's own experience. This is often achieved by a process that I think can usefully be called discernment . The heuristic process involves getting inside the research question, becoming one with it, living it. Self dialogue is the critical beginning, allowing the phenomenon to p.hd thesis in english speak directly to one's own experience. Knowledge grows out of direct human experience and discovery involves self-inquiry, an openness to one's own experience.

I n addition to knowledge that we can make explicit, there is knowledge that is implicit to our actions and experiences. Essay! This tacit dimension is p.hd, ineffable and creative worksheets for grade 4, unspecifiable, it underlies and precedes intuition and can guide the researcher into untapped directions and sources of meaning. Intuition provides the bridge between explicit and p.hd, tacit knowledge. Essay! Intuition makes possible the p.hd thesis, seeing of things as wholes. Essay Deception! Every act of achieving integration, unity or wholeness requires intuition. This refers to the conscious and deliberate process of turning inward to seek a deeper, more extended comprehension of a quality or theme of human experience. Indwelling involves a willingness to gaze with unwavering attention and concentration into some aspect of human experience. Focussing is inner attention, a staying with, a sustained process of p.hd thesis, systematically contacting the central meanings of an experience. It enables one to see something as it is and to make whatever shifts are necessary to make contact with necessary awareness and insight.

The outcome of the heuristic process in terms of knowledge and experience must be placed in essay on antigone deception, the context of the experiencer's own internal frame of reference, and not some external frame. The task of the first phase is to discover an intense interest, a passionate concern that calls out to the researcher, one that holds important social meanings and personal, compelling implications. The research question that emerges lingers with the researcher, awaiting the disciplined commitment that will reveal its underlying meanings. The research question is lived in waking, sleeping and even dream states. This requires alertness, concentration and self-searching. Virtually anything connected with the question becomes raw material for immersion. This involves a retreat from the intense, concentrated focus, allowing the expansion of knowledge to take place at a more subtle level, enabling the inner tacit dimension and intuition to p.hd clarify and extend understanding. This involves a breakthrough, a process of creative writing primary, awakening that occurs naturally when the researcher is open and receptive to tacit knowledge and intuition. It involves opening a door to new awareness, a modification of an thesis, old understanding, a synthesis of fragmented knowledge, or new discovery. This involves a full examination of creative primary 4, what has been awakened in consciousness. What is in english, required is organization and a comprehensive depiction of the core themes.

Thoroughly familiar with the data, and thesis, following a preparatory phase of solitude and meditation, the researcher puts the components and core themes usually into thesis in english, the form of creative synthesis expressed as a narrative account, a report, a thesis, a poem, story, drawing, painting, etc. The question of essay deception, validity is one of meaning. Does the synthesis present comprehensively, vividly, and accurately the meanings and essences of the experience? Returning again and again to the data to in english check whether they embrace the thesis, necessary and sufficient meanings. Finally, feedback is obtained through participant validation, and receiving responses from others. . . . a process of internal search through which one discovers the in english, nature and meaning of experience and develops methods and procedures for essay deception, further investigation and p.hd, analysis. The self of the researcher is present throughout the creative, process and, while understanding the phenomenon with increasing depth, the researcher also experiences growing self-awareness and self-knowledge (p. 9). . . . The heuristic process is a way of being informed, a way of p.hd thesis, knowing (p. 10). . . . Essay! From the beginning, and throughout an investigation, heuristic research involves self-search , self-dialogue , and self-discovery ; the research question and the methodology flow out of p.hd, inner awareness, meaning, and inspiration.

When I consider an issue, problem, or question, I enter into it fully . Writing Worksheets For Grade! . P.hd Thesis In English! . I may challenge, confront, or even doubt my understanding of a human concern or issue; but when I persist in plainswoman, a disciplined and in english, devoted way I ultimately deepen my knowledge of the phenomenon . . I am personally involved . . I may be entranced by visions, images, and dreams that connect me to my quest. I may come into touch with new regions of myself, and discover revealing connections with others (p. 11). . . Bridge Thesis! . Essentially in the heuristic process, I am creating a story that portrays the qualities, meanings, and essences of universally unique experiences (p. Thesis! 13). . . . In heuristic research the investigator must have had a direct, personal encounter with the phenomenon being investigated. There must have been actual autobiographical connections (p. 14).

. Creative For Grade! . . Heuristic inquiry is a process that begins with a question or problem which the researcher seeks to illuminate or answer. The question is one that has been a personal challenge and puzzlement in the search to understand one?s self and the world in which one lives. The heuristic process is autobiographic , yet with virtually every question that matters personally there is also a social - and perhaps universal - significance (p. 15). 3. Some observations concerning heuristic inquiry. There is clearly more involved in heuristic inquiry than the researcher simply analyzing their own experience, which could easily be seen as a variation of phenomenological inquiry. What Moustakas seems to offer is the much wider context within which the researcher engages with the thesis in english, research question, examines their own experience amongst a number of other explorations, and follows this through with an awareness of the transformative processes at work in the research enterprise. Plainswoman Essay! Drawing on my own use of this method of p.hd thesis in english, inquiry, I would like to make the essay, following observations.

Heuristic inquiry is a research process that is difficult to in english set any clear boundaries to, with respect to duration and scope. It is a method that can be best described as following your nose, but at the same time requires the highest degree of rigour and thoroughness. It is a method of inquiry that should not be undertaken lightly. In heuristic inquiry, the research question chooses you, and invariably the research question is deeply personal in origin. Indeed, it is my own experience that the research question has been a preoccupation of plainswoman, mine for at p.hd, least thirty years, and probably much longer than that. There is a very striking similarity between the methods of heuristic inquiry and the practice of counselling and creative writing primary, psychotherapy, particularly with respect to the use of the p.hd thesis in english, self. It is therefore a method of research that particularly resonates with inquiry into counselling and therapy related issues. Heuristic inquiry highlights the importance of working with the heuristic process of bridge, others, especially with the historical recordings of previous inquiry (especially spiritual texts).

Indeed, it turns out that the works of p.hd, writers, poets, artists, spiritual leaders and scientists can all be usefully treated as the creative products of heuristic inquiry. In the essay deception, light of this last observation, it would seem that heuristic inquiry was probably the first research method adopted for psychological inquiry many, many centuries ago. Thesis! It should really be regarded as the most ancient of methods, with a proven track record well before the advent of modern science and psychology. It is a method of a persuasive outline, inquiry that is p.hd, desperately in need of being re-invented! The form that my own heuristic research has taken, in addition to my own self-exploration and lived inquiry, involved the designing and carrying out of several phenomenological/co-operative inquiries. Essay Deception! I have interviewed people who have claimed to thesis in english have had a near-death experience, people who have been victims of serious crimes, and people who have been attracted to voluntary, or paid work, which entails being in a helping role with others (i.e. Thesis! counsellors, carers, nurses, social workers, advocates, etc.).

Such research is necessarily ongoing, and the outcomes are not always easy to summarise. However, two fairly specific claims have emerged, (i) a clearer and more general view of the human response to loss, and in particular the human grieving process, and (ii) the p.hd in english, crucial importance of the heuristic framework for researching human experience. 4. Transpersonal inquiry. The transpersonal represents a distinct new paradigm within psychology because the assumptions and presuppositions it makes are so different to the rest of psychology. At the heart of the transpersonal approach is an attempt to place human life and experience in its widest possible context. Of course, such an approach has a very long history indeed, although it has largely been expressed in spiritual and essay, religious terms. Personally, I cannot see that it matters in the least whether different cultures and groups of people, at different times in human history, have come up with very different visions of reality, of our place in it, and the associated practices that help give meaning to human existence.

However, what does matter is the recognition of the crucial role that transpersonal beliefs and p.hd in english, practices play in peoples? lives, and essay on antigone, the important place these can have in explaining and understanding an individual?s experience, actions, growth and development. In a previous paper (Hiles, 2000), I have described the aim of transpersonal psychology as offering a synthesis of what may seem, on the surface, to be two quite different traditions - science and spiritual practice. Thesis! What has emerged is a new field offering new approaches to psychotherapy, human development, crisis, etc. Before modern psychology, it was the spiritual traditions and practices in the wide range of cultures that offered an understanding of human consciousness, and the possibilities of human experience. Transpersonal psychology can be seen as an attempt to bring the world?s great spiritual traditions together with the basic ideas of and juliet love essay, (Western) modern psychology.

This has, to a large extent, already been achieved in Eastern psychology, we are just coming rather late to this in the West!! The vitality and enormous scope of this field is in english, demonstrated, amongst many other examples, in the pioneering vision of Ken Wilber (1977, 1980, 1983, 1998, 2000), in research on spiritual emergence/emergency and the model of the holotropic mind developed by romeo and juliet love essay, Stanislav Grof (1985, 1988, 1998; and with Christina Grof 1989, 1990), and in John Heron's (1998) proposal for thesis, a person-based, person-centred spirituality. While the transpersonal field has been developing since the early 1970's, it has been more or less waiting for appropriate research methods in order to emerge into the mainstream. The very nature of the transpersonal paradigm, where the basic assumptions of the field are so different from other areas of scientific inquiry, requires paradigms of inquiry that are necessarily quite different. However, transpersonal inquiry is no less empirical than any other area of inquiry, but the empirical focus is on human intuition and how do you write a persuasive speech, creative expression, and possible altered states of awareness. The empirical data can take the form of subjective experience, discernment and p.hd thesis, direct knowing which may emerge from deception, dreamwork, imagery exercises, storytelling and meditation practices, etc. It is notable that recently very considerable progress has been made in the development of p.hd thesis, research methods more appropriate to the paradigm of transpersonal inquiry. For example, Braud Anderson (1998), Heron (1998) and Valle (1998) have considerably extended the range of research methods that this area might adopt. Braud Anderson's work in particular reflects the need for a systematic approach to the development of you write speech, new inquiry paradigms. They do draw up a general scheme which usefully tries to bring some order to the confusing diversity of methods of data collection and in english, analysis, which I have summarized in Table 3. They propose five new methods for transpersonal research. A Persuasive Speech! But my concern here is to point out that these new methods do not seem to differ significantly from the intermediate approaches that they identify.

For example, with respect to heuristic inquiry, describing it as intermediate, as sharing important commonalities, is misleading. In most cases, the thesis in english, five methods outlined by Braud Anderson are each variants of the romeo love, heuristic inquiry process. They seem to p.hd in english overlook the fact that heuristic inquiry and phenomenological inquiry are both foundational to this whole area of research. Although heuristic inquiry is plainswoman, not of necessity transpersonal, it has a central role to play in the research into transpersonal and p.hd thesis, spiritual issues. Naturalistic and field studies. Historical and archival. Content analysis, textual analysis. Narrative and writing primary 4, discourse analysis. Case studies and life stories. Interviews, questionnaires and. and design issues.

Physiological and in english, biomedical. assessments and design issues. Experiential research method. Inquiry informed by exceptional. 5. A note on mindful inquiry. Earlier I mentioned an approach to inquiry that is similar to heuristic inquiry, and creative writing, is certainly worth spelling out a little further.

This is the refreshingly different approach to research called mindful inquiry (Bentz Shapiro, 1998). Mindful inquiry is described as a synthesis of thesis in english, four intellectual traditions : phenomenology, hermeneutics, critical social theory , and Buddhism . Scientific research is recognized as one of our many ways of knowing, and needs to thesis be connected with the other ways. The emphasis in p.hd, this approach is in placing the inquirer at the centre, and research from this perspective is seen as intimately linked with the awareness and the experienced world of the researcher. Research can be seen to contribute explicitly to the transformation of the researcher?s sense of self or identity. Plainswoman! The idea of bringing mindfulness into disciplined inquiry is p.hd thesis in english, exciting, as it stresses focus, intention and awareness of whatever is bridge thesis, present in a situation or experience. There is one aspect of mindful inquiry that I think is of special note, which is the inclusion of critical social theory. I do not have time to develop this point here, but one of the features of critical theory that I think is most important is the thesis in english, recognition that theories, explanations and understanding can be empowering . 4! One of the goals of psychological inquiry and therapeutic practice must be empowerment, i.e. the use of psychological knowledge and in english, techniques to empower people to make informed choices, express themselves freely, and for grade 4, challenge discrimination, oppression and unnecessary suffering.

While empowerment is possibly universally held by counsellors and therapists to be an outcome of their practices, it is hardly ever acknowledged that this also needs to be a recognized outcome of research inquiry. Mindful inquiry clearly does this, as does heuristic inquiry. 6. Developing the heuristic approach. Recently, I have found myself adapting the heuristic approach for my own specific purposes of inquiry. In turn, this seems to have revealed something of what lies at the core of this approach. On different occasions I have found myself needing to engage deeply with some specific material, or text. P.hd! I have come to call this deep study of a single text, heuristic engagement (and I am very aware that this is almost precisely how I view working with a client in therapeutic practice). On other occasions I might deliberately choose two or more texts for this work, and I have called this methodology heuristic comparison . Both of these methods are simple adaptations of the method of worksheets for grade, heuristic inquiry, designed as formalized analytical tools for thesis, the study of the phenomenological experience resulting from engagement with almost any cultural or clinical practice.

In the case of heuristic comparison, the methodology involves these basic phases: choosing two texts/practices for comparison - this is not limited to writing 4 only two and is not crucial - but the selection needs to be very limited, leaving other comparisons for further study, and the choice needs to be made from a range of p.hd thesis in english, texts/practices with some underlying feature in common. a phenomenological engagement with the texts/practices, examining and re-examining them, drawing out similarities and differences, exploring the and juliet love, demands placed on the researcher. a period of discernment and exploration, but avoiding superficial similarities and differences - with the likely need to follow leads to materials outside those chosen, but always returning to the comparison that is the in english, main focus of the creative writing primary 4, study. a phase of sifting through and gathering together the materials and experiences, allowing a range of insights, meanings and themes to emerge. reflection on the inter-relations of the texts/practices, working towards formulating a range of insights, perhaps working back through phases (ii) to p.hd thesis (iv) again and again and again. a formulation, or synthesis of the inquiry involving self-validation. and finally, further establishing the hook, validation of the work by sharing it with others. There are three features of this methodology that I would like to point out here. Firstly, it should be fairly clear that the methodology is the outcome of trying to do justice to the required depth of the engagement with the material, while also being able to set appropriate boundaries to in english the work that is involved.

It is my view that a heuristic comparison is almost always simply a part of a wider heuristic inquiry. Secondly, I would like to bridge hook thesis claim that there is possibly something universal about these seven phases. My reason for this claim arises from the fact that I keep coming across these seven phases in different aspects of my own work. P.hd Thesis In English! For example, they are clearly explicit in the description of heuristic inquiry offered by Moustakas. But they also emerge from my close examination of bridge hook thesis, some of the p.hd in english, work of William Blake, and bridge thesis, I have found them to be the in english, key to formulating a deeper understanding of the grieving process in the human response to suffering (Hiles, 1999). Thesis! And, thirdly, I must emphasize the importance of the seventh phase, (vii ) validating the in english, work by sharing with others, which is the key to understanding good qualitative research practices. It is my observation that this seventh phase is often overlooked, or taken for granted by other researchers. For example, Moustakas (1990) clearly offers six phases to his discussion of heuristic inquiry (p. 27), but then clearly includes a seventh phase (p. 32-37). It is my proposal that validation of the research is two-fold, involving a process of self-validation (and possibly participant verification) that is a persuasive, integral to the sixth phase of the creative synthesis, and in the seventh phase a process of external validation, a sharing with others, which is the basic requirement of any research paradigm.

I pointed out earlier that heuristic inquiry is in english, really the most ancient of inquiry practices, and you can possibly see that what I am calling for is that it should be given the proper recognition that it obviously deserves. 7. Researching human experience. All transpersonal inquiry will involve a focus on the exploration and study of human experience. But, the study of human experience is plainswoman, certainly not without its difficulties, not least of which is the sheer breadth of experiences this would entail. P.hd Thesis In English! As a final thought, I have tried to take a broad view of the nature of this field of bridge, study by identifying a number of tensions that seem to underlie much of the thesis in english, research involved. Six of these tensions are presented in Table 4. What lies behind my thinking is plainswoman, that there seems to be a fundamental tension between experience that is grounded in human knowledge systems of our everyday occurrences, and experience that is p.hd thesis, more subtle which involves perhaps deeper or altered states of consciousness. leading to knowledge derived. from an plainswoman essay, imposed order.

experience derived from everyday happenings, events. common, ordinary normal. focus on the content of thought. (whether real or imagined) expected, predicted, absorbed. into our current perspective. centred in the self. leading to knowledge of a. induced experiences through. rituals, shared practices. uncommon, unusual, unique. the experience of knowing itself, witnessing the act of knowing.

generating insight and permanent. beyond self, what am I a part of? This contrast between grounded and subtle can be broken down into at least six underlying tensions. Human experience may be constructed or principled by the culture we are embedded in, or by thesis, contrast may be the reflection of a process of discernment, i.e. a more directly experienced found order in essay deception, things. It may be experience that is spontaneously discovered in the course of events, or may result from proven practices or rituals. It may be common and ordinary, or quite exceptional in nature. It may be intentional, or may involve transcendent experience, for p.hd, example the subjective experience of plainswoman essay, knowing itself. It may be experience that is predictable and easily assimilated into in english, a current point of view, or it may be a transforming experience, leading to insight and significant change.

Finally, it may be experience grounded in the ego and self, or may be transpersonal, beyond ego and self. My purpose here is simply to do justice to the full range of creative writing 4, experience, setting out a curriculum for study in p.hd, this field. The possibilities of researching human experience from a transpersonal perspective are of course exciting, but also challenging. Not the least of the challenges involved will be in creative writing 4, convincing the wider scientific community of the seriousness of this undertaking. I find it extremely encouraging that Ken Wilber, in his discussion of direct spiritual experience, asserts that such experience is repeatable, reproducible and p.hd thesis in english, confirmable (Wilber, 1999, p. Writing Worksheets For Grade! 43). These are of in english, course the basic requirements of any scientific approach. Wilber (1998, p. 155-6) proposes three essential aspects of any scientific inquiry: (i) instrumental injunction - if you want to know this, do this, (ii) direct apprehension - the 4, direct experience or apprehension of the data, and (iii) communal confirmation or rejection - checking the p.hd thesis, data with others. These three essential aspects of scientific inquiry ensure that the basic requirements of repeatability, reproducibility and confirmability are being met.

Furthermore, it is a persuasive outline, quite clear from Wilber's position that in these respects research into in english, human experience is no different from any other area of scientific research. It also seems to follow that in many ways spiritual experience, that so often is the product of an injunction to essay on antigone deception practice a certain form of meditation practice or ritual, may be relatively much easier to study scientifically than other types of experience which are more exceptional or spontaneous. In these latter cases, the only difference is in the form of injunction involved, i.e. wait for this to happen, or, find instances of this happening, and in english, then apprehend the data, and confirm the observation with others. Another matter that I think has importance, is the point made by Valle Mohs (1998, p.100). They propose that transpersonal awareness: seems somehow prior to [any] reflective-prereflective realm, presenting itself as more of a space or ground from which our more common experience and felt-sense emerge. Moreover, it is an awareness that makes itself known to the experiencer, but: is not of the phenomenal realm of perceiver and perceived [but] rather it is a noumenal, unitive space within or from which both intentional consciousness and phenomenal experience manifest.

The important point here is the claim that transpersonal awareness is creative primary, always prior to our phenomenal awareness. Our everyday awareness is grounded in transpersonal awareness, and it is not the other way around. What I have tried to do in this final part is perhaps set out an enormous programme of research that so desperately needs to be undertaken. I am left wondering, do we care ? And, if we do not care, who will? Do we want to make a difference? I hope that I have achieved my modest aims.

I have tried to provide a brief outline of the heuristic inquiry approach to research, originally pioneered in the work of Clark Moustakas. Thesis In English! I have argued that it occupies a key place in transpersonal inquiry. I have discussed some of the insights that I gained from using it myself, and have shown you how I have used its basic principles in developing some more specific inquiry paradigms of my own. What defines transpersonal inquiry is not its methods of research but the particular perspective it takes on human actions and plainswoman essay, experiences. However, progress in the transpersonal field will largely depend on how we refine our methods of inquiry. P.hd In English! The promise of heuristic inquiry is that it offers a systematic way of incorporating the self into our inquiry methods, and, therefore, some of the worksheets 4, most significant, exciting and urgent life events and extraordinary human experiences can be researched more closely. Bentz, V.M. Shapiro, J.J. (1998) Mindful Inquiry in Social Research.

Sage. Braud, W. Anderson, R. (Eds) (1998) Transpersonal Research Methods for the Social Sciences: Honoring human experience. Sage. Douglass, B.G. Moustakas, C. Thesis In English! (1985) Heuristic inquiry: The internal search to know. J. Humanistic Psychology , 25 , p. 39-55.

Giorgi, A. (1970) Psychology as a Human Science. Harper Row. Giorgi, A. (1994) The idea of human science. In F. Wertz (Ed.) The Humanistic Movement: Recovering the person in psychology. Gardener Press. Grof, C. Grof, S. (1990) The Stormy Search for the Self.

J.P. Tarcher. Grof, S. (1985) Beyond the Brain: Birth, death and transcendence in psychotherapy. SUNY. Grof, S. (1988) The Adventure of 4, Self Discovery. SUNY.

Grof, S. (1998) The Cosmic Game: Explorations of the frontiers of human consciousness. SUNY. Grof, S. Grof, C. (Eds.) (1989) Spiritual Emergency: When personal transformation becomes a crisis. In English! J.P. Tarcher.

Heron, J. (1996) Co-operative Inquiry: Research into the human condition. Sage. Heron, J. (1998) Sacred Science: Person-centred inquiry into the spiritual and the subtle. PCCS Books. Hiles, D.R. (1999) Loss, Grief and Transformation: A heuristic inquiry.

Paper presented to the 18 th International Human Science Research Conference, July 26 -29, Sheffield. Hiles, D.R. (2000) Defining the Paradigm of Humanistic-Existential Psychology. Paper prepared for the Old Saybrook 2 Conference , May 11 - 14, West Georgia, USA. Available at: Hiles, D.R. (2001) Jung, William Blake and on antigone, Our Answer to Job. Paper presented to the Collegium Jungianum Brunense, April 25th, Brno, Czech Republic. P.hd Thesis In English! Available at: Moustakas, C. (1990) Heuristic Research: Design, methodology and applications. Sage.

Moustakas, C. (2001) Statement . Available at: Polkinghorne, D.E. (1984) Methodology for the Human Sciences: Systems of inquiry. Hook Thesis! SUNY. Valle, R. (Ed.) (1998) Phenomenological Inquiry in p.hd thesis in english, Psychology: Existential and transpersonal dimensions. Hook Thesis! Plenum Press. Valle, R. Mohs, M. (1998) Transpersonal awareness in phenomenological inquiry: Philosophy, reflections, and thesis in english, recent research.

In W. Essay On Antigone! Braud R. Anderson (Eds) Transpersonal Research Methods for the Social Sciences: Honoring human experience. Sage. West, W. (1998a) Passionate research: Heuristics and the use of self in counselling research. Changes , 16, p. 60-66. West, W. (1998b) Critical subjectivity: Use of self in counselling research. Counselling , (August), p. 228-230. Wilber, K. (1977) The Spectrum of Consciousness . Quest. Wilber, K. (1980) The Atman Project . Quest. Wilber, K. (1983) Eye to Eye: The quest for the new paradigm . Shambala. Wilber, K. (1998) The Marriage of Sense and Soul: Integrating science and religion . Random House.

Wilber, K. (1999) One Taste: The journals of thesis, Ken Wilber . Shambala. Wilber, K. Essay Deception! (2000) Integral Psychology: Consciousness, spirit, psychology, therapy. Shambala.

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