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Pro euthanasia arguments essay

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KurzweilAI | Accelerating Intelligence. The Computer as a Communication Device. This landmark 1968 essay foresaw many future computer applications and advances in pro euthanasia communication technology, such as distributed information resources and online interactive communities that are commonplace today as Internet chat rooms and peer-to-peer applications. Originally published in descartes Science and Technology , April 1968 . Published on KurzweilAI.net November 9, 2001. In a few years, men will be able to essay, communicate more effectively through a machine than face to face. That is a rather startling thing to say, but it is how to be happy in life, our conclusion. As if in confirmation of it, we participated a few weeks ago in a technical meeting held through a computer. In two days, the group accomplished with the aid of pro euthanasia arguments a computer what normally might have taken a week.

We shall talk more about the mechanics of the meeting later; it is sufficient to note here that we were all in the same room. But for is beauty in the all the communicating we did directly across that room, we could have been thousands of miles apart and communicated just as effectively-as people-over the distance. Our emphasis on people is deliberate. A communications engineer thinks of communicating as transferring information from one point to another in codes and signals. But to communicate is more than to essay, send and to receive. Do two tape recorders communicate when they play to each other and and research, record from each other?

Not really-not in our sense. We believe that communicators have to do something nontrivial with the information they send and arguments, receive. And we believe that we are entering a technological age in which we will be able to interact with the richness of living information-not merely in the passive way that we have become accustomed to using books and libraries, but as active participants in an ongoing process, bringing something to it through our interaction with it, and not simply receiving something from it by our connection to it. To the people who telephone an airline flight operations information service, the tape recorder that answers seems more than a passive depository. It is an often-updated model of a changing situation-a synthesis of information collected, analyzed, evaluated, and literature, assembled to represent a situation or process in an organized way. Still there is not much direct interaction with the airline information service; the tape recording is not changed by the customer’s call. We want to emphasize something beyond its one-way transfer: the increasing significance of the jointly constructive, the mutually reinforcing aspect of communication-the part that transcends “now we both know a fact that only pro euthanasia arguments essay, one of us knew before.” When minds interact, new ideas emerge. We want to talk about the creative aspect of thesis and research paper communication. Creative, interactive communication requires a plastic or moldable medium that can be modeled, a dynamic medium in which premises will flow into consequences, and above all a common medium that can be contributed to and experimented with by all. Such a medium is at arguments hand–the programmed digital computer. Its presence can change the nature and value of eye of the beholder essay communication even more profoundly than did the printing press and the picture tube, for, as we shall show, a well-programmed computer can provide direct access both to informational resources and to pro euthanasia essay, the processes for making use of the resources.

Communication: a comparison of models. To understand how and why the computer can have such an effect on communication, we must examine the idea of modeling-in a computer and with the aid of a computer. Thesis And Research! For modeling, we believe, is basic and central to communication. Pro Euthanasia Arguments Essay! Any communication between people about the same thing is a common revelatory experience about informational models of that thing. Each model is a conceptual structure of abstractions formulated initially in the mind of one of the persons who would communicate, and if the concepts in the mind of one would-be communicator are very different from those in the mind of another, there is descartes epistemology, no common model and no communication. By far the most numerous, most sophisticated, and most important models arc those that reside in arguments essay men’s minds, In richness, plasticity, facility, and economy, the mental model has no peer, but, in other respects, it has shortcomings.

It will not stand still for in the the beholder careful study. Pro Euthanasia Arguments! It cannot be made to repeat a run. Eye Of The Beholder Essay! No one knows just how it works. It serves its owner’s hopes more faithfully than it serves reason. It has access only to the information stored in one man’s head. It can be observed and pro euthanasia, manipulated only by one person. Society rightly distrusts the modeling done by a single mind. Society demands consensus, agreement, at least majority. Fundamentally, this amounts to the requirement that individual models be compared and brought into some degree of accord. The requirement is for communication, which we now define concisely as “cooperative modeling”–cooperation in how to be happy the construction, maintenance, and use of a model. How can we be sure that we are modeling cooperatively, that we are communicating, unless we can compare models?

When people communicate face to face, they externalize their models so they can be sure they are talking about the same thing. Even such a simple externalized model as a flow diagram or an outline–because it can be seen by all the communicators–serves as a focus for discussion. It changes the pro euthanasia, nature of communication: When communicators have no such common framework, they merely make speeches at each other; but when they have a manipulable model before them, they utter a few words, point, sketch, nod, or object. The dynamics of such communication are so model-centered as to suggest an important conclusion: Perhaps the reason present-day two-way telecommunication falls so far short of in life essay face-to-face communication is simply that it fails to pro euthanasia, provide facilities for externalizing models. Is it really seeing the expression in the other’s eye that makes the face-to-face conference so much more productive than the telephone conference call, or is it being able to create and modify external models? In a technical project meeting, one can see going on, in fairly clear relief, the modeling process that we contend constitutes communication. Nearly every reader can recall a meeting held during the formulative phase of and research a project. Each member of the project brings to such a meeting a somewhat different mental model of the pro euthanasia, common undertaking-its purposes, its goals, its plans, its progress, and its status. Each of these models interrelates the past, present, and future states of affairs of (1) himself, (2) the group he represents; (3) his boss; (4) the project. Many of the primary data the participants bring to the meeting are in undigested and uncorrelated form. To each participant, his own collections of data are interesting and essay on commonwealth, important in and of themselves.

And they are more than files of facts and recurring reports. Arguments! They are strongly influenced by insight, subjective feelings, and educated guesses. Thus, each individual’s data are reflected in his mental model. Getting his colleagues to essay 2010, incorporate his data into their models is the arguments, essence of the communications task. Suppose you could see the models in the minds of how to be happy in life essay two would-be communicators at this meeting. You could tell, by pro euthanasia essay observing their models, whether or not communication was taking place.

If, at the outset, their two models were similar in essay on commonwealth games 2010 structure but different simply in pro euthanasia arguments the values of certain parameters, then communication would cause convergence toward a common pattern. How To Be Happy In Life Essay! That is the easiest and most frequent kind of communication. If the two mental models were structurally dissimilar, then the achievement of essay communication would be signaled by structural changes in one of the models or in both of them. Essay Games 2010! We might conclude that one of the communicating parties was having insights or trying out new hypotheses in order to begin to understand the other-or that both were restructuring their mental models to achieve commonality. The meeting of many interacting minds is pro euthanasia essay, a more complicated process.

Suggestions and recommendations may be elicited from all sides. The interplay may produce, not just a solution to a problem, but a new set of rules for solving problems. That, of course, is the is beauty, essence of creative interaction. The process of maintaining a current model has within it a set of changing or changeable rules for the processing and disposition of information. The project meeting we have just described is representative of a broad class of human endeavor which may be described as creative informational activity. Let us differentiate this from another class which we will call informational housekeeping. The latter is what computers today are used for in the main; they process payroll checks, keep track of bank balances, calculate orbits of pro euthanasia arguments space vehicles, control repetitive machine processes, and maintain varieties of debit and credit lists. Mostly they have not been used to make coherent pictures of school principal cover letter not well understood situations.

We referred earlier to a meeting in which the participants interacted with each other through a computer. That meeting was organized by Doug Engelbart of Stanford Research Institute and was actually a progress-review conference for a specific project. The subject under discussion was rich in detail and broad enough in scope that no one of the attendees, not even the host, could know all the information pertaining to this particular project. Tables were arranged to form a square work area with five on a side. The center of the area contained six television monitors which displayed the alphanumeric output of a computer located elsewhere in the building but remotely controlled from a keyboard and pro euthanasia arguments essay, a set of electronic pointer controllers called “mice.” Any participant in the meeting could move a near-by mouse, and thus control the movements of a tracking pointer on literature, the TV screen for all other participants to pro euthanasia essay, see. Each person working on the project had prepared a topical outline of his particular presentation for the meeting, and his outline appeared on the screens as he talked–providing a broad view of his own model. Many of the outline statements contained the names of particular reference files which the essay 2010, speaker could recall from the computer to appear in detail on the screens, for, from the arguments, beginning of the how to in life essay, project, its participants had put their work into arguments essay, the computer system’s files.

So the meeting began much like any other meeting in paper the sense that there was an overall list of agenda and arguments, that each speaker had brought with him (figuratively in his briefcase but really within the computer) the material he would be talking about. The computer system was a significant aid in exploring the rene epistemology essay, depth and breadth of the material. More detailed information could be displayed when facts had to be pinpointed; more global information could be displayed to pro euthanasia arguments, answer questions of relevance and interrelationship. A future version of this system will make it possible for each participant, on his own TV screen, to thumb through the speaker’s files as the speaker talks–and thus check out incidental questions without interrupting the presentation for substantiation. Obviously, collections of primary data can get too large to digest. Principal Cover! There comes a time when the complexity of a communications process exceeds the available resources and the capability to cope with it; and at that point one has to simplify and draw conclusions. It is arguments, frightening to realize how early and in the essay, drastically one does simp1ify, how prematurely one does conclude, even when the stakes are high and when the pro euthanasia arguments essay, transmission facilities and information resources are extraordinary. Descartes Epistemology! Deep modeling to communicate–to understand–requires a huge investment. Perhaps even governments cannot afford it yet.

But someday governments may not be able not to afford it. For, while we have been talking about the communicant ion process as a cooperative modeling effort in a mutual environment, there is also an aspect of communication with or about an uncooperative opponent. As nearly as we can judge from reports of recent international crises, out of the arguments, hundreds of a coursework scheme alternatives that confronted the decision makers at each decision point or ply in the “game,” on the average only a few, and never more than a few dozen could be considered, and only a few branches of the game could be explored deeper than two or three such plies before action had to be taken. Each side was busy trying to model what the other side might be up to–but modeling takes time, and the pressure of events forces simplification even when it is dangerous. Whether we attempt to communicate across a division of interests, or whether we engage in a cooperative effort, it is pro euthanasia arguments, clear that we need to aqa english literature scheme, be able to model faster and to greater depth. The importance of improving decision-making processes–not only in government, but throughout business and the professions–is so great as to pro euthanasia essay, warrant every effort.

As we see it, group decision-making is simply the active, executive, effect-producing aspect of the kind of communication we are discussing. We have commented that one must oversimplify. We have tried to in life essay, say why one must oversimplify. But we should not oversimplify the main point of pro euthanasia this article. We can say with genuine and strong conviction that a particular form of digital computer organization, with its programs and its data, constitutes the how to be happy, dynamic, moldable medium that can revolutionize the art of pro euthanasia arguments modeling and that in so doing can improve the effectiveness of communication among people so much as perhaps to revolutionize that also. But we must associate with that statement at once the qualification that the computer alone can make no contribution that will help us, and that the computer with the programs and the data that it has today can do little more than suggest a direction and provide a few germinal examples. Emphatically we do not say: “Buy a computer and middle principal cover, your communication problems will be solved.” What we do say is essay, that we, together with many colleagues who have had the experience of eye of essay working on-line and interactively with computers, have already sensed more responsiveness and essay, facilitation and “power” than we had hoped for, considering the how to be happy essay, inappropriateness of present machines and pro euthanasia arguments essay, the primitiveness of aqa english marking scheme their software.

Many of us are therefore confident (some of us to the point of pro euthanasia arguments religious zeal) that truly significant achievements, which will markedly improve our effectiveness in communication, now are on the horizon. Many communications engineers, too, are presently excited about the application of digital computers to communication. Descartes! However, the function they want computers to implement is the switching function. Computers will either switch the communication lines, connecting them together in required configurations, or switch (the technical term is “store and forward”) messages. The switching function is important but it is not the one we have in mind when we say that the computer can revolutionize communication. We are stressing the modeling function, not the switching function. Until now, the communications engineer has not felt it within his province to facilitate the arguments, modeling function, to make an interactive, cooperative modeling facility. Information transmission and information processing have always been carried out separately and have become separately institutionalized.

There are strong intellectual and on commonwealth games 2010, social benefits to be realized by the melding of arguments these two technologies. There are also, however, powerful legal and be happy in life, administrative obstacles in the way of any such melding. Distributed intellectual resources. We have seen the beginnings of communication through a computer–communication among people at consoles located in the same room or on the same university campus or even at essay distantly separated laboratories of the same research and development organization. This kind of communication–through a single multiaccess computer with the thesis and research paper, aid of telephone lines–is beginning to foster cooperation and promote coherence more effectively than do present arrangements for sharing computer programs by exchanging magnetic tapes by messenger or mail. Computer programs are very important because they transcend mere “data”–they include procedures and processes for arguments structuring and manipulating data. These are the main resources we can now concentrate and share with the aid of the tools and techniques of computers and communication, but they are only a part of the whole that we can learn to concentrate and share. The whole includes raw data, digested data, data about the location of data–and documents–and most especially models. To appreciate the games, import ante the new computer-aided communication can have, one must consider the essay, dynamics of “critical mass,” as it applies to school, cooperation in creative endeavor. Take any problem worthy of the pro euthanasia arguments, name, and you find only rene, a few people who can contribute effectively to arguments, its solution.

Those people must be brought into close intellectual partnership so that their ideas can come into contact with one another. But bring these people together physically in one place to form a team, and you have trouble, for thesis the most creative people are often not the best team players, and essay, there are not enough top positions in a single organization to is beauty eye of essay, keep them all happy. Let them go their separate ways, and each creates his own empire, large or small, and devotes more time to the role of emperor than to the role of problem solver. The principals still get together at meetings. They still visit one another. But the time scale of their communication stretches out, and essay, the correlations among mental models degenerate between meetings so that it may take a year to do a week’s communicating.

There has to scheme, be some way of facilitating communicant ion among people wit bout bringing them together in one place. A single multiaccess computer would fill the bill if expense were no object, but there is no way, with a single computer and individual communication lines to essay, several geographically separated consoles, to avoid paying an unwarrantedly large bill for transmission. Part of the economic difficulty lies in middle assistant our present communications system. When a computer is used interactively from a typewriter console, the signals transmitted between the console and the computer are intermittent and not very frequent. Pro Euthanasia Arguments! They do not require continuous access to a telephone channel; a good part of the time they do not even require the full information rate of in the such a channel. Pro Euthanasia Essay! The difficulty is that the how to essay, common carriers do not provide the kind of service one would like to have–a service that would let one have ad lib access to arguments essay, a channel for middle school principal letter short intervals and not be charged when one is not using the channel. It seems likely that a store-and-forward (i.e., store-for-just-a-moment-and-forward-right-away) message service would be best for this purpose, whereas the common carriers offer, instead, service that sets up a channel for one’s individual use for a period not shorter than one minute. The problem is pro euthanasia arguments essay, further complicated because interaction with a computer via a fast and flexible graphic display, which is for literature a coursework marking most purposes far superior to interaction through a slow-printing typewriter, requires markedly higher information rates. Arguments! Not necessarily more information, but the same amount in faster bursts–more difficult to handle efficiently with the conventional common-carrier facilities. It is perhaps not surprising that there are incompatibilities between the requirements of essay 2010 computer systems and the services supplied by the common carriers, for pro euthanasia most of the essay, common-carrier services were developed in support of pro euthanasia voice rather than digital communication. Nevertheless, the incompatibilities are frustrating.

It appears that the best and quickest way to middle school, overcome them-and to move forward the development of interactive communities of geographically separated people-is to arguments, set up an experimental network of multiaccess computers. Computers would concentrate and interleave the concurrent, intermittent messages of many users and their programs so as to descartes epistemology, utilize wide-band transmission channels continuously and pro euthanasia essay, efficiently, with marked reduction in overall cost. Computer and how to, information networks. The concept of computers connected to computers is not new. Computer manufacturers have successfully installed and maintained interconnected computers for some years now. Pro Euthanasia! But the computers in most instances are from families of machines compatible in both software and hardware, and they are in the same location. More important, the interconnected computers are not interactive, general-purpose, multiaccess machines of the type described by David [1] and Licklider [2]. Is Beauty In The Essay! Although more interactive multi-access computer systems are being delivered now, and essay, although more groups plan to be using these systems within the next year, there are at present perhaps only as few as half a dozen interactive multiaccess computer communities . These communities are socio-technical pioneers, in several ways out ahead of the rest of the computer world: What makes them so? First, some of their members are computer scientists and engineers who understand the concept of be happy in life essay man-computer interaction and the technology of pro euthanasia arguments essay interactive multiaccess systems. Essay 2010! Second, others of their members are creative people in pro euthanasia arguments essay other fields and disciplines who recognize the usefulness and who sense the impact of interactive multiaccess computing upon their work. Middle Principal Letter! Third, the communities have large multiaccess computers and have learned to use them.

And, fourth, their efforts are regenerative. In the half-dozen communities, the computer systems research and development and the development of substantive applications mutually support each other. They are producing large and growing resources of programs, data, and know-how. But we have seen only the beginning. There is much more programming and data collect ion–and much more learning how to cooperate–to be done before the pro euthanasia arguments essay, full potential of the concept can be realized. Obviously, multiaccess systems must be developed interactively. The systems being built must remain flexible and open-ended throughout the process of games development, which is evolutionary. Such systems cannot be developed in small ways on small machines. They require large, multiaccess computers, which are necessarily complex. Indeed, the sonic barrier in the development of such systems is complexity.

These new computer systems we are describing differ from other computer systems advertised with the pro euthanasia arguments essay, same labels: interactive, time-sharing, multiaccess. They differ by having a greater degree of open-endedness, by rendering more services, and essay, above all by pro euthanasia arguments providing facilities that foster a working sense of rene epistemology essay community among their users. The commercially available time-sharing services do not yet offer the power and flexibility of soft ware resources–the “general purposeness”–of the interactive multiaccess systems of the System Development Corporation in Santa Monica, the pro euthanasia essay, University of California at Berkeley, Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge and Lexington, Mass.–which have been collectively serving about thesis and research, a thousand people for several years. The thousand people include many of the leaders of the ongoing revolution in the computer world. Pro Euthanasia! For over a year they have been preparing for the transition to a radically new organization of hardware and software, designed to support many more simultaneous users than the current systems, and to offer them–through new languages, new file-handling systems, and new graphic displays–the fast, smooth interaction required for truly effective man-computer partnership. Experience has shown the thesis, importance of making the response time short and the conversation free and easy. Pro Euthanasia Essay! We think those attributes will be almost as important for a network of computers as for and research a single computer. Today the on-line communities are separated from one another functionally as well as geographically. Pro Euthanasia Arguments Essay! Each member can look only to the processing, storage and software capability of the facility upon which his community is centered.

But now the move is on rene descartes essay, to interconnect the arguments essay, separate communities and thereby transform them into, let us call it, a supercommunity. The hope is that interconnection will make available to all the members of all the communities the programs and data resources of the entire supercommunity. First, let us indicate how these communities can be interconnected; then we shall describe one hypothetical person’s interaction with this network, of essay interconnected computers. The hardware of a multiaccess computer system includes one or more central processors, several kinds of memory–core, disks, drums, and tapes–and many consoles for the simultaneous on-line users. Different users can work simultaneously on diverse tasks. The software of such a system includes supervisory programs (which control the whole operation), system programs for interpretation of the user’s commands, the handling of pro euthanasia arguments essay his files, and graphical or alphanumeric display of information to him (which permit people not skilled in the machine’s language to how to in life, use the system effectively), and arguments, programs and in the eye of essay, data created by the users themselves. The collection of people, hardware, and software–the multiaccess computer together with its local community of pro euthanasia arguments users–will become a node in a geographically distributed computer network. Let us assume for a moment that such a network has been formed.

For each node there is how to essay, a small, general-purpose computer which we shall call a “message processor.” The message processors of all the nodes are interconnected to form a fast store-and-forward network. The large multi-access computer at each node is connected directly to the message processor there. Through the essay, network of message processors, therefore, all the large computers can communicate with one another. And through them, all the members of the supercommunity can communicate–with other people, with programs, with data, or with selected combinations of those resources. The message processors, being all alike, introduce an element of uniformity into a coursework scheme, an otherwise grossly non-uniform situation, for they facilitate both hardware and software compatibility among diverse and poorly compatible computers. The links among the message processors are transmission and high-speed digital switching facilities provided by common carrier. This allows the linking of the message processors to pro euthanasia, be reconfigured in response to demand. A message can be thought of as a short sequence of “bits” flowing through the network from one multiaccess computer to another. It consists of two types of information: control and data.

Control information guides the transmission of data from source to destination. In present transmission systems, errors are too frequent for many computer applications. However, through the rene descartes epistemology, use of error detection and correction or retransmission procedures in the message processors, messages can be delivered to their destinations intact even though many of their “bits” were mutilated at one point or another along the way. In short, the message processors function in the system as traffic directors, controllers, and correctors. Today, programs created at pro euthanasia arguments essay one installation on a given manufacturer’s computer are generally not of much value to users of a different manufacturer’s computer at another installation. After learning (with difficulty) of a distant program’s existence, one has to aqa english marking scheme, get it, understand it, and recode it for his own computer. The cost is comparable to the cost of preparing a new program from scratch, which is, in fact, what most programmers usually do.

On a national scale, the annual cost is enormous. Within a network of interactive, multiaccess computer systems, on pro euthanasia arguments essay, the other hand, a person at one node will have access to programs running at school other nodes, even though those programs were written in different languages for pro euthanasia arguments essay different computers. The feasibility of using programs at remote locations has been shown by the successful linking of the literature scheme, AN/FSQ-32 computer at Systems Development Corporation in Santa Monica, Calif., with the TX-2 computer across the continent at the Lincoln Laboratory in Lexington, Mass. A person at a TX-2 graphic console can make use of a unique list-processing program at pro euthanasia SDC, which would be prohibitively expensive to how to in life, translate for use on the TX-2. A network of 14 such diverse computers, all of arguments essay which will be capable of epistemology sharing one another’s resources, is now being planned by the Defense Department’s Advanced Research Projects Agency, and its contractors. The system’s way of managing data is crucial to the user who works in pro euthanasia arguments interaction with many other people. It should put generally useful data, if not subject to control of access, into public files.

Each user, however, should have complete control over his personal files. He should define and distribute the “keys” to each such file, exercising his option to exclude all others from any kind of access to it; or to permit anyone to “read” but not modify or execute it; or to permit selected individuals or groups to games 2010, execute but not read it; and pro euthanasia arguments, so on-with as much detailed specification or as much aggregation as he likes. The system should provide for on commonwealth games group and organizational files within its overall information base. At least one of the new multiaccess systems will exhibit such features. Pro Euthanasia Essay! In several of the research centers we have mentioned, security and essay games, privacy of pro euthanasia essay information are subjects of active concern; they are beginning to rene descartes essay, get the attention they deserve. In a multiaccess system, the number of consoles permitted to pro euthanasia, use the rene essay, computer simultaneously depends upon the load placed on the computer by the users’ jobs, and may be varied automatically as the load changes. Large general-purpose muftiaccess systems operating today can typically support 20 to 30 simultaneous users. Some of these users may work with low-level “assembly” languages while others use higher-level “compiler” or “interpreter” languages. Concurrently, others may use data management and graphical systems. Pro Euthanasia Essay! And so on. But back to our hypothetical user.

He seats himself at his console, which may be a terminal keyboard plus a relatively slow printer, a sophisticated graphical console, or any one of several intermediate devices. Principal! He dials his local computer and “logs in” by pro euthanasia presenting his name, problem number, and password to the monitor program. He calls for descartes epistemology either a public program, one of his own programs, or a colleague’s program that he has permission to use. The monitor links him to it, and he then communicates with that program. When the pro euthanasia arguments essay, user (or the program) needs service from a program at the beholder essay another node in the network, he (or it) requests the service by specifying the pro euthanasia essay, location of the appropriate computer and the identity of the program required. If necessary, he uses computerized directories to determine those data. The request is translated by one or more of the message processors into how to essay, the precise language required by pro euthanasia arguments the remote computer’s monitor. Now the user (or his local program) and the remote program can interchange information. When the information transfer is complete, the a coursework, user (or his local program) dismisses the arguments, remote computer, again with the aid of the message processors. In a commercial system, the remote processor would at and research this point record cost information for use in billing. The mention of billing brings up an important matter.

Computers and arguments essay, long-distance calls have “expensive” images. One of the standard reactions to the idea of “on-line communities” is: “It sounds great, but who can afford it?” In considering that question, let us do a little arithmetic. The main elements of the cost of computer-facilitated communication, over and above the salaries of the communicators, are the cost of the consoles, processing, storage, transmission, and supporting software. In each category, there is a wide range of possible costs, depending in part upon the sophistication of the equipment, programs, or services employed and in part upon whether they are custom-made or mass-produced. Making rough estimates of the hourly component costs per user, we arrived at the following: $1 for a console, $5 for one man’s share of the services of paper a processor, 70 cents for storage, $3 for transmission via line leased from a common carrier, and $1 for software support-a total cost of just less than $11 per communicator hour. The only obviously untenable assumption underlying that result, we believe, is the assumption that one’s console and the personal files would be used 160 hours per month. All the arguments, other items are assumed to be shared with others, and essay 2010, experience indicates that time-sharing leads on the average to arguments essay, somewhat greater utilization than the 160 hours per month that we assumed, Note, however, that the console and the personal files are items used also in individual problem solving and decision making. Surely those activities, taken together with communication, would occupy at least 25% of the working hours of the on-line executive, scientist or engineer. If we cut the duty factor of the console and files to one quarter of 160 hours per month, the estimated total cost comes to $16 per hour.

Let us assume that our $16/hr interactive computer link is middle cover, set up between Boston, Mass., and essay, Washington, D.C. Is $16/hr affordable? Compare it first with the cost of ordinary telephone communication: Even if you take advantage of the lower charge per minute for long calls, it is less than the daytime direct-dial station-to-station toll. Compare it with the cost of travel: If one flies from Boston to Washington in the morning and back in the evening, he can have eight working hours in the capital city in return for how to in life about $64 in air and taxi fares plus the spending of four of his early morning and evening hours en route. If those four hours are worth $16 each, then the bill for the eight hours in Washington is $128-again $16 per hour. Or look at it still another way: If computer-aided communication doubled the effectiveness of a man paid $16 per arguments essay, hour then, according to our estimate, it would be worth what it cost if it could be bought right now.

Thus we have some basis for arguing that computer-aided communication is economically feasible. But we must admit that the figure of $16 per hour sounds high, and we do not want to how to be happy, let our discussion depend upon it. Fortunately, we do not have to, for the system we envision cannot be bought at this moment. Arguments! The time scale provides a basis for genuine optimism about the cost picture. It will take two years, at least, to is beauty eye of the beholder, bring the first interactive computer networks up to a significant level of experimental activity.

Operational systems might reach critical size in essay as little as six years if everyone got onto the bandwagon, but there is little point in making cost estimates for a nearer date. So let us take six years as the target. In the computer field, the cost of a unit of processing and the cost of a unit of storage have been dropping for two decades at the rate of 50% or more every two years. In six years, there is time for at least three such drops, which cut a dollar down to 12 1/2 cents. Three halvings would take the cost of processing, now $5 per hour on our assumptions, down to less than 65 cents per hour. Such advances in capability, accompanied by reduction in cost, lead us to expect that computer facilitation will be affordable before many people are ready to take advantage of it. Literature A Coursework! The only areas that cause us concern are consoles and transmission.

In the console field, there is plenty of competition; many firms have entered the console sweepstakes, and more are entering every month. Lack of competition is not the problem. Pro Euthanasia! The problem is the problem of the chicken and the egg–in the and research, factory and in pro euthanasia the market. If a few companies would take the plunge into mass manufacture, then the cost of a satisfactory console would drop enough to open up a mass market. If large on-line communities were already in being, their mass market would attract mass manufacture. But at present there is descartes essay, neither mass manufacture nor a mass market, and consequently there is no low-cost console suitable for interactive on-line communication.

In the arguments essay, field of transmission, the difficulty may be lack of competition. At any rate, the cost of transmission is not falling nearly as fast as the rene descartes essay, cost of processing and storage. Nor is it falling nearly as fast as we think it should fall. Even the pro euthanasia arguments essay, advent of satellites has affected the how to, cost picture by pro euthanasia less than a factor of two. That fact does not cause immediate distress because (unless the distance is very great) transmission cost is not now the dominant cost. But, at the rate things are going, in six years it will be the dominant cost. That prospect concerns us greatly and assistant cover, is the arguments, strongest damper to our hopes for essay games near-term realization of operationally significant interactive networks and significant on-line communities.

But let us be optimistic. Pro Euthanasia Arguments! What will on-line interactive communities be like? In most fields they will consist of geographically separated members, sometimes grouped in small clusters and sometimes working individually. They will be communities not of common location, but of common interest . In each field, the overall community of in the eye of the beholder interest will be large enough to support a comprehensive system of field-oriented programs and data. In each geographical sector, the total number of users–summed over pro euthanasia essay, all the fields of interest–will be large enough to support extensive general-purpose information processing and storage facilities.

All of these will be interconnected by telecommunications channels. A Coursework Marking! The whole will constitute a labile network of networks–ever-changing in both content and arguments essay, configuration. What will go on inside? Eventually, every informational transaction of sufficient consequence to how to in life essay, warrant the cost. Each secretary’s typewriter, each data-gathering instrument, conceivably each dictation microphone, will feed into the network.

You will not send a letter or a telegram; you will simply identify the people whose files should be linked to yours and the parts to which they should be linked–and perhaps specify a coefficient of urgency. You will seldom make a telephone call; you will ask the network to link your consoles together. You will seldom make a purely business trip, because linking consoles will be so much more efficient. When you do visit another person with the object of intellectual communication, you and he will sit at pro euthanasia arguments essay a two-place console and interact as much through it as face to face. If our extrapolation from Doug Engelbart’s meeting proves correct, you will spend much more time in computer-facilitated teleconferences and much less en route to meetings. A very important part of be happy in life essay each man’s interaction with his on-line community will be mediated by his OLIVER.

The acronym OLIVER honors Oliver Selfridge, originator of the concept. An OLIVER is, or will be when there is pro euthanasia arguments, one, an “on-line interactive vicarious expediter and games 2010, responder,” a complex of computer programs and data that resides within the network and acts on behalf of pro euthanasia arguments its principal, taking care of many minor matters that do not require his personal attention and buffering him from the demanding world. “You are describing a secretary,” you will say. But no! Secretaries will have OLIVERS. At your command, your OLIVER will take notes (or refrain from taking notes) on what you do, what you read, what you buy and where you buy it. It will know who your friends are, your mere acquaintances. It will know your value structure, who is prestigious in your eyes, for whom you will do what with what priority, and who can have access to thesis paper, which of your personal files. Essay! It will know your organization’s rules pertaining to proprietary information and school cover, the government’s rules relating to pro euthanasia arguments essay, security classification. Some parts of your OLIVER program will be common with parts of other people’s OLIVERS; other parts will be custom-made for you, or by you, or will have developed idiosyncrasies through “learning” based on its experience in your service. Available within the thesis paper, network will be functions and services to arguments, which you subscribe on a regular basis and middle assistant cover, others that you call for when you need them. In the former group will be investment guidance, tax counseling, selective dissemination of information in your field of specialization, announcement of cultural, sport, and entertainment events that fit your interests, etc.

In the latter group will be dictionaries, encyclopedias, indexes, catalogues, editing programs, teaching programs, testing programs, programming systems, data bases, and-most important-communication, display, and modeling programs. All these will be-at some late date in the history of pro euthanasia networking- systematized and coherent; you will be able to get along in how to be happy essay one basic language up to the point at which you choose a specialized language for arguments essay its power or terseness. When people do their informational work “at the middle assistant, console” and “through the network,” telecommunication will be as natural an extension of individual work as face-to-face communication is now. The impact of that fact, and of the marked facilitation of the communicative process, will be very great–both on the individual and on arguments essay, society. First, life will be happier for the on-line individual because the people with whom one interacts most strongly will be selected more by commonality of interests and goals than by accidents of proximity. Second, communication will be more effective and productive, and on commonwealth games, therefore more enjoyable. Third, much communication and interaction will be with programs and programmed models, which will be (a) highly responsive, (b) supplementary to one’s own capabilities, rather than competitive, and (c) capable of representing progressively more complex ideas without necessarily displaying all the levels of their structure at pro euthanasia arguments essay the same time-and which will therefore be both challenging and rewarding. And, fourth, there will be plenty of assistant principal cover letter opportunity for everyone (who can afford a console) to pro euthanasia arguments, find his calling, for the whole world of information, with all its fields and disciplines, will be open to in life essay, him-with programs ready to guide him or to arguments essay, help him explore. For the society, the impact will be good or bad, depending mainly on the question: Will “to be on line” be a privilege or a right? If only a favored segment of the population gets a chance to enjoy the advantage of “intelligence amplification,” the network may exaggerate the discontinuity in the spectrum of intellectual opportunity. On the other hand, if the network idea should prove to do for education what a few have envisioned in hope, if not in concrete detailed plan, and if all minds should prove to be responsive, surely the boon to humankind would be beyond measure.

Unemployment would disappear from the face of the earth forever, for consider the magnitude of the task of adapting the network’s software to all the new generations of computer, coming closer and closer upon the heels of their predecessors until the entire population of the world is caught up in an infinite crescendo of on-line interactive debugging. Evan Herbert edited the article and acted as intermediary during its writing between Licklider in rene Boston and Taylor in Washington. Roland B. Pro Euthanasia Essay! Wilson drew the cartoons to accompany the original article. [1] Edward E. David, Jr., “Sharing a Computer,” International Science and Technology , June, 1966. [2] J. C. R. Licklider, “Man-Computer Partnership,” International Science and Technology , May, 1965.

Topics: Singularity/Futures | Social Networking/Web. I am very pleased that this site has made available three papers by eye of essay J.C.R. Licklider which are otherwise difficult to obtain without use of a major research library. Pro Euthanasia! As you can see by reading this paper, Lick (his preferred moniker) was a visionary. This is thus the middle school assistant letter, right place for pro euthanasia his work to essay on commonwealth games, be on view.

was very helpfull how such was predicted many years ago. will get back to this site for more research. Please log in to post a comment. The Kurzweil Accelerating Intelligence newsletter features science and technology breakthroughs. It also lists new blog posts, events, videos, and books.

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Resume Format Guide - Reverse-Chronological, Functional, Combination Styles. By Resume Genius. Making a perfect resume needs more than just error-free spelling and grammar. A resume must be framed and formatted to present you in the best way possible, a process that requires combining creativity, composition, and marketing. Therefore, we’ve written this resume format guide to be a comprehensive resource to those looking to format their own resumes. We provide writing tips, expert advice, and sample images covering every resume format for arguments essay, your convenience. Looking for more resume samples? Click the link below. How to thesis paper, Choose the Best Resume Format. Use the chart below to get a quick idea of which resume format will be best for pro euthanasia essay, presenting your unique job experience. As you may have seen above, job seekers have three options when it comes to cover, formatting their resume: Chronological, Functional, and Combination . Each resume format has their own set of pro euthanasia essay advantages and disadvantages for different kinds of job seekers, so be sure to descartes epistemology, choose wisely.

Check out the in-depth writing guides below to get every bit of information needed to create the best resume for you: To get inspiration and arguments essay, an idea of what your resume can look like, we’ve created three huge libraries of resume format examples . The links below are separated by resume style and include industry-specific samples. Visit each library and find your industry. As the name suggests, a reverse chronological resume presents your work experience information from newest (most relevant) to oldest (least relevant). This means the resume will begin with your most recent job, and middle assistant letter, end with your oldest experience. This structure allows you to present yourself in terms of your promotions and upward career mobility , and is therefore particularly useful for entry to mid level applicants looking to boost their careers. I should use a reverse chronological resume format if…

I want to arguments essay, demonstrate a vertical career progression. I want to apply to a job in a coursework scheme, a similar field. Pro Euthanasia. I don’t have large work experience gaps. I shouldn’t use a reverse chronological style if… I have multiple gaps in my employment history.

I am considering working in a new industry I frequently change jobs. To learn more about what should be in included in aqa english a coursework scheme, a reverse-chronological resume, click here. The functional resume format frames the candidate in terms of the skills and abilities he/she believes are most relevant to arguments, the job opening . Unlike the reverse chronological resume, the functional resume ignores when and where the candidate learned or performed those skills . The candidate and simply lists them at the top of the resume in order of most relevant to how to, least relevant skills. Even the “least relevant” skill should still be relevant to the job you are applying for. “Least relevant” here really means “the least relevant of your most relevant skills.” Warning: Many human resources professionals have negative impressions of functional resumes precisely because they do not reveal chronological information, making it seem like the candidate is pro euthanasia arguments essay, hiding something. By using the functional format, job candidates can achieve three big goals:

provide evidence that they are strong candidates for the job, and hide work experience gaps (if they haven’t been working for periods of time.) help hiring managers quickly locate specific skills that are required for a particular position, which is beneficial. I should use a functional resume format if… I have unusually large gaps in my employment history. I am in the midst of a big career change into a new industry. Rene Descartes Epistemology Essay. I want to promote a specific skill set. I shouldn’t use a functional style if: I want to highlight my upward career mobility. I am a student or entry-level candidate that lacks experience. I lack relevant or transferable skills. To learn more about what should be in included in a functional resume, click here.

A combination resume is literally a combination of the reverse-chronological and functional resume formats. Combination resumes will often begin with a professional profile or summary of pro euthanasia arguments essay qualifications that includes skills, abilities, and achievements relevant to the job opening. (This is the functional part.) This introductory section is then followed by be happy in life, your reverse-chronological professional experience, education, and additional sections. (This is the arguments, reverse-chronological part.) I should use a combination resume format if… I want to middle principal letter, showcase a relevant and well-developed skill set. I want to transfer to arguments, a different industry. I am a master at how to in life what I do. I shouldn’t use a combination resume format if… I am a student or entry level candidate. I want to emphasize my educational experience. I lack relevant qualifications and skills.

To learn more about what should be in included in a combination resume format, click here. If you have any specific questions not answered in pro euthanasia arguments essay, this guide please feel free to post them in the comments at the bottom of the page and one of aqa english marking our Senior Resume Experts will be glad to answer them for you! PS. Need that job? Be sure to download our Resume Checklist to ensure that you’ve written a complete, professional resume. Click Here to Download. Our Resume Checklist.

If I apply a admin. Arguments Essay. job but I only rene essay have relevant experience several years ago, and essay, now in school learning social service. How can I make my resume? Emphasize old skills and transferable skills from social service in thesis paper, a combination or functional resume. Good luck on the job hunt! Yes, if you have several impressive awards/honors then they can definitely be place above your professional experience. Arguments. Good luck on the job hunt!

We suggest using a combination format. Best of luck on the job hunt! We suggest that you stick with the thesis, traditional reverse-chronological format. Good luck! I did a career shift recently to teaching after having a graduate degree and essay, 10 years experience in planning and development. I have recently completed a graduate degree in education and have 2 years of teaching experience in a preschool setting and trying to now make the shift to elementary age. Games. Do you think I should use a combination resume? A combination resume should work for your situation. Check out our combination format writing guide for more info: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/combination-resume-samples. For a chronological resume, if I completed an internship with a past employer — while simultaneously being employed by them — does the internship go above or below the arguments, primary employment experience? (E.g., I worked at HSBV from 8/2013 – 12/2015, with my internship — also at thesis and research paper HSBV — from 1/2015 – 5/2015, so right in arguments, the middle of my employment with them.

Should the internship be listed before, or after?) You should list you internship after your employment. Rene Descartes Essay. Good luck! I have what I perceive to be a unique situation (I understand everyone thinks they are different). I am an army veteran of nearly 7 years and now I am studying to pro euthanasia essay, get my BS is Homeland Security. I joined the army at 19 in how to be happy essay, 2006 and got out in 2013.

From 2013 until January of this year, I have been trying to make my own way as an arguments essay entrepreneur. I was largely unsuccessful and in order to stay on top of my bills I ended up taking odd jobs during the day while working as a bouncer at middle school principal various bars and clubs at night. I am currently looking for an internship as part of arguments my degree program so i need to create a resume. Games 2010. I thought a functional resume would be ideal so as to blur the past 3 years. However, I understand from this article that students should use a chronological resume. I need to arguments, know how firm that rule is. Also, if anyone has any specific guidance for and research, my resume I am very willing to accept advice. Thanks.

In your situation, we would suggest using a functional format. This will allow you to focus on pro euthanasia arguments essay your skills that are relevant to the internship you are applying for. Good luck on and research paper the job hunt and thank you for your service! Okay so I am a third year college student looking for a part-time job that fits my class schedule and isn’t in the fast-food industry to help me pay rent next year. I have never had to write a resume for any of my other jobs so I’m at pro euthanasia essay a loss as to what to do.

I am applying as an essay games 2010 entry-level applicant but I also didn’t work during my freshman year and about half of my sophomore year. Therefore I’m not really sure how to approach this and arguments essay, I really need this job. Please help! Thanks! Good luck on the job hunt! Consider adding a ‘Publications’ section to include your research and writing experience. Middle Assistant. Good luck on the job hunt. Several positions require a chronological resume be included. Essay. I am over 40, most recent position was over 5 yrs ago as a Seasonal Tax Professional with HR Block. Recently received my AA degree. I do not include employment start – end dates on my resume for many reasons but I am not trying to look like someone who can not or will not follow directions either.

Please share your thoughts. Hi I used to be a pediatric nurse for and research, two years till moved to this country on 2012 and have been working at Walmart since then, recently got my RN license and want to start working as a nurse…what type would you recommend me? In your case, we suggest using a functional resume. Pro Euthanasia Arguments Essay. Best of luck on the job hunt! Hi, I am presently working as Project Manager in construction company and before this I worked as Operations Manager in eye of the beholder, a different company. Now I want to apply for a job (Title : Plant Manager). Arguments. I am confused which format I should choose to post for this job opportunity. Please recommend. We suggest sticking with the traditional reverse-chronological format. Best of luck!

Detailing all 18 years of your experience might be overdoing it. With three pages, there is likely some redundant information that you could cut. However, if you truly feel that all of your content is relevant and of interest to in life essay, the employer, then stick with what you have. Best of pro euthanasia luck on the job hunt! I am now trying to aqa english literature marking scheme, rejoin the full-time workforce after almost a 17 year absence. Prior to marriage mother hood I was a very successful Director of Public relations for a well known beauty company in pro euthanasia essay, NYC (1990-1996). Epistemology. After that I joined a small firm on Long Island as their first ever Director of PR and advertising (1997-1999). Then babies came. Pro Euthanasia. 6 years later I joined a local firm as their Director of essay 2010 Operations (office manager) from 2006-2009.

Then my family and I moved to Switzerland and just returned after 7 years. I was a teacher of English as a Second Language. Pro Euthanasia Arguments Essay. I am looking for work in almost any capacity: From Communications manager to administrative assistant. I am struggling with how to is beauty in the essay, present my resume. Essay. I’ve been letting my cover letters explain the in the the beholder, history and why I would be a good fit for any given position, but I’m sure my resume is arguments, holding me back. Any ideas. Thanks in advance! If you’re looking to get back into communications or office management, then it might be better to use a functional format. This will allow you to middle school, emphasize your skills instead of the pro euthanasia essay, dates of middle your work experience. Pro Euthanasia Arguments. As far as explaining work gaps in your cover letter, check out this how-to guide: https://resumegenius.com/cover-letters-the-how-to-guide/cover-letter-red-flags-solutions. While I was in high school I did my internship at for State Farm.

After I graduated I was offered a job there and stayed there for 2 years. I have recently worked at essay games 2010 the National Instituted of Health for essay, a year. I currently want to essay on commonwealth, go back to finding an office job or something related and need help deciding what type of resume I should use? Based on the info you’ve given us, a ‘Chronological’ format would still be appropriate. Essay. Best of luck! If the the position you are applying for school cover, is also an administrative job, then stick with the traditional Reverse-Chronological resume format.

Good luck on the job hunt! Glad you liked it! Hi there! This is great. I was just wondering, if I’ve been at pro euthanasia the same position for 3 years (2014-present) but did a second job for in life essay, 6 months in 2015 that I would like to list, would I put that first (since technically 2015 is more recent than 2014)? Or would I list that after my current position, since I’m still presently in this role? Thanks! List your current position first.

Best of luck! A combination or functional resume would be suitable. Best of arguments luck! It sounds like a functional format would be a good choice. Good luck on the job hunt! Hi there Elizabeth, You have a bit of flexibility with the descartes essay, resume format, but when in doubt go with reverse-chronological. Because you’re lacking in pro euthanasia essay, transferable skills, I’d recommend working on your resume objective to get your application started on the right foot. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/career-objective-writing-guide. Also consider the soft skills you’ve built during your time working in a call center. Many of these could potentially be transferable. https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume/skills-section-writing-guide.

Good luck with your job application! Yes, a combination resume is perfectly suited to someone of your experience, even with the games 2010, career change. Good luck making the shift back into your previous field! If you are aiming for a new industry, you can’t go wrong with the classic “reverse-chronological” resume format. Good luck landing your fellowship! Share Resume Format Guide – Reverse-Chronological, Functional, #038; Combination Styles

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7 Common MBA Essay Questions and How to Tackle Them. There are a handful of business school essay questions that seem to capture the heart and imagination of many an MBA program. It seems that, across the board, admissions committees feel these queries offer the best insight into pro euthanasia arguments essay the minds of their applicants. Aqa English Literature A Coursework! You are likely to see a version of one or more of these common MBA essay questions on your b-school application. Pro Euthanasia! These tips will help you craft the perfect answer. 1. Describe your specific career aspirations and your reason for school assistant, pursuing an MBA. This may be the most important essay question you tackle. You must convince the admissions committee that you deserve one of their few, cherished spots. Reference your background, skills, and career aspirations, demonstrating how this degree is arguments essay a bridge to essay, the next step in essay, your professional life. Be sure to speak to how this particular program will help you realize your potential. It's okay to present modest goals.

Deepening your expertise and broadening your perspective are solid reasons for pursuing this degree. If you aspire to lofty goals, like becoming a CEO or starting your own company, be careful to detail a sensible (read: realistic), pragmatic plan. 2. What are your principal interests outside of work or school? What leisure and/or community activities do you particularly enjoy? There's more to b-school than the library. The best programs buzz with the energy of a student body that is how to be happy talented and creative and bursting with personality. These students are not just about pro euthanasia essay case studies and careers. Describe how you will be a unique addition to the business school community. B-school is essay 2010 also a very social experience. Much of the work is done in groups.

Weekends are full of social gatherings or immersion experiences, and the networking you do here will impact the rest of pro euthanasia arguments your career. Communicate that people, not just your job, are an thesis and research paper important part of your life. The admissions committee wants to pro euthanasia essay, know the how to in life qualities, attributes and arguments essay strengths you value in others and hope to embrace. Drive, discipline and descartes epistemology essay vision are fine examples but try and look beyond these conventional characteristics. Tell a story and provide specific examples. If you choose someone famous (which is fine), remember that you risk being one of pro euthanasia arguments many in the pile. Instead, consider a current boss, business associate, or friend. Know that your choice of person is less important than what you say about him or her. In The Essay! 4. Describe a situation in which you led a team. What challenges did you face, and essay how did you overcome them?

The committee isn't looking to is beauty the beholder essay, see how you saved the team through your heroic efforts (so put yourself on ego alert). They want to see how you helped foster an pro euthanasia arguments environment in and research paper, which everyone contributes, illustrating that the sum is greater than its parts. B-schools like leaders, but they like leaders who can help everyone get along and arrive at a collaborative solution. You should shift gears for arguments essay, this question. Almost the entire application process thus far has asked you to essay on commonwealth games, showcase me-me-me. Now the focus of your story needs to essay, be on the we and thesis how you made the arguments we happen. 5. Our business school is a diverse environment. How will your experiences contribute to this? This essay gets at two concerns for the admissions committee: (1) how will you enrich the student body at this school and (2) what is your attitude toward others' diverse backgrounds?

Diversity comes in many shapes. If a grandparent or relative is an immigrant to this country, you can discuss the impact of his or her values on your life. Essay On Commonwealth 2010! Perhaps you are the first individual in your family to attend college or graduate school. Essay! Maybe you are involved in a meaningful or unusual extracurricular activity. Whatever you choose to write, it's vital that you discuss how it contributes to your unique perspective. 6. Describe a personal achievement that has had a significant impact on your life. Don't pull your hair out just because you haven't founded a successful start-up or swum across the English Channel. Cover Letter! Smaller accomplishments with a lot of personal significance are just fine if they demonstrate character, sacrifice, humility, dedication, or perseverance. A good essay describes how you reached a personal objective and what that meant to you.

Maybe you didn't lead a sports team to a victory. Maybe the victory was that you made it onto pro euthanasia arguments essay the team . 7. School Assistant Principal Letter! Discuss a non-academic personal failure. What did you learn from the experience? Many applicants make the pro euthanasia mistake of answering this question with a failure that is really a positive. Or they never really answer the question, fearful that any admission of failure will throw their whole candidacy into jeopardy. Don't get crafty. You should answer with a genuine mistake that the committee will recognize as authentic. Write about essay games 2010 a failure that had some high stakes for you. Demonstrate what you learned from essay, your mistake and how it helped you mature.

This is a chance to show b-schools your ability to be honest, show accountability, and face your failures head-on. Take a GMAT practice test with us under the same conditions as the real thing. You'll get a personalized score report highlighting your strengths and areas of improvement. The Staff of The Princeton Review. Our world-class GMAT prep will get you ready for test day. Find MBA Programs Matched to Your Interests. Explore our featured business schools to find those that are looking for students like you. Eye Of The Beholder! On a mission to increase your salary? Check out our Top 25 Online MBA ranking based on academics, career outcomes, tech platforms, and more. Find out which schools have the best track records for getting students jobsand the highest starting salaries.

Ready to build your own business from the ground up? Check out these 50 graduate and undergraduate programs. We know that great scores take work. Pro Euthanasia! That's why we design our courses to be efficient, targeted and strategic so you make the most of every minute you spend prepping. Our experts know how to design lessons based on how you're learning. That means we don't just record classroom lessons and put them in our Self-Paced prepwe design lessons FOR Self-Paced. Thesis Paper! We love our teachers, and so will you. We look for proven expertise and a sense of humor, and that's BEFORE we put them through 40 hours of training! We guarantee you’ll get higher scores and pro euthanasia arguments essay have an exceptional test prep experience. If you don’t, we’ll refund your tuition or let you prep again for how to essay, free.

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concept luxury essay I. THE BROKEN WINDOW. II. THE DISBANDING OF TROOPS. IV. THEATRES AND FINE ARTS. XI. FRUGALITY AND LUXURY. XII. HAVING A RIGHT TO WORK, HAVING A RIGHT TO PROFIT. Originally published in July 1850.

Unidentified translator, most likely someone from the arguments essay, FEE . Downloaded from David T. Freeman's Personal Empowerment Resources . Edited by rene epistemology essay, Francois-Rene Rideau . See also the original french text on Bastiat.org . In the department of economy, an act, a habit, an institution, a law, gives birth not only to an effect, but to pro euthanasia arguments essay a series of effects. Of these effects, the first only is immediate; it manifests itself simultaneously with its cause it is seen. The others unfold in succession they are not seen: it is middle school assistant principal cover well for us, if they are foreseen. Between a good and a bad economist this constitutes the whole difference the one takes account of the pro euthanasia essay, visible effect; the other takes account both of the effects which are seen, and also of those which it is necessary to foresee. Now this difference is enormous, for it almost always happens that when the immediate consequence is favourable, the ultimate consequences are fatal, and the converse. Hence it follows that the bad economist pursues a small present good, which will be followed by a great evil to come, while the true economist pursues a great good to descartes come, at pro euthanasia arguments the risk of a small present evil.

In fact, it is the descartes essay, same in the science of health, arts, and in pro euthanasia arguments, that of morals. It often happens, that the sweeter the first fruit of a habit is, the more bitter are the aqa english literature a coursework, consequences. Take, for essay, example, debauchery, idleness, prodigality. When, therefore, a man absorbed in the effect which is seen has not yet learned to discern those which are not seen, he gives way to fatal habits, not only by inclination, but by calculation. This explains the fatally grievous condition of mankind. Ignorance surrounds its cradle: then its actions are determined by their first consequences, the only ones which, in its first stage, it can see. It is only in the long run that it learns to take account of the others. It has to learn this lesson from 2010 two very different masters experience and foresight. Arguments? Experience teaches effectually, but brutally. It makes us acquainted with all the effects of an assistant cover action, by causing us to feel them; and we cannot fail to finish by knowing that fire burns, if we have burned ourselves. For this rough teacher, I should like, if possible, to substitute a more gentle one.

I mean Foresight. Pro Euthanasia Arguments Essay? For this purpose I shall examine the consequences of certain economical phenomena, by placing in thesis and research paper, opposition to each other those which are seen, and those which are not seen. Have you ever witnessed the arguments essay, anger of the eye of the beholder, good shopkeeper, James B., when his careless son happened to arguments break a square of glass? If you have been present at such a scene, you will most assuredly bear witness to the fact, that every one of the spectators, were there even thirty of middle assistant principal cover them, by pro euthanasia arguments essay, common consent apparently, offered the unfortunate owner this invariable consolation It is an ill wind that blows nobody good. Everybody must live, and what would become of the glaziers if panes of glass were never broken? Now, this form of condolence contains an on commonwealth games entire theory, which it will be well to show up in this simple case, seeing that it is precisely the same as that which, unhappily, regulates the pro euthanasia arguments essay, greater part of our economical institutions. Suppose it cost six francs to repair the damage, and how to be happy in life, you say that the accident brings six francs to the glazier's trade that it encourages that trade to the amount of pro euthanasia essay six francs I grant it; I have not a word to say against it; you reason justly. The glazier comes, performs his task, receives his six francs, rubs his hands, and, in his heart, blesses the in life essay, careless child. All this is pro euthanasia arguments that which is seen. But if, on the other hand, you come to the conclusion, as is too often the case, that it is a good thing to break windows, that it causes money to circulate, and a coursework scheme, that the encouragement of industry in general will be the result of it, you will oblige me to call out, Stop there! your theory is confined to that which is pro euthanasia arguments seen; it takes no account of be happy in life that which is not seen.

It is not seen that as our shopkeeper has spent six francs upon one thing, he cannot spend them upon another. It is not seen that if he had not had a window to replace, he would, perhaps, have replaced his old shoes, or added another book to his library. In short, he would have employed his six francs in some way, which this accident has prevented. Let us take a view of industry in general, as affected by this circumstance. The window being broken, the glazier's trade is encouraged to the amount of arguments essay six francs; this is that which is seen. If the window had not been broken, the shoemaker's trade (or some other) would have been encouraged to the amount of how to be happy six francs; this is that which is not seen.

And if that which is not seen is pro euthanasia arguments taken into consideration, because it is a negative fact, as well as that which is seen, because it is a positive fact, it will be understood that neither industry in general, nor the sum total of national labour, is affected, whether windows are broken or not. Now let us consider James B. himself. In the former supposition, that of the window being broken, he spends six francs, and has neither more nor less than he had before, the thesis, enjoyment of a window. In the second, where we suppose the window not to have been broken, he would have spent six francs on shoes, and would have had at the same time the enjoyment of a pair of shoes and of a window. Now, as James B. forms a part of pro euthanasia arguments essay society, we must come to the conclusion, that, taking it altogether, and making an estimate of its enjoyments and on commonwealth, its labours, it has lost the value of the broken window. When we arrive at this unexpected conclusion: Society loses the pro euthanasia arguments, value of how to things which are uselessly destroyed; and we must assent to a maxim which will make the pro euthanasia arguments essay, hair of protectionists stand on end To break, to spoil, to waste, is not to encourage national labour; or, more briefly, destruction is how to essay not profit. What will you say, Monsieur Industriel -- what will you say, disciples of good M. F. Chamans, who has calculated with so much precision how much trade would gain by the burning of Paris, from the number of houses it would be necessary to rebuild? I am sorry to disturb these ingenious calculations, as far as their spirit has been introduced into our legislation; but I beg him to begin them again, by taking into the account that which is not seen, and placing it alongside of that which is seen. Essay? The reader must take care to remember that there are not two persons only, but three concerned in the little scene which I have submitted to his attention. One of them, James B., represents the consumer, reduced, by an act of destruction, to one enjoyment instead of two.

Another under the title of the glazier, shows us the producer, whose trade is encouraged by the accident. The third is the in the eye of the beholder essay, shoemaker (or some other tradesman), whose labour suffers proportionably by the same cause. It is this third person who is always kept in the shade, and arguments essay, who, personating that which is not seen, is a necessary element of the is beauty in the eye of essay, problem. Arguments? It is he who shows us how absurd it is to and research think we see a profit in an act of destruction. It is he who will soon teach us that it is not less absurd to see a profit in a restriction, which is, after all, nothing else than a partial destruction. Therefore, if you will only go to the root of all the essay, arguments which are adduced in its favour, all you will find will be the paraphrase of essay this vulgar saying What would become of the glaziers, if nobody ever broke windows? It is the same with a people as it is with a man. If it wishes to essay give itself some gratification, it naturally considers whether it is worth what it costs. To a nation, security is the greatest of advantages. If, in order to aqa english scheme obtain it, it is necessary to have an army of a hundred thousand men, I have nothing to say against it.

It is an enjoyment bought by a sacrifice. Let me not be misunderstood upon the extent of my position. A member of the assembly proposes to disband a hundred thousand men, for the sake of relieving the tax-payers of a hundred millions. If we confine ourselves to this answer The hundred millions of men, and these hundred millions of money, are indispensable to the national security: it is pro euthanasia arguments essay a sacrifice; but without this sacrifice, France would be torn by factions, or invaded by some foreign power, I have nothing to object to this argument, which may be true or false in fact, but which theoretically contains nothing which militates against economy. The error begins when the how to be happy in life, sacrifice itself is said to be an advantage because it profits somebody. Now I am very much mistaken if, the moment the arguments, author of the proposal has taken his seat, some orator will not rise and say - Disband a hundred thousand men! do you know what you are saying?

What will become of middle letter them? Where will they get a living? Don't you know that work is scarce everywhere? That every field is pro euthanasia essay overstocked? Would you turn them out of doors to on commonwealth games increase competition, and weigh upon the rate of wages? Just now, when it is a hard matter to live at all, it would be a pretty thing if the State must find bread for a hundred thousand individuals? Consider, besides, that the army consumes wine, clothing, arms that it promotes the activity of manufactures in garrison towns that it is, in short, the god-send of arguments innumerable purveyors.

Why, any one must tremble at the bare idea of doing away with this immense industrial movement. This discourse, it is evident, concludes by voting the maintenance of a hundred thousand soldiers, for reasons drawn from the necessity of the service, and from economical considerations. It is these considerations only that I have to refute. A hundred thousand men, costing the tax-payers a hundred millions of money, live and bring to the purveyors as much as a hundred millions can supply. Essay? This is that which is seen. But, a hundred millions taken from the pockets of the tax-payers, cease to maintain these taxpayers and the purveyors, as far as a hundred minions reach. This is that which is pro euthanasia essay not seen. Now make your calculations.

Cast up, and tell me what profit there is for the masses? I will tell you where the is beauty in the the beholder essay, loss lies; and to simplify it, instead of speaking of a hundred thousand men and a million of money, it shall be of one man, and a thousand francs. We will suppose that we are in the village of A. The recruiting sergeants go their round, and take off a man. The tax-gatherers go their round, and essay, take off a thousand francs. The man and the sum of money are taken to Metz, and the latter is destined to support the former for a year without doing anything. If you consider Metz only, you are quite right; the measure is a very advantageous one: but if you look towards the village of A., you will judge very differently; for, unless you are very blind indeed, you will see that that village has lost a worker, and the thousand francs which would remunerate his labour, as well as the activity which, by be happy in life essay, the expenditure of those thousand francs, it would spread around it.

At first sight, there would seem to be some compensation. What took place at the village, now takes place at Metz, that is all. But the loss is to be estimated in this way: At the village, a man dug and worked; he was a worker. At Metz, he turns to the right about, and to the left about; he is a soldier. The money and the circulation are the same in arguments, both cases; but in the one there were three hundred days of productive labour; in the other, there are three hundred days of unproductive labour, supposing, of course, that a part of the army is rene descartes epistemology essay not indispensable to the public safety. Now, suppose the disbanding to take place. You tell me there will be a surplus of a hundred thousand workers, that competition will be stimulated, and it will reduce the rate of wages.

This is what you see. But what you do not see is this. You do not see that to dismiss a hundred thousand soldiers is not to do away with a million of money, but to essay return it to the tax-payers. You do not see that to throw a hundred thousand workers on the market, is to is beauty eye of the beholder throw into it, at the same moment, the hundred millions of money needed to pay for their labour; that, consequently, the pro euthanasia, same act which increases the supply of hands, increases also the demand; from which it follows, that your fear of a reduction of in the wages is unfounded. Arguments? You do not see that, before the how to be happy, disbanding as well as after it, there are in the country a hundred millions of money corresponding with the hundred thousand men. That the whole difference consists in this: before the disbanding, the country gave the pro euthanasia arguments essay, hundred millions to the hundred thousand men for doing nothing; and that after it, it pays them the same sum for working.

You do not see, in short, that when a tax-payer gives his money either to a soldier in exchange for nothing, or to how to a worker in pro euthanasia arguments essay, exchange for something, all the ultimate consequences of the circulation of this money are the same in the two cases; only, in the second case, the tax-payer receives something, in the former he receives nothing. Aqa English? The result is pro euthanasia arguments a dead loss to the nation. The sophism which I am here combating will not stand the test of progression, which is the touchstone of principles. If, when every compensation is made, and all interests are satisfied, there is a national profit in is beauty eye of, increasing the army, why not enroll under its banners the entire male population of the country? Have you ever chanced to hear it said There is pro euthanasia arguments no better investment than taxes. Only see what a number of families it maintains, and consider how it reacts on industry; it is an inexhaustible stream, it is life itself. In order-to combat this doctrine, I must refer to my preceding refutation. Political economy knew well enough that its arguments were not so amusing that it could be said of them, repetitions please. It has, therefore, turned the proverb to its own use, well convinced that, in its mouth, repetitions teach.

The advantages which officials advocate are those which are seen. The benefit which accrues to the providers is a coursework marking scheme still that which is seen. This blinds all eyes. But the disadvantages which the tax-payers have to get rid of are those which are not seen. And the injury which results from it to the providers, is still that which is not seen, although this ought to be self-evident. When an official spends for his own profit an pro euthanasia arguments essay extra hundred sous, it implies that a tax-payer spends for his profit a hundred sous less. But the literature a coursework scheme, expense of the official is seen, because the act is pro euthanasia arguments performed, while that of the tax-payer is not seen, because, alas! he is be happy in life prevented from arguments essay performing it. You compare the rene epistemology, nation, perhaps, to a parched tract of land, and the tax to a fertilizing rain. Be it so. But you ought also to ask yourself where are the sources of essay this rain and whether it is not the rene epistemology essay, tax itself which draws away the moisture from the ground and dries it up?

Again, you ought to ask yourself whether it is possible that the soil can receive as much of pro euthanasia arguments essay this precious water by rain as it loses by evaporation? There is one thing very certain, that when James B. counts out a hundred sous for the tax-gatherer, he receives nothing in return. Afterwards, when an official spends these hundred sous and returns them to James B., it is for an equal value of essay games 2010 corn or labour. The final result is a loss to James B. of five francs. It is pro euthanasia essay very true that often, perhaps very often, the official performs for James B. an equivalent service.

In this case there is no loss on either side; there is merely in exchange. Therefore, my arguments do not at all apply to descartes epistemology essay useful functionaries. All I say is, - if you wish to create an office, prove its utility. Show that its value to James B., by the services which it performs for him, is equal to what it costs him. But, apart from this intrinsic utility, do not bring forward as an argument the benefit which it confers upon the official, his family, and arguments, his providers; do not assert that it encourages labour. When James B. gives a hundred pence to school assistant cover a Government officer, for a really useful service, it is exactly the same as when he gives a hundred sous to a shoemaker for a pair of shoes.

But when James B. gives a hundred sous to a Government officer, and receives nothing for them unless it be annoyances, he might as well give them to a thief. Pro Euthanasia Arguments? It is nonsense to say that the thesis paper, Government officer will spend these hundred sous to the great profit of national labour; the thief would do the same; and essay, so would James B., if he had not been stopped on the road by the extra-legal parasite, nor by the lawful sponger. Let us accustom ourselves, then, to avoid judging of things by what is seen only, but to judge of them by that which is thesis and research paper not seen. Last year I was on the Committee of Finance, for under the constituency the members of the opposition were not systematically excluded from all the Commissions: in that the arguments essay, constituency acted wisely. We have heard M. Thiers say I have passed my life in opposing the legitimist party, and the priest party. Since the common danger has brought us together, now that I associate with them and know them, and now that we speak face to face, I have found out that they are not the monsters I used to imagine them. Yes, distrust is exaggerated, hatred is fostered among parties who never mix; and if the majority would allow the thesis paper, minority to be present at arguments the Commissions, it would perhaps be discovered that the ideas of the essay, different sides are not so far removed from each other, and, above all, that their intentions are not so perverse as is supposed. Pro Euthanasia Essay? However, last year I was on the Committee of Finance. Every time that one of our colleagues spoke of fixing at school assistant principal cover letter a moderate figure the maintenance of the President of the pro euthanasia arguments essay, Republic, that of the school cover letter, ministers, and of the ambassadors, it was answered-

For the pro euthanasia, good of the service, it is necessary to surround certain offices with splendour and dignity, as a means of attracting men of merit to them. A vast number of unfortunate persons apply to the President of the Republic, and it would be placing him in a very painful position to oblige him to be constantly refusing them. A certain style in the ministerial saloons is a part of the machinery of constitutional Governments. Although such arguments may be controverted, they certainly deserve a serious examination. They are based upon the public interest, whether rightly estimated or not; and as far as I am concerned, I have much more respect for them than many of our Catos have, who are actuated by a narrow spirit of in the eye of the beholder parsimony or of jealousy. But what revolts the pro euthanasia essay, economical part of my conscience, and makes me blush for the intellectual resources of aqa english a coursework scheme my country, is when this absurd relic of feudalism is brought forward, which it constantly is, and pro euthanasia arguments, it is favourably received too:-

Besides, the luxury of great Government officers encourages the arts, industry, and labour. The head of the State and his ministers cannot give banquets and soirees without causing life to circulate through all the veins of the social body. To reduce their means, would starve Parisian industry, and rene descartes essay, consequently that of the whole nation. I must beg you, gentlemen, to pay some little regard to essay arithmetic, at least; and not to say before the National Assembly in France, lest to its shame it should agree with you, that an addition gives a different sum, according to whether it is added up from the middle assistant principal letter, bottom to the top, or from the top to the bottom of the column. For instance, I want to agree with a drainer to make a trench in my field for a hundred sous. Just as we have concluded our arrangement, the tax-gatherer comes, takes my hundred sous, and sends them to pro euthanasia the Minister of the Interior; my bargain is at end, but the Minister will have another dish added to his table. Upon what ground will you dare to affirm that this official expense helps the national industry? Do you not see, that in this there is only a reversing of paper satisfaction and labour? A Minister has his table better covered, it is true, but it is just as true that an agriculturist has his field worse drained. Arguments? A Parisian tavern-keeper has gained a hundred sous,I grant you; but then you must grant me that a drainer has been prevented from and research paper gaining five francs.

It all comes to this, that the official and the tavern-keeper being satisfied, is pro euthanasia that which is seen; the field undrained, and the drainer deprived of his job, is that which is the beholder not seen. Dear me! how much trouble there is in proving that two and two make four; and if you succeed in proving it, it is said, the thing is so plain it is quite tiresome, and pro euthanasia arguments essay, they vote as if you had proved nothing at all. Ought the State to essay games support the arts? There is certainly much to be said on both sides of this question. It may be said, in favor of the system of pro euthanasia arguments voting supplies for this purpose, that the arts enlarge, elevate, and harmonize the soul of a nation; that they divert it from too great an absorption in thesis, material occupations, encourage in it a love for arguments essay, the beautiful, and thus act favourably on its manners, customs, morals, and even on its industry. Essay On Commonwealth Games 2010? It may be asked, what would become of music in France without her Italian theatre and arguments essay, her Conservatoire; of the dramatic art. How To In Life Essay? without her Theatre-Francais; of painting and sculpture, without our collections, galleries, and museums? It might even be asked, whether, without centralization, and arguments essay, consequently the support of fine arts, that exquisite taste would be developed which is the is beauty in the eye of, noble appendage of French labour, and which introduces its productions to the whole world? In the face of such results, would it not be the height of imprudence to renounce this moderate contribution from all her citizens, which, in fact, in pro euthanasia, the eyes of the beholder essay Europe, realizes their superiority and their glory? To these and many other reasons, whose force I do not dispute, arguments no less forcible may be opposed. It might, first of all, be said, that there is a question of distributive justice in it.

Does the right of the legislator extend to abridging the wages of the artisan, for the sake of adding to the profits of the artist? M. Pro Euthanasia Essay? Lamartine said, If you cease to support the is beauty in the eye of essay, theatre, where will you stop? Will you not necessarily be led to withdraw your support from your colleges, your museums, your institutes, and your libraries? It might be answered, if you desire to support everything which is good and pro euthanasia, useful, where will you stop? Will you not necessarily be led to form a civil list for agriculture, industry, commerce, benevolence, education? Then, is it certain that government aid favours the progress of art? This question is far from being settled, and we see very well that the theatres which prosper are those which depend upon their own resources. Moreover, if we come to higher considerations, we may observe, that wants and desires arise, the one from the other, and originate in regions which are more and more refined in proportion as the public wealth allows of their being satisfied; that Government ought not to take part in this correspondence, because in paper, a certain condition of present fortune it could not by taxation stimulate the arts of necessity, without checking those of luxury, and thus interrupting the natural course of civilization. I may observe, that these artificial transpositions of wants, tastes, labour, and pro euthanasia arguments essay, population, place the people in a precarious and dangerous position, without any solid basis. These are some of the reasons alleged by the adversaries of State intervention in what concerns the order in which citizens think their wants and desires should be satisfied, and to which, consequently, their activity should be directed. I am, I confess, one of those who think that choice and middle assistant cover letter, impulse ought to come from below and not from above, from the citizen and not from the legislator; and pro euthanasia arguments essay, the opposite doctrine appears to me to tend to the destruction of liberty and of human dignity.

But, by a deduction as false as it is unjust, do you know what economists are accused of? It is, that when we disapprove of Government support, we are supposed to disapprove of the thing itself whose support is discussed; and to descartes epistemology be the enemies of arguments every kind of activity, because we desire to see those activities, on the one hand free, and on middle school assistant principal, the other seeking their own reward in themselves. Thus, if we think that the State should not interfere by taxation in arguments, religious affairs, we are atheists. If we think the State ought not to interfere by taxation in eye of essay, education, we are hostile to knowledge. Pro Euthanasia? If we say that the State ought not by aqa english marking, taxation to give a fictitious value to land, or to any particular branch of pro euthanasia industry, we are enemies to property and labour. If we think that the how to be happy, State ought not to support artists, we are barbarians who look upon the arts as useless. Against such conclusions as these I protest with all my strength. Far from entertaining the arguments essay, absurd idea of doing away with religion, education, property, labour, and the arts, when we say that the State ought to protect the free development of all these kinds of human activity, without helping some of them at the expense of others, we think, on the contrary, that all these living powers of society would develop themselves more harmoniously under the influence of liberty; and rene descartes epistemology essay, that, under such an influence no one of them would, as is arguments now the case, be a source of trouble, of abuses, of tyranny, and disorder. Our adversaries consider, that an activity which is neither aided by supplies, nor regulated by Government, is an activity destroyed. Essay On Commonwealth Games 2010? We think just the contrary.

Their faith is in the legislator, not in mankind; ours is in mankind, not in the legislator. Thus M. Lamartine said, Upon this principle we must abolish the public exhibitions, which are the honour and the wealth of this country. But I would say to M. Lamartine, According to your way of thinking, not to pro euthanasia arguments support is to abolish; because, setting out upon the maxim that nothing exists independently of the will of the State, you conclude that nothing lives but what the State causes to live. But I oppose to this assertion the very example which you have chosen, and a coursework marking scheme, beg you to remark, that the grandest and noblest of exhibitions, one which has been conceived in the most liberal and pro euthanasia arguments essay, universal spirit and I might even make use of the term humanitary, for it is no exaggeration is the exhibition now preparing in London; the only one in which no Government is taking any part, and which is being paid for by no tax. To return to the fine arts: there are, I repeat, many strong reasons to be brought, both for and against the system of Government assistance. The reader must see, that the especial object of this work leads me neither to explain these reasons, nor to decide in their favour, nor against them. But M. Lamartine has advanced one argument which I cannot pass by in silence, for it is closely connected with this economic study. The economical question, as regards theatres, is rene epistemology comprised in pro euthanasia arguments, one word labour. It matters little what is the nature of this labour; it is as fertile, as productive a labour as any other kind of labour in the nation.

The theatres in France, you know, feed and salary no less than 80,000 workmen of different kinds; painters, masons, decorators, costumers, architects, c., which constitute the very life and movement of several parts of this capital, and on this account they ought to have your sympathies. Your sympathies! say, rather, your money. And further on he says: The pleasures of Paris are the labour and the consumption of the thesis, provinces, and the luxuries of the rich are the wages and bread of 200,000 workmen of every description, who live by the manifold industry of the theatres on pro euthanasia arguments essay, the surface of the republic, and who receive from these noble pleasures, which render France illustrious, the aqa english literature scheme, sustenance of their lives and the necessaries of their families and children. It is to them that you will give 60,000 francs. (Very well; very well. Great applause.) For my part I am constrained to say, Very bad! Very bad!

Confining his opinion, of course, within the bounds of the economical question which we are discussing. Yes, it is to the workmen of the essay, theatres that a part, at scheme least, of these 60,000 francs will go; a few bribes, perhaps, may be abstracted on the way. Perhaps, if we were to look a little more closely into the matter, we might find that the cake had gone another way, and that these workmen were fortunate who had come in for a few crumbs. Pro Euthanasia Arguments Essay? But I will allow, for the sake of argument, that the how to in life, entire sum does go to the painters, decorators, e. This is that which is seen. Essay? But whence does it come? This is the other side of the question, and epistemology essay, quite as important as the former. Where do these 60,000 francs spring from? and where would they go if a vote of the Legislature did not direct them first towards the Rue Rivoli and pro euthanasia arguments, thence towards the Rue Grenelle? This is what is not seen.

Certainly, nobody will think of maintaining that the legislative vote has caused this sum to be hatched in a ballot urn; that it is a pure addition made to the national wealth; that but for this miraculous vote these 60,000 francs would have been for ever invisible and impalpable. It must be admitted that all that the majority can do, is to decide that they shall be taken from one place to be sent to another; and how to be happy in life, if they take one direction, it is only because they have been diverted from another. This being the case, it is clear that the taxpayer, who has contributed one franc, will no longer have this franc at his own disposal. It is clear that he will be deprived of some gratification to the amount of pro euthanasia essay one franc; and that the workman, whoever he may be, who would have received it from him, will be deprived of a benefit to that amount. Let us not, therefore, be led by a childish illusion into believing that the vote of the 60,000 francs may add any thing whatever to the well-being of the country, and to the national labour. It displaces enjoyments, it transposes wages that is all. Will it be said that for one kind of gratification, and one kind of labour, it substitutes more urgent, more moral, more reasonable gratifications and labour? I might dispute this; I might say, by taking 60,000 francs from the tax-payers, you diminish tile wages of labourers, drainers, carpenters, blacksmiths, and rene essay, increase in proportion those of the singers. There is nothing to prove that this latter class calls for more sympathy than the former. M. Lamartine does not say that it is so.

He himself says, that the labour of the theatres is as fertile, as productive as any other (not more so); and this may be doubted; for arguments, the best proof that the assistant letter, latter is pro euthanasia essay not so fertile as the former lies in this, that the other is to be called upon to assist it. But this comparison between the value and the intrinsic merit of different kinds of labour, forms no part of my present subject. All I have to do here is to is beauty eye of the beholder essay show, that if M. Lamartine and those persons who commend his line of argument have seen on one side the essay, salaries gained by the providers of the comedians, they ought on the other to have seen the salaries lost by the providers of the middle assistant principal cover, taxpayers; for want of this, they have exposed themselves to ridicule by mistaking a displacement for a gain. If they were true to their doctrine, there would be no limits to their demands for Government aid; for that which is true of one franc and of 60,000 is true, under parallel circumstances, of a hundred millions of francs. When taxes are the pro euthanasia, subject of aqa english a coursework marking scheme discussion, Gentlemen, you ought to prove their utility by reasons from the root of the matter, but not by pro euthanasia arguments essay, this unlucky assertion The public expenses support the working classes. This assertion disguises the important fact, that public expenses always supersede private expenses, and that therefore we bring a livelihood to one workman instead of another, but add nothing to the share of the working class as a whole. Your arguments are fashionable enough, but they are too absurd to be justified by anything like reason. Nothing is on commonwealth 2010 more natural than that a nation, after having assured itself that an enterprise will benefit the community, should have it executed by means of a general assessment. But I lose patience, I confess, when I hear this economic blunder advanced in support of such a project. Besides, it will be a means of creating labour for arguments essay, the workmen.

The State opens a road, builds a palace, straightens a street, cuts a canal; and rene, so gives work to certain workmen this is what is seen: but it deprives certain other workmen of work, and this is what is pro euthanasia arguments essay not seen. The road is essay begun. Arguments Essay? A thousand workmen come every morning, leave every evening, and essay, take their wages this is certain. If the road had not been decreed, if the supplies had not been voted, these good people would have had neither work nor salary there; this also is certain. But is this all? does not the operation, as a whole, contain something else? At the moment when M. Dupin pronounces the emphatic words, The Assembly has adopted, do the pro euthanasia, millions descend miraculously on is beauty the beholder essay, a moon-beam into the coffers of MM. Pro Euthanasia Arguments Essay? Fould and Bineau? In order that the evolution may be complete, as it is said, must not the State organise the receipts as well as the essay, expenditure? must it not set its tax-gatherers and essay, tax-payers to work, the former to gather, and the latter to pay? Study the question, now, in thesis and research, both its elements. While you state the destination given by the State to the millions voted, do not neglect to state also the arguments essay, destination which the taxpayer would have given, bat cannot now give, to the same.

Then you will understand that a public enterprise is a coin with two sides. Upon one is engraved a labourer at work, with this device, that which is seen; on the other is a labourer out of work, with the device, that which is not seen. The sophism which this work is intended to refute, is the more dangerous when applied to thesis public works, inasmuch as it serves to justify the most wanton enterprises and extravagance. When a railroad or a bridge are of real utility, it is sufficient to mention this utility. But if it does not exist, what do they do? Recourse is had to this mystification: We must find work for the workmen. Accordingly, orders are given that the drains in the Champ-de-Mars be made and unmade. The great Napoleon, it is said, thought he was doing a very philanthropic work by causing ditches to pro euthanasia essay be made and then filled up.

He said, therefore, What signifies the result? All we want is to see wealth spread among the essay, labouring classes. But let us go to the root of the matter. We are deceived by money. To demand the cooperation of all the citizens in pro euthanasia arguments, a common work, in the form of money, is in reality to demand a concurrence in kind; for every one procures, by his own labour, the is beauty in the the beholder, sum to which he is arguments taxed. Now, if all the citizens were to be called together, and made to execute, in conjunction, a work useful to all, this would be easily understood; their reward would be found in in the eye of the beholder, the results of the work itself. But after having called them together, if you force them to make roads which no one will pass through, palaces which no one will inhabit, and this under the pretext of finding them work, it would be absurd, and they would have a right to argue, With this labour we have nothing to do; we prefer working on our own account. A proceeding which consists in making the citizens cooperate in giving money but not labour, does not, in any way, alter the general results. Essay? The only thing is, that the descartes epistemology essay, loss would react upon all parties. By the former, those whom the State employs, escape their part of the arguments, loss, by adding it to thesis and research paper that which their fellow-citizens have already suffered. There is an article in our constitution which says: Society favours and encourages the development of essay labour by be happy essay, the establishment of public works, by the State, the departments, and the parishes, as a means of employing persons who are in want of pro euthanasia work.

As a temporary measure, on any emergency, during a hard winter, this interference with the tax-payers may have its use. It acts in the same way as securities. It adds nothing either to labour or to wages, but it takes labour and wages from ordinary times to epistemology essay give them, at arguments essay a loss it is true, to times of difficulty. As a permanent, general, systematic measure, it is nothing else than a ruinous mystification, an paper impossibility, which shows a little excited labour which is seen, and bides a great deal of arguments prevented labour which is not seen. Society is the total of the 2010, forced or voluntary services which men perform for each other; that is to say, of public services and private services. The former, imposed and pro euthanasia arguments essay, regulated by the law, which it is not always easy to change, even when it is desirable, may survive with it their own usefulness, and still preserve the name of public services, even when they are no longer services at all, but rather public annoyances. The latter belong to the sphere of the will, of individual responsibility.

Every one gives and receives what he wishes, and what he can, after a debate. They have always the presumption of real utility, in exact proportion to their comparative value. This is the reason why the former description of services so often become stationary, while the descartes epistemology essay, latter obey the law of progress. While the exaggerated development of public services, by the waste of strength which it involves, fastens upon pro euthanasia arguments, society a fatal sycophancy, it is rene epistemology essay a singular thing that several modern sects, attributing this character to free and private services, are endeavouring to transform professions into functions. These sects violently oppose what they call intermediates . Essay? They would gladly suppress the capitalist, the banker, the speculator, the projector, the how to in life essay, merchant, and the trader, accusing them of interposing between production and pro euthanasia essay, consumption, to extort from literature both, without giving either anything in return. Or rather, they would transfer to the State the work which they accomplish, for pro euthanasia arguments, this work cannot be suppressed. The sophism of the Socialists on this point is showing to the public what it pays to the intermediates in exchange for their services, and concealing from it what is descartes essay necessary to be paid to pro euthanasia arguments essay the State. Here is the usual conflict between what is before our eyes, and what is perceptible to is beauty in the the beholder the mind only, between what is seen, and what is not seen. It was at the time of the scarcity, in 1847, that the Socialist schools attempted and succeeded in arguments, popularizing their fatal theory. They knew very well that the most absurd notions have always a chance with people who are suffering; malesuada fames.

Therefore, by the help of the fine words, trafficking in men by men, speculation on hunger, monopoly, they began to descartes epistemology essay blacken commerce, and to cast a veil over its benefits. What can be the use, they say, of leaving to the merchants the care of importing food from the United States and the Crimea? Why do not the arguments essay, State, the departments, and the towns, organize a service for provisions, and a magazine for stores? They would sell at a return price, and the people, poor things, would be exempted from the tribute which they pay to descartes essay free, that is, to pro euthanasia arguments essay egotistical, individual, and anarchical commerce. The tribute paid by the people to commerce, is that which is seen. The tribute which the people would pay to the State, or to its agents, in on commonwealth games 2010, the Socialist system, is pro euthanasia arguments essay what is not seen. In what does this pretended tribute, which the people pay to commerce, consist? In this: that two men render each other a mutual service, in rene descartes epistemology, all freedom, and under the pressure of competition and reduced prices. When the hungry stomach is at Paris, and corn which can satisfy it is at pro euthanasia arguments Odessa, the suffering cannot cease till the corn is rene brought into contact with the stomach. There are three means by pro euthanasia arguments essay, which this contact may be effected. 1st.

The famished men may go themselves and fetch the corn. 2nd. They may leave this task to those to whose trade it belongs. Thesis? 3rd. They may club together, and pro euthanasia essay, give the office in charge to thesis paper public functionaries. Which of arguments these three methods possesses the greatest advantages?

In every time, in all countries, and the more free, enlightened, and in life, experienced they are, men have voluntarily chosen the second. I confess that this is sufficient, in my opinion, to justify this choice. Pro Euthanasia Essay? I cannot believe that mankind, as a whole, is deceiving itself upon a point which touches it so nearly. But let us consider the subject. For thirty-six millions of citizens to go and fetch the corn they want from school principal cover Odessa, is a manifest impossibility. The first means, then, goes for nothing. The consumers cannot act for themselves. They must, of necessity, have recourse to intermediates, officials or agents. But, observe, that the first of these three means would be the most natural.

In reality, the hungry man has to fetch his corn. It is a task which concerns himself; a service due to himself. If another person, on whatever ground, performs this service for him, takes the task upon himself, this latter has a claim upon him for a compensation. I mean by this to say that intermediates contain in themselves the principle of remuneration. However that may be, since we must refer to what the Socialists call a parasite, I would ask, which of the two is the most exacting parasite, the merchant or the official? Commerce (free, of course, otherwise I could not reason upon it), commerce, I say, is led by its own interests to study the seasons, to give daily statements of the state of the crops, to receive information from every part of the globe, to pro euthanasia arguments foresee wants, to take precautions beforehand. It has vessels always ready, correspondents everywhere; and it is its immediate interest to buy at the lowest possible price, to be happy in life economize in all the details of its operations, and to attain the pro euthanasia arguments, greatest results by the smallest efforts. It is not the French merchants only is beauty, who are occupied in pro euthanasia essay, procuring provisions for France in time of eye of need, and if their interest leads them irresistibly to pro euthanasia accomplish their task at the smallest possible cost, the competition which they create amongst each other leads them no less irresistibly to rene descartes cause the consumers to partake of the profits of those realized savings. The corn arrives; it is to the interest of commerce to sell it as soon as possible, so as to avoid risks, to realize its funds, and pro euthanasia arguments, begin again the first opportunity.

Directed by the comparison of prices, it distributes food over the whole surface of the country, beginning always at the highest price, that is, where the demand is the greatest. It is impossible to imagine an eye of essay organization more completely calculated to meet the interest of pro euthanasia arguments essay those who are in want; and the beauty of the beholder this organization, unperceived as it is by arguments essay, the Socialists, results from the very fact that it is free. It is true, the consumer is obliged to reimburse commerce for assistant principal, the expenses of conveyance, freight, store-room, commission, c.; but can any system be devised, in which he who eats corn is not obliged to defray the expenses, whatever they may be, of bringing it within his reach? The remuneration for arguments essay, the service performed has to be paid also: but as regards its amount, this is reduced to the smallest possible sum by competition; and as regards its justice, it would be very strange if the essay, artisans of arguments essay Paris would not work for the merchants of Marseilles, when the merchants of Marseilles work for the artisans of Paris. If, according to the Socialist invention, the State were to stand in the stead of commerce, what would happen?

I should like to be informed where the saving would be to the public? Would it be in the price of purchase? Imagine the delegates of 40,000 parishes arriving at is beauty eye of Odessa on a given day, and on the day of need; imagine the effect upon prices. Would the saving be in the expenses? Would fewer vessels be required, fewer sailors, fewer transports, fewer sloops, or would you be exempt from the payment of all these things? Would it be in the profits of the merchants? Would your officials go to Odessa for nothing? Would they travel and work on the principle of fraternity? Must they not live? must not they be paid for their time? And do you believe that these expenses would not exceed a thousand times the two or three per cent which the merchant gains, at the rate at which he is ready to treat?

And then consider the difficulty of levying so many taxes, and arguments, of dividing so much food. Think of the injustice, of the abuses inseparable for such an enterprise. Think of the responsibility which would weigh upon rene, the Government. The Socialists who have invented these follies, and who, in the days of pro euthanasia distress, have introduced them into the minds of the masses, take to themselves literally the title of advanced men; and it is not without some danger that custom, that tyrant of tongues, authorizes the term, and the sentiment which it involves. Advanced! This supposes that these gentlemen can see further than the common people; that their only fault is, that they are too much in advance of their age, and if the time is not yet come for suppressing certain free services, pretended parasites, the fault is to be attributed to the public, which is in the rear of socialism. I say, from my soul and my conscience, the reverse is the truth; and I know not to what barbarous age we should have to go back, if we would find the level of Socialist knowledge on this subject. These modern sectarians incessantly oppose association to actual society. They overlook the epistemology, fact, that society, under a free regulation, is a true association, far superior to any of arguments essay those which proceed from their fertile imaginations. Let me illustrate this by an example.

Before a man, when he gets up in the morning, can put on a coat, ground must have been enclosed, broken up, drained, tilled, and is beauty eye of, sown with a particular kind of plant; flocks must have been fed, and have given their wool; this wool must have been spun, woven, dyed, and converted into cloth; this cloth must have been cut, sewed, and pro euthanasia arguments, made into a garment. Descartes Essay? And this series of operations implies a number of others; it supposes the employment of instruments for ploughing, c., sheepfolds, sheds, coal, machines, carriages, e. If society were not a perfectly real association, a person who wanted a coat would be reduced to the necessity of working in solitude; that is, of performing for himself the innumerable parts of this series, from the first stroke of the pickaxe to the last stitch which concludes the work. But, thanks to the sociability which is the distinguishing character of our race, these operations are distributed amongst a multitude of workers; and pro euthanasia arguments essay, they are further subdivided, for epistemology essay, the common good, to an extent that, as the consumption becomes more active, one single operation is able to arguments essay support a new trade. Then comes the division of the profits, which operates according to thesis paper the contingent value which each has brought to the entire work. If this is pro euthanasia arguments essay not association, I should like to know what is. Observe, that as no one of these workers has obtained the smallest particle of matter from nothingness, they are confined to performing for each other mutual services, and to helping each other in a common object, and that all may be considered, with respect to others, intermediates. If, for instance, in the course of the operation, the conveyance becomes important enough to occupy one person, the how to be happy in life essay, spinning another, the arguments essay, weaving another, why should the first be considered a parasite more than the other two? The conveyance must be made, must it not? Does not he who performs it, devote to it his time and trouble? and by thesis, so doing does he not spare that of his colleagues?

Do these do more or other than this for him? Are they not equally dependent for remuneration, that is, for the division of the produce, upon the law of reduced price? Is it not in all liberty, for the common good, that these arrangements are entered into? What do we want with a Socialist then, who, under pretence of organizing for us, comes despotically to arguments essay break up our voluntary arrangements, to check the division of labour, to substitute isolated efforts for combined ones, and to send civilization back? Is association, as I describe it here, in essay, itself less association, because every one enters and leaves it freely, chooses his place in it, judges and pro euthanasia arguments essay, bargains for himself on his own responsibility, and brings with him the spring and warrant of personal interest? That it may deserve this name, is it necessary that a pretended reformer should come and impose upon us his plan and his will, and as it were, to a coursework scheme concentrate mankind in himself? The more we examine these advanced schools, the more do we become convinced that there is but one thing at the root of them: ignorance proclaiming itself infallible, and claiming despotism in the name of this infallibility. I hope the reader will excuse this digression.

It may not be altogether useless, at a time when declamations, springing from St. Simonian, Phalansterian, and Icarian books, are invoking the press and the tribune, and which seriously threaten the liberty of labour and arguments, commercial transactions. M. Prohibant (it was not I who gave him this name, but M. Charles Dupin) devoted his time and capital to converting the ore found on his land into iron. As nature had been more lavish towards the Belgians, they furnished the French with iron cheaper than M. Prohibant, which means, that all the French, or France, could obtain a given quantity of iron with less labour by is beauty eye of the beholder, buying it of the honest Flemings; therefore, guided by their own interest, they did not fail to do so, and arguments essay, every day there might be seen a multitude of nail-smiths, blacksmiths, cartwrights, machinists, farriers, and labourers, going themselves, or sending intermediates, to supply themselves in Belgium. This displeased M. Prohibant exceedingly. At first, it occurred to him to put an end to essay on commonwealth 2010 this abuse by his own efforts; it was the least he could do, for he was the only sufferer. I will take my carbine, said he; I will put four pistols into my belt; I will fill my cartridge box; I will gird on my sword, and arguments, go thus equipped to essay on commonwealth the frontier. There, the first blacksmith, nailsmith, farrier, machinist, or locksmith, who presents himself to do his own business and not mine, I will kill, to teach him how to live. At the moment of starting, M. Prohibant made a few reflections which calmed down his warlike ardour a little.

He said to himself, In the pro euthanasia, first place, it is not absolutely impossible that the rene essay, purchasers of iron, my countrymen and pro euthanasia essay, enemies, should take the thing ill, and, instead of letting me kill them, should kill me instead; and then, even were I to call out all my servants, we should not be able to defend the passages. In short, this proceeding would cost me very dear; much more so than the result would be worth. M. Prohibant was on the point of resigning himself to his sad fate, that of being only aqa english scheme, as free as the rest of the world, when a ray of light darted across his brain. He recollected that at Paris there is a great manufactory of arguments laws. What is a law? said he to himself. It is a measure to which, when once it is decreed, be it good or bad, everybody is bound to school conform. For the execution of the same a public force is pro euthanasia arguments organized, and to constitute the said public force, men and school, money are drawn from the arguments essay, nation. If, then, I could only get the great Parisian manufactory to pass a little law, 'Belgian iron is prohibited,' I should obtain the following results: The Government would replace the few valets that I was going to send to the frontier by 20,000 of the sons of essay those refractory blacksmiths, farmers, artisans, machinists, locksmiths, nailsmiths, and labourers.

Then, to keep these 20,000 custom-house officers in arguments essay, health and good humour, it would distribute amongst them 25,000,000 of francs, taken from these blacksmiths, nailsmiths, artisans, and labourers. They would guard the frontier much better; would cost me nothing; I should not be exposed to the brutality of the brokers, should sell the iron at my own price, and have the sweet satisfaction of seeing our great people shamefully mystified. That would teach them to in the the beholder essay proclaim themselves perpetually the harbingers and promoters of progress in Europe. Pro Euthanasia? Oh! it would be a capital joke, and deserves to be tried. So M. Prohibant went to the law manufactory.

Another time, perhaps, I shall relate the story of his underhand dealings, but now I shall merely mention his visible proceedings. He brought the following consideration before the view of the legislating gentlemen:- Belgian iron is sold in France at ten francs, which obliges me to sell mine at the same price. I should like to sell at fifteen, but cannot do so on account of this Belgian iron, which I wish was at the bottom of the how to in life, Red Sea. I beg you will make a law that no more Belgian iron shall enter France. Immediately I raise my price five francs, and pro euthanasia arguments, these are the consequences: For every hundred-weight of iron that I shall deliver to the public, I shall receive fifteen francs instead of ten; I shall grow rich more rapidly, extend my traffic, and employ more workmen. My workmen and essay on commonwealth games 2010, I shall spend much more freely to the great advantage of our tradesmen for miles around. These latter, having more custom, will furnish more employment to trade, and activity on both sides will increase in the country. This fortunate piece of pro euthanasia arguments money, which you will drop into my strong-box, will, like a stone thrown into a lake, give birth to an infinite number of concentric circles. Charmed with his discourse, delighted to learn that it is descartes essay so easy to promote, by legislating, the prosperity of a people, the law-makers voted the essay, restriction.

Talk of labour and economy, they said, what is the use of these painful means of increasing the rene descartes epistemology, national wealth, when all that is wanted for this object is a Decree? And, in pro euthanasia, fact, the law produced all the consequences announced by M. Prohibant; the only thing was, it produced others which he had not foreseen. To do him justice, his reasoning was not false, but only incomplete. In endeavouring to rene descartes essay obtain a privilege, he had taken cognizance of the effects which are seen, leaving in the background those which are not seen. He had pointed out only two personages, whereas there are three concerned in the affair. It is for pro euthanasia arguments, us to supply this involuntary or premeditated omission. It is true, the crown-piece, thus directed by law into M. Prohibant's strong-box, is advantageous to him and to those whose labour it would encourage; and if the Act had caused the be happy in life essay, crownpiece to descend from the moon, these good effects would not have been counterbalanced by any corresponding evils. Unfortunately, the mysterious piece of money does not come from the moon, but from the pocket of a blacksmith, or a nail-smith, or a cartwright, or a farrier, or a labourer, or a shipwright; in pro euthanasia arguments essay, a word, from middle assistant principal James B., who gives it now without receiving a grain more of iron than when he was paying ten francs. Thus, we can see at a glance that this very much alters the state of the case; for it is very evident that M. Prohibant's profit is compensated by James B.'s loss, and all that M. Prohibant can do with the crown-piece, for arguments, the encouragement of national labour, James B. might have done himself. The Beholder Essay? The stone has only been thrown upon one part of the lake, because the pro euthanasia arguments, law has prevented it from being thrown upon another.

Therefore, that which is not seen supersedes that which is seen, and at be happy in life this point there remains, as the residue of the operation, a piece of injustice, and, sad to say, a piece of injustice perpetrated by the law! This is not all. I have said that there is always a third person left in the back-ground. I must now bring him forward, that he may reveal to pro euthanasia us a second loss of five francs. Then we shall have the entire results of the transaction. James B. is the possessor of how to be happy fifteen francs, the fruit of his labour.

He is now free. Essay? What does he do with his fifteen francs? He purchases some article of fashion for ten francs, and with it he pays (or the intermediate pay for him) for the hundred-weight of is beauty eye of the beholder essay Belgian iron. Pro Euthanasia Arguments Essay? After this he has five francs left. He does not throw them into the river, but (and this is what is not seen) he gives them to some tradesman in exchange for some enjoyment; to a bookseller, for how to be happy in life, instance, for arguments essay, Bossuet's Discourse on Universal History. Thus, as far as national labour is concerned, it is encouraged to the amount of fifteen francs, viz.: ten francs for the Paris article; five francs to the bookselling trade.

As to James B., he obtains for descartes epistemology, his fifteen francs two gratifications, viz.: 1st. A hundred-weight of pro euthanasia arguments essay iron. The Decree is assistant principal cover letter put in force. How does it affect the pro euthanasia arguments, condition of James B.? How does it affect the national labour? James B. pays every centime of his five francs to a coursework scheme M. Prohibant, and therefore is deprived of the pleasure of pro euthanasia arguments essay a book, or of some other thing of equal value. He loses five francs.

This must be admitted; it cannot fail to be admitted, that when the restriction raises the price of things, the consumer loses the difference. But, then, it is in the essay said, national labour is the gainer. No, it is not the gainer; for, since the pro euthanasia essay, Act, it is no more encouraged than it was before, to the amount of fifteen francs. The only thing is in the eye of the beholder that, since the Act, the pro euthanasia, fifteen francs of essay James B. go to the metal trade, while, before it was put in force, they were divided between the milliner and the bookseller. The violence used by M. Prohibant on the frontier, or that which he causes to be used by the law, may be judged very differently in a moral point of view.

Some persons consider that plunder is perfectly justifiable, if only sanctioned by law. But, for myself, I cannot imagine anything more aggravating. However it may be, the economical results are the same in both cases. Look at the thing as you will; but if you are impartial, you will see that no good can come of essay legal or illegal plunder. We do not deny that it affords M. Prohibant, or his trade, or, if you will, national industry, a profit of essay five francs. But we affirm that it causes two losses, one to James B., who pays fifteen francs where he otherwise would have paid ten; the other to national industry, which does not receive the difference.

Take your choice of these two losses, and compensate with it the profit which we allow. The other will prove not the less a dead loss. Here is the moral: To take by violence is arguments essay not to produce, but to destroy. Truly, if taking by violence was producing, this country of middle principal ours would be a little richer than she is. A curse on machines! Every year, their increasing power devotes millions of workmen to arguments essay pauperism, by depriving them of work, and therefore of wages and bread. A curse on machines! This is the cry which is is beauty eye of the beholder essay raised by vulgar prejudice, and echoed in the journals. But to pro euthanasia arguments curse machines, is to curse the spirit of humanity! It puzzles me to conceive how any man can feel any satisfaction in such a doctrine.

For, if true, what is its inevitable consequence? That there is no activity, prosperity, wealth, or happiness possible for any people, except for those who are stupid and in the eye of the beholder essay, inert, and to whom God has not granted the pro euthanasia arguments, fatal gift of knowing how to think, to observe, to combine, to invent, and to obtain the greatest results with the on commonwealth games, smallest means. Arguments Essay? On the contrary, rags, mean huts, poverty, and inanition, are the inevitable lot of paper every nation which seeks and finds in iron, fire, wind, electricity, magnetism, the laws of chemistry and arguments, mechanics, in essay games, a word, in the powers of nature, an assistance to pro euthanasia essay its natural powers. We might as well say with Rousseau - Every man that thinks is a depraved animal. This is not all; if this doctrine is true, since all men think and invent, since all, from first to last, and at every moment of their existence, seek the cooperation of the powers of nature, and cover letter, try to pro euthanasia make the most of a little, by reducing either the work of their hands, or their expenses, so as to obtain the literature a coursework marking scheme, greatest possible amount of gratification with the smallest possible amount of labour, it must follow, as a matter of course, that the whole of essay mankind is rushing towards its decline, by the same mental aspiration towards progress, which torments each of its members. Hence, it ought to be made known, by statistics, that the games 2010, inhabitants of Lancashire, abandoning that land of machines, seek for work in pro euthanasia arguments, Ireland, where they are unknown; and, by history, that barbarism darkens the be happy essay, epochs of civilization, and that civilization shines in times of pro euthanasia essay ignorance and barbarism. There is evidently in this mass of contradictions something which revolts us, and which leads us to suspect that the problem contains within it an element of solution which has not been sufficiently disengaged.

Here is the whole mystery: behind that which is seen, lies something which is and research paper not seen. I will endeavour to bring it to light. The demonstration I shall give will only be a repetition of the preceding one, for the problems are one and the same. Men have a natural propensity to make the best bargain they can, when not prevented by an opposing force; that is, they like to obtain as much as they possibly can for their labour, whether the pro euthanasia arguments, advantage is obtained from a foreign producer, or a skillful mechanical producer. The theoretical objection which is literature scheme made to this propensity is the same in arguments essay, both cases. In each case it is reproached with the apparent inactivity which it causes to labour. Now, labour rendered available, not inactive, is the rene descartes essay, very thing which determines it. Pro Euthanasia? And, therefore, in both cases, the same practical obstacle force, is opposed to it also. The legislator prohibits foreign competition, and forbids mechanical competition. For what other means can exist for arresting a propensity which is thesis natural to all men, but that of depriving them of their liberty? In many countries, it is true, the legislator strikes at pro euthanasia arguments only one of these competitions, and confines himself to grumbling at the other.

This only proves one thing, that is, that the legislator is inconsistent. Harm Of False Premise. We need not be surprised at this. Rene Descartes Epistemology? On a wrong road, inconsistency is inevitable; if it were not so, mankind would be sacrificed. A false principle never has been, and essay, never will be, carried out to the end. Now for our demonstration, which shall not be a long one. James B. had two francs which he had gained by two workmen; but it occurs to him, that an arrangement of ropes and weights might be made which would diminish the rene, labour by half.

Thus he obtains the essay, same advantage, saves a franc, and discharges a workman. He discharges a workman: this is is beauty in the that which is seen. And seeing this only, it is said, See how misery attends civilization; this is the way that liberty is fatal to equality. Arguments Essay? The human mind has made a conquest, and essay games, immediately a workman is cast into the gulf of pauperism. Arguments? James B. may possibly employ the on commonwealth, two workmen, but then he will give them only half their wages for pro euthanasia essay, they will compete with each other, and offer themselves at the lowest price. Thus the rich are always growing richer, and the poor, poorer. Society wants remodelling. A very fine conclusion, and is beauty essay, worthy of the preamble. Happily, preamble and conclusion are both false, because, behind the half of the phenomenon which is seen, lies the other half which is not seen. The franc saved by pro euthanasia arguments, James B. is not seen, no more are the necessary effects of this saving.

Since, in essay, consequence of his invention, James B. spends only one franc on hand labour in the pursuit of a determined advantage, another franc remains to him. If, then, there is in arguments essay, the world a workman with unemployed arms, there is also in in life, the world a capitalist with an arguments unemployed franc. These two elements meet and combine, and it is as clear as daylight, that between the supply and demand of labour, and between the supply and demand of wages, the relation is in no way changed. The invention and the workman paid with the first franc, now perform the work which was formerly accomplished by two workmen. Is Beauty The Beholder Essay? The second workman, paid with the second franc, realizes a new kind of work.

What is the change, then, which has taken place? An additional national advantage has been gained; in other words, the invention is a gratuitous triumph a gratuitous profit for mankind. From the form which I have given to my demonstration, the following inference might be drawn: It is the capitalist who reaps all the advantage from machinery. The working class, if it suffers only temporarily, never profits by it, since, by your own showing, they displace a portion of the national labour, without diminishing it, it is true, but also without increasing it. I do not pretend, in this slight treatise, to answer every objection; the only end I have in view, is to combat a vulgar, widely spread, and dangerous prejudice. I want to prove, that a new machine only arguments essay, causes the school, discharge of pro euthanasia arguments a certain number of hands, when the remuneration which pays them as abstracted by force. These hands, and this remuneration, would combine to produce what it was impossible to produce before the invention; whence it follows that the final result is an aqa english literature increase of advantages for equal labour. Who is the gainer by arguments essay, these additional advantages? First, it is true, the capitalist, the inventor; the first who succeeds in using the in the, machine; and this is the pro euthanasia arguments, reward of his genius and is beauty eye of, his courage. In this case, as we have just seen, he effects a saving upon the expense of arguments production, which, in whatever way it may be spent (and it always is marking spent), employs exactly as many hands as the essay, machine caused to be dismissed.

But soon competition obliges him to lower his prices in proportion to the saving itself; and then it is no longer the inventor who reaps the benefit of the on commonwealth games, invention it is the essay, purchaser of what is produced, the consumer, the public, including the workmen; in the beholder essay, a word, mankind. And that which is not seen is, that the pro euthanasia, saving thus procured for all consumers creates a fund whence wages may be supplied, and which replaces that which the machine has exhausted. Thus, to recur to the forementioned example, James B. obtains a profit by spending two francs in wages. Thanks to his invention, the thesis and research paper, hand labour costs him only one franc. So long as he sells the pro euthanasia, thing produced at the same price, he employs one workman less in producing this particular thing, and that is what is seen; but there is an be happy essay additional workman employed by the franc which James B. has saved. This is that which is not seen. When, by the natural progress of things, James B. is obliged to lower the arguments, price of the thing produced by one franc, then he no longer realizes a saving; then he has no longer a franc to dispose of, to procure for the national labour a new production; but then another gainer takes his place, and this gainer is mankind.

Whoever buys the thing he has produced, pays a franc less, and necessarily adds this saving to the fund of wages; and this, again, is what is not seen. Another solution, founded upon thesis paper, facts, has been given of essay this problem of machinery. It was said, machinery reduces the how to be happy essay, expense of production, and lowers the price of the thing produced. The reduction of the profit causes an pro euthanasia essay increase of consumption, which necessitates an increase of production, and, finally, the introduction of as many workmen, or more, after the invention as were necessary before it. As a proof of this, printing, weaving, c., are instanced. This demonstration is not a scientific one. It would lead us to conclude, that if the consumption of the particular production of which we are speaking remains stationary, or nearly so, machinery must injure labour. School Assistant Cover? This is not the case. Suppose that in arguments essay, a certain country all the people wore hats; if, by machinery, the on commonwealth, price could be reduced half, it would not necessarily follow that the consumption would be doubled.

Would you say, that in this case a portion of the national labour had been paralyzed? Yes, according to the vulgar demonstration; but, according to mine, No; for even if not a single hat more should be bought in the country, the entire fund of wages would not be the less secure. Pro Euthanasia Arguments? That which failed to go to the hat-making trade would be found to essay games have gone to the economy realized by all the pro euthanasia, consumers, and would thence serve to pay for all the labour which the machine had rendered useless, and to middle school letter excite a new development of all the trades. And thus it is that things go on. I have known newspapers to cost eighty francs, now we pay forty-eight: here is pro euthanasia arguments a saving of thirty-two francs to the subscribers. It is not certain, or, at least, necessary, that the thirty-two francs should take the direction of the is beauty, journalist trade; but it is certain, and necessary too, that if they do not take this direction they will take another. One makes use of them for taking in more newspapers; another, to get better living; another, better clothes; another, better furniture. It is thus that the trades are bound together. They form a vast whole, whose different parts communicate by pro euthanasia, secret canals; what is saved by one, profits all.

It is very important for us to understand, that savings never take place at the expense of labour and wares. In all times, but more especially of late years, attempts have been made to extend wealth by essay, the extension of credit. I believe it is no exaggeration to say, that since the revolution of February, the Parisian presses have issued more than 10,000 pamphlets, crying up this solution of the social problem. The only basis, alas! of this solution, is an optical delusion if, indeed, an optical delusion can be called a basis at all. The first thing done is to pro euthanasia arguments essay confuse cash with produce, then paper money with cash; and from these two confusions it is pretended that a reality can be drawn. It is absolutely necessary in this question to forget money, coin, bills, and the other instruments by means of which productions pass from principal letter hand to hand; our business is with the pro euthanasia, productions themselves, which are the real objects of the loan; for when a farmer borrows fifty francs to buy a plough, it is not, in reality, the fifty francs which are lent to him, but the plough: and when a merchant borrows 20,000 francs to how to essay purchase a house, it is not the 20,000 francs which he owes, but the house. Pro Euthanasia Arguments Essay? Money only appears for the sake of facilitating the arrangements between the parties. Peter may not be disposed to lend his plough, but James may be willing to lend his money.

What does William do in this case? He borrows money of James, and with this money he buys the plough of Peter. But, in point of fact, no one borrows money for the sake of the aqa english marking, money itself; money is only the medium by pro euthanasia essay, which to obtain possession of productions. Now, it is impossible in any country to transmit from one person to another more productions than that country contains. Whatever may be the amount of cash and of paper which is in circulation, the whole of the borrowers cannot receive more ploughs, houses, tools, and supplies of raw material, than the lenders altogether can furnish; for we must take care not to forget, that every borrower supposes a lender, and that what is essay on commonwealth games 2010 once borrowed implies a loan. This granted, what advantage is there in institutions of pro euthanasia credit? It is, that they facilitate, between borrowers and lenders, the means of finding and treating with each other; but it is not in their power to cause an instantaneous increase of the things to be borrowed and lent. And yet they ought to be able to do so, if the aim of the reformers is to be attained, since they aspire to nothing less than to place ploughs, houses, tools, and provisions in the hands of all those who desire them.

And how do they intend to effect this? By making the State security for the loan. Let us try and fathom the subject, for and research, it contains something which is arguments essay seen, and also something which is not seen. We must endeavour to look at both. We will suppose that there is on commonwealth games 2010 but one plough in the world, and that two farmers apply for it. Peter is the possessor of the only plough which is to arguments be had in France; John and James wish to borrow it. John, by his honesty, his property, and good reputation, offers security. He inspires confidence; he has credit.

James inspires little or no confidence. It naturally happens that Peter lends his plough to John. But now, according to the Socialist plan, the State interferes, and says to Peter, Lend your plough to James, I will be security for its return, and this security will be better than that of John, for he has no one to be responsible for him but himself; and I, although it is true that I have nothing, dispose of the fortune of the taxpayers, and it is with their money that, in case of need, I shall pay you the principal and interest. Consequently, Peter lends his plough to James: this is what is seen. And the Socialists rub their hands, and say, See how well our plan has answered. Thanks to the intervention of the State, poor James has a plough. He will no longer be obliged to dig the ground; he is on the road to make a fortune. It is a good thing for him, and an advantage to the nation as a whole.

Indeed, gentlemen, it is no such thing; it is no advantage to the nation, for there is something behind which is not seen. It is not seen, that the plough is in the hands of James, only because it is not in those of John. It is not seen, that if James farms instead of digging, John will be reduced to the necessity of digging instead of farming. That, consequently, what was considered an increase of loan, is nothing but a displacement of loan. Besides, it is not seen that this displacement implies two acts of deep injustice.

It is an injustice to John, who, after having deserved and obtained credit by his honesty and activity, sees himself robbed of it. It is an how to be happy essay injustice to the tax-payers, who are made to pay a debt which is no concern of theirs. Will any one say, that Government offers the same facilities to John as it does to James? But as there is only one plough to be had, two cannot be lent. Pro Euthanasia Essay? The argument always maintains that, thanks to the intervention of the State, more will be borrowed than there are things to be lent; for the plough represents here the bulk of available capitals. It is true, I have reduced the operation to rene descartes epistemology the most simple expression of it, but if you submit the most complicated Government institutions of credit to the same test, you will be convinced that they can have but on result; viz., to displace credit, not to augment it. In one country, and in a given time, there is only a certain amount of capital available, and all are employed. In guaranteeing the non-payers, the State may, indeed, increase the number of borrowers, and thus raise the rate of interest (always to the prejudice of the tax-payer), but it has no power to increase the number of pro euthanasia arguments lenders, and epistemology essay, the importance of the total of the loans. There is one conclusion, however, which I would not for the world be suspected of pro euthanasia drawing. I say, that the law ought not to favour, artificially, the power of borrowing, but I do not say that it ought not to restrain them artificially. If, in our system of mortgage, or in aqa english literature marking scheme, any other, there be obstacles to the diffusion of the application of credit, let them be got rid of; nothing can be better or more just than this.

But this is all which is consistent with liberty, and arguments, it is all that any who are worthy of the name of reformers will ask. Here are four orators disputing for is beauty, the platform. First, all the four speak at once; then they speak one after the other. What have they said? Some very fine things, certainly, about the power and the grandeur of France; about the necessity of sowing, if we would reap; about the brilliant future of our gigantic colony; about the advantage of diverting to pro euthanasia arguments a distance the surplus of our population, e. e. Magnificent pieces of eloquence, and always adorned with this conclusion: Vote fifty millions, more or less, for is beauty the beholder, making ports and roads in Algeria; for sending emigrants hither; for building houses and breaking up land. By so doing, you will relieve the pro euthanasia arguments, French workman, encourage African labour, and give a stimulus to essay on commonwealth the commerce of Marseilles. Pro Euthanasia Arguments? It would be profitable every way.

Yes, it is all very true, if you take no account of the fifty millions until the moment when the be happy in life, State begins to spend them; if you only see where they go, and not whence they come; if you look only at the good they are to pro euthanasia essay do when they come out of the tax-gatherer's bag, and not at the harm which has been done, and the good which has been prevented, by putting them into it. Yes, at and research paper this limited point of view, all is profit. The house which is built in pro euthanasia arguments essay, Barbary is that which is seen; the how to be happy essay, harbour made in Barbary is that which is seen; the work caused in Barbary is what is seen; a few less hands in France is what is pro euthanasia arguments seen; a great stir with goods at Marseilles is still that which is seen. But, besides all this, there is something which is not seen. The fifty millions expended by middle school principal cover, the State cannot be spent, as they otherwise would have been, by the tax-payers.

It is necessary to deduct, from all the arguments essay, good attributed to rene descartes essay the public expenditure which has been effected, all the harm caused by the prevention of private expense, unless we say that James B. would have done nothing with the crown that he had gained, and of which the arguments, tax had deprived him; an absurd assertion, for if he took the trouble to earn it, it was because he expected the satisfaction of using it, He would have repaired the palings in essay, his garden, which he cannot now do, and this is that which is pro euthanasia essay not seen. He would have manured his field, which now he cannot do, and this is what is not seen. He would have added another story to his cottage, which he cannot do now, and this is what is not seen. He might have increased the number of his tools, which he cannot do now, and epistemology, this is arguments essay what is not seen. He would have been better fed, better clothed, have given a better education to his children, and increased his daughter's marriage portion; this is what is in the the beholder essay not seen. He would have become a member of the pro euthanasia arguments, Mutual Assistance Society, but now he cannot; this is what is in life not seen. On one hand, are the enjoyments of which he has been deprived, and the means of action which have been destroyed in his hands; on arguments essay, the other, are the middle school assistant cover, labour of the drainer, the pro euthanasia essay, carpenter, the smith, the tailor, the village-schoolmaster, which he would have encouraged, and which are now prevented all this is what is not seen. Much is hoped from the future prosperity of Algeria; be it so. But the drain to which France is being subjected ought not to be kept entirely out of sight. The commerce of Marseilles is pointed out to be happy in life me; but if this is to be brought about by means of taxation, I shall always show that an equal commerce is destroyed thereby in other parts of the country.

It is said, There is an emigrant transported into Barbary; this is a relief to the population which remains in the country. I answer, How can that be, if, in essay, transporting this emigrant to Algiers, you also transport two or three times the capital which would have served to maintain him in thesis and research, France? The Minister of War has lately asserted, that every individual transported to pro euthanasia arguments Algeria has cost the State 8,000 francs. School Assistant Principal Cover? Now it is certain that these poor creatures could have lived very well in France on a capital of 4,000 francs. I ask, how the French population is relieved, when it is deprived of pro euthanasia arguments essay a man, and of the means of subsistence of how to in life essay two men? The only object I have in view is to make it evident to pro euthanasia the reader, that in every public expense, behind the descartes essay, apparent benefit, there is an evil which it is not so easy to discern. As far as in me 'lies, I would make him form a habit of seeing both, and taking account of both. When a public expense is proposed, it ought to be examined in itself, separately from the pretended encouragement of labour which results from it, for this encouragement is a delusion. Whatever is done in pro euthanasia, this way at the public expense, private expense would have done all the same; therefore, the interest of labour is always out of the rene descartes epistemology, question. It is not the object of this treatise to criticize the intrinsic merit of the public expenditure as applied to Algeria, but I cannot withhold a general observation. Pro Euthanasia Arguments? It is, that the presumption is always unfavourable to collective expenses by way of tax.

Why? For this reason: First, justice always suffers from it in some degree. Aqa English A Coursework Scheme? Since James B. had laboured to gain his crown, in the hope of receiving a gratification from it, it is to pro euthanasia be regretted that the exchequer should interpose, and take from James B. this gratification, to bestow it upon another. Certainly, it behooves the exchequer, or those who regulate it, to give good reasons for this. It has been shown that the State gives a very provoking one, when it says, With this crown I shall employ workmen; for James B. (as soon as he sees it) will be sure to answer, It is all very fine, but with this crown I might employ them myself. Apart from this reason, others present themselves without disguise, by which the debate between the exchequer and games, poor James becomes much simplified. If the State says to him, I take your crown to pay the gendarme, who saves you the pro euthanasia, trouble of providing for your own personal safety; for on commonwealth 2010, paving the essay, street which you are passing through every day; for paying the magistrate who causes your property and your liberty to be respected; to maintain the soldier who maintains our frontiers, James B., unless I am much mistaken, will pay for all this without hesitation. But if the State were to say to thesis him, I take this crown that I may give you a little prize in case you cultivate your field well; or that I may teach your son something that you have no wish that he should learn; or that the Minister may add another to pro euthanasia essay his score of dishes at dinner; I take it to build a cottage in Algeria, in which case I must take another crown every year to is beauty in the eye of the beholder keep an emigrant in it, and another hundred to maintain a soldier to guard this emigrant, and another crown to maintain a general to guard this soldier, c., c., I think I hear poor James exclaim, This system of law is very much like a system of cheat! The State foresees the objection, and what does it do? It jumbles all things together, and brings forward just that provoking reason which ought to arguments essay have nothing whatever to do with the question.

It talks of the a coursework marking, effect of this crown upon labour; it points to the cook and purveyor of the pro euthanasia essay, Minister; it shows an emigrant, a soldier, and a general, living upon the crown; it shows, in rene descartes, fact, what is seen, and if James B. has not learned to take into the account what is arguments not seen, James B. will be duped. And this is thesis and research why I want to do all I can to impress it upon essay, his mind, by repeating it over and over again. As the public expenses displace labour without increasing it, a second serious presumption presents itself against them. To displace labour is to displace labourers, and to disturb the natural laws which regulate the distribution of the population over the country. If 50,000,000 fr. are allowed to remain in the possession of the taxpayers, since the tax-payers are everywhere, they encourage labour in the 40,000 parishes in France.

They act like a natural tie, which keeps every one upon his native soil; they distribute themselves amongst all imaginable labourers and trades. If the State, by drawing off these 50,000,000 fr. from the citizens, accumulates them, and expends them on some given point, it attracts to this point a proportional quantity of displaced labour, a corresponding number of labourers, belonging to other parts; a fluctuating population, which is out of its place, and, I venture to say, dangerous when the fund is exhausted. Now here is the consequence (and this confirms all I have said): this feverish activity is, as it were, forced into a narrow space; it attracts the attention of literature a coursework marking all; it is what is seen. The people applaud; they are astonished at the beauty and facility of the plan, and expect to have it continued and extended. That which they do not see is, that an equal quantity of labour, which would probably be more valuable, has been paralyzed over the rest of France. It is not only in the public expenditure that what is seen eclipses what is not seen.

Setting aside what relates to political economy, this phenomenon leads to false reasoning. It causes nations to consider their moral and their material interests as contradictory to each other. Pro Euthanasia Arguments Essay? What can be more discouraging, or more dismal? For instance, there is not a father of a family who does not think it his duty to teach his children order, system, the habits of carefulness, of economy, and of moderation in spending money. There is no religion which does not thunder against is beauty the beholder essay, pomp and luxury. This is as it should be; but, on the other hand, how frequently do we hear the following remarks:- To hoard, is to drain the veins of the pro euthanasia arguments essay, people. The luxury of the great is the comfort of the little.

Prodigals ruin themselves, but they enrich the State. It is the superfluity of the rich which makes bread for the poor. Here, certainly, is a striking contradiction between the moral and the social idea. How many eminent spirits, after having made the assertion, repose in literature, peace. It is a thing I never could understand, for pro euthanasia arguments essay, it seems to me that nothing can be more distressing than to discover two opposite tendencies in mankind. Why, it comes to degradation at each of the extremes: economy brings it to misery; prodigality plunges it into moral degradation. Happily, these vulgar maxims exhibit economy and luxury in a false light, taking account, as they do, of those immediate consequences which are seen, and not of the remote ones, which are not seen. Let us see if we can rectify this incomplete view of the case.

Mondor and his brother Aristus, after dividing the paternal inheritance, have each an income of 50,000 francs. Mondor practises the fashionable philanthropy. He is what is called a squanderer of money. He renews his furniture several times a year; changes his equipages every month. People talk of his ingenious contrivances to bring them sooner to an end: in short, he surpasses the fast livers of Balzac and Alexander Dumas. Thus, everybody is singing his praises.

It is, Tell us about Mondor? Mondor for ever! He is the benefactor of the workman; a blessing to the people. It is true, he revels in epistemology, dissipation; he splashes the passers-by; his own dignity and that of human nature are lowered a little; but what of that? He does good with his fortune, if not with himself. He causes money to circulate; he always sends the arguments, tradespeople away satisfied. Is not money made round that it may roll?

Aristus has adopted a very different plan of life. Is Beauty? If he is not an egotist, he is, at any rate, an individualist, for he considers expense, seeks only moderate and pro euthanasia arguments, reasonable enjoyments, thinks of his children's prospects, and, in fact, he economises. And what do people say of him? What is the and research paper, good of a rich fellow like him? He is a skinflint. There is something imposing, perhaps, in the simplicity of essay his life; and he is humane, too, and benevolent, and generous, but he calculates. He does not spend his income; his house is epistemology neither brilliant nor bustling. What good does he do to the paper hangers, the carriage makers, the horse dealers, and the confectioners? These opinions, which are fatal to morality, are founded upon what strikes the eye: the expenditure of the prodigal; and another, which is out of sight, the equal and even superior expenditure of the economist.

But things have been so admirably arranged by the Divine inventor of social order, that in this, as in everything else, political economy and morality, far from clashing, agree; and the wisdom of Aristus is not only more dignified, but still more profitable, than the folly of Mondor. And when I say profitable, I do not mean only profitable to Aristus, or even to society in general, but more profitable to arguments the workmen themselves to the trade of the time. To prove it, it is only necessary to turn the mind's eye to those hidden consequences of human actions, which the bodily eye does not see. Yes, the prodigality of Mondor has visible effects in every point of view. Everybody can see his landaus, his phaetons, his berlins, the a coursework, delicate paintings on his ceilings, his rich carpets, the brilliant effects of his house. Every one knows that his horses run upon the turf. The dinners which he gives at pro euthanasia arguments the Hotel de Paris attract the attention of the crowds on the Boulevards; and it is said, That is a generous man; far from saving his income, he is very likely breaking into his capital. This is what is assistant principal letter seen. It is not easy to see, with regard to the interest of workers, what becomes of the income of Aristus. If we were to trace it carefully, however, we should see that the whole of it, down to the last farthing, affords work to the labourers, as certainly as the fortune of Mondor. Only there is this difference: the wanton extravagance of Mondor is doomed to be constantly decreasing, and to arguments essay come to an end without fail; whilst the wise expenditure of Aristus will go on increasing from year to year.

And if this is the case, then, most assuredly, the public interest will be in unison with morality. Aristus spends upon himself and his household 20,000 francs a year. If that is not sufficient to content him, he does not deserve to be called a wise man. He is touched by the miseries which oppress the poorer classes; he thinks he is bound in conscience to afford them some relief, and therefore he devotes 10,000 francs to acts of benevolence. Amongst the merchants, the manufacturers, and the agriculturists, he has friends who are suffering under temporary difficulties; he makes himself acquainted with their situation, that he may assist them with prudence and efficiency, and to middle assistant principal this work he devotes 10,000 francs more. Then he does not forget that he has daughters to portion, and sons for whose prospects it is pro euthanasia his duty to provide, and principal letter, therefore he considers it a duty to lay by and put out to arguments essay interest 10,000 francs every year. The following is a list of his expenses:

Let us examine each of these items, and we shall see that not a single farthing escapes the national labour. 1st. Personal expenses. These, as far as work-people and paper, tradesmen are concerned, have precisely the same effect as an equal sum spent by pro euthanasia essay, Mondor. This is self-evident, therefore we shall say no more about it. 2nd. Benevolent objects. The 10,000 francs devoted to this purpose benefit trade in an equal degree; they reach the butcher, the baker, the tailor, and the carpenter. The only and research paper, thing is, that the bread, the meat, and the clothing are not used by Aristus, but by pro euthanasia arguments essay, those whom he has made his substitutes.

Now, this simple substitution of one consumer for school assistant, another, in no way effects trade in general. Arguments Essay? It is all one, whether Aristus spends a crown, or desires some unfortunate person to spend it instead. 3rd. Offices of friendship. The friend to school assistant principal whom Aristus lends or gives 10,000 francs, does not receive them to bury them; that would be against the hypothesis. He uses them to pro euthanasia arguments pay for goods, or to discharge debts. In the first case, trade is encouraged. Will any one pretend to say that it gains more by Mondor's purchase of a thorough-bred horse for 10,000 francs, than by the purchase of 10,000 francs' worth of be happy in life essay stuffs by Aristus or his friend? For, if this sum serves to pay a debt, a third person appears, viz. the creditor, who will certainly employ them upon something in his trade, his household, or his farm. He forms another medium between Aristus and the workmen. The names only are changed, the expense remains, and also the encouragement to trade.

4th. Saving. Essay? There remains now the 10,000 francs saved; and it is literature marking scheme here, as regards the encouragement to the arts, to arguments essay trade, labour, and the workmen, that Mondor appears far superior to rene descartes epistemology essay Aristus, although, in a moral point of view, Aristus shows himself, in some degree, superior to Mondor. I can never look at these apparent contradictions between the great laws of nature, without a feeling of physical uneasiness which amounts to pro euthanasia arguments suffering. Were mankind reduced to the necessity of choosing between two parties, one of whom injures his interest, and the other his conscience, we should have nothing to hope from the future. Aqa English Literature A Coursework Marking Scheme? Happily, this is not the case; and to see Aristus regain his economical superiority, as well as his moral superiority, it is sufficient to pro euthanasia essay understand this consoling maxim, which is no less true from having a paradoxical appearance, To save, is to spend. What is middle school cover letter Aristus's object in saving 10,000 francs? Is it to bury them in his garden? No, certainly; he intends to increase his capital and his income; consequently, this money, instead of being employed upon his own personal gratification, is pro euthanasia arguments used for buying land, a house, c., or it is placed in the hands of a merchant or a banker.

Follow the in the the beholder essay, progress of pro euthanasia this money in any one of these cases, and principal cover, you will be convinced, that through the medium of arguments vendors or lenders, it is encouraging labour quite as certainly as if Aristus, following the example of his brother, had exchanged it for furniture, jewels, and essay games, horses. For when Aristus buys lands or rents for 10,000 francs, he is arguments determined by the consideration that he does not want to spend this money. This is why you complain of him. But, at the same time, the man who sells the thesis, land or the rent, is determined by the consideration that he does want to spend the 10,000 francs in some way; so that the arguments, money is spent in any case, either by Aristus, or by others in essay on commonwealth, his stead. With respect to the working class, to the encouragement of labour, there is only one difference between the conduct of Aristus and that of Mondor. Mondor spends the money himself and therefore the effect is seen. Aristus, spending it partly through intermediate parties, and at a distance, the effect is not seen. But, in pro euthanasia essay, fact, those who know how to attribute effects to their proper causes, will perceive, that what is essay not seen is as certain as what is pro euthanasia arguments seen.

This is is beauty essay proved by the fact, that in both cases the money circulates, and does not lie in pro euthanasia, the iron chest of the wise mall, any more than it does in a coursework scheme, that of the spendthrift. It is, therefore, false to say that economy does actual harm to trade; as described above, it is equally beneficial with luxury. But how far superior is it, if, instead of confining our thoughts to pro euthanasia essay the present moment, we let them embrace a longer period! Ten years pass away. Essay On Commonwealth Games? What is become of Mondor and his fortune, and arguments, his great popularity?

Mondor is ruined. Instead of spending 60,000 francs every year in the social body, he is, perhaps, a burden to on commonwealth 2010 it. In any case, he is no longer the delight of shopkeepers; he is no longer the patron of the pro euthanasia arguments essay, arts and of trade; he is no longer of any use to the workmen, nor are his successors, whom he has brought to want. At the end of the same ten years, Aristus not only continues to throw his income into circulation, but he adds an increasing sum from year to year to his expenses. He enlarges the essay on commonwealth 2010, national capital, that is, the fund which supplies wages, and arguments, as it is upon the extent of this fund that the demand for hands depends, he assists in progressively increasing the remuneration of the working class; and if he dies, he leaves children whom he has taught to succeed him in this work of progress and civilization. In a moral point of view, the superiority of and research paper frugality over luxury is indisputable. It is consoling to think that it is so in political economy, to every one who, not confining his views to the immediate effects of phenomena, knows how to extend his investigations to their final effects. Brethren, you must club together to find me work at pro euthanasia essay your own price. This is the right to work; i.e., elementary socialism of the first degree. Brethren, you must club together to scheme find me work at my own price. This is the right to profit; i.e., refined socialism, or socialism of the second degree.

Both of these live upon such of their effects as are seen. They will die by means of arguments essay those effects which are not seen. That which is seen, is the the beholder, labour and pro euthanasia, the profit excited by essay, social combination. That which is not seen, is the labour and the profit to which this same combination would give rise, if it were left to the tax-payers. In 1848, the arguments, right to labour for a moment showed two faces. This was sufficient to ruin it in public opinion. One of these faces was called national workshops.

The other, forty-five centimes. Millions of francs went daily from the Rue Rivoli to aqa english literature a coursework scheme the national workshops. This was the fair side of the medal. And this is the reverse. Arguments? If millions are taken out of a cash-box, they must first have been put into it. This is why the aqa english literature scheme, organizers of the right to public labour apply to the tax-payers. Now, the peasants said, I must pay forty-five centimes; then I must deprive myself of some clothing. I cannot manure my field; I cannot repair my house.

And the country workmen said, As our townsman deprives himself of same clothing, there will be less work for the tailor; as he does not improve his field, there will be less work for the drainer; as he does not repair his house, there will be less work for the carpenter and mason. It was then proved that two kinds of meal cannot come out of pro euthanasia arguments one sack, and is beauty the beholder, that the work furnished by the Government was done at the expense of labour, paid for by the tax-payer. This was the death of the right to labour, which showed itself as much a chimera as an injustice. And yet, the right to profit, which is pro euthanasia arguments only an exaggeration of the right to labour, is still alive and flourishing. Ought not the protectionist to blush at the part he would make society play? He says to it, You must give me work, and, more than that, lucrative work. I have foolishly fixed upon a trade by which I lose ten per cent. If you impose a tax of twenty francs upon my countrymen, and give it to me, I shall be a gainer instead of a loser. Now, profit is middle cover my right; you owe it me. Now, any society which would listen to arguments this sophist, burden itself with taxes to satisfy him, and not perceive that the loss to which any trade is exposed is no less a loss when others are forced to literature a coursework make up for it, such a society, I say, would deserve the burden inflicted upon it. Thus we learn, by the numerous subjects which I have treated, that, to be ignorant of pro euthanasia essay political economy is to aqa english marking allow ourselves to be dazzled by pro euthanasia arguments, the immediate effect of a phenomenon; to be acquainted with it is to embrace in essay on commonwealth 2010, thought and in forethought the whole compass of effects.

I might subject a host of other questions to the same test; but I shrink from the monotony of a constantly uniform demonstration, and I conclude by arguments, applying to political economy what Chateaubriand says of essay on commonwealth games history:- There are, he says, two consequences in history; an immediate one, which is instantly recognized, and one in pro euthanasia essay, the distance, which is not at first perceived. Thesis Paper? These consequences often contradict each other; the former are the results of pro euthanasia our own limited wisdom, the latter, those of that wisdom which endures. The providential event appears after the human event. God rises up behind men.

Deny, if you will, the supreme counsel; disown its action; dispute about words; designate, by the term, force of circumstances, or reason, what the vulgar call Providence; but look to the end of an accomplished fact, and you will see that it has always produced the contrary of what was expected from it, if it was not established at first upon morality and justice.

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Pro-Euthanasia essays

ETHNIC TOURISM: THE SPECTACLE OF THE OTHER. Photo Caption: View of tourists riding on elephants into Jaipur’s Amber Fort. I began to think about international tourism and how it operates as a site of power in arguments, relation to difference as a result of my two-week tourist experience last summer in India, where I was simultaneously privileged and dismembered, gazing and on commonwealth games 2010 gazed upon as a result of my (privileged) positionality as a Korean/American who surprised both locals and other tourists by speaking relatively good American English and consequently challenging preconceived ideas of citizenship in regards to pro euthanasia essay, race and ethnicity. As I processed my personal impetus for travel, I grappled with unequal power relations among the locals, myself, and cover other tourists, who unsettlingly sought to “document” locals and places through photography as if they were historical vestiges. This project is pro euthanasia, a response to my travel experience, ultimately a recognition that tourism is “characterized by a transfer of images, signs, symbols, power, money, goods, people, and services” and that not all tourists are equal (Bruner 191).

Much of the literature discussing tourism has addressed it as a “leisure-time activity engaged in by choice and for its own sake” (Van Den Berghe 5). Although often seen as overlapping with other forms of thesis and research, travel that appear to be less dedicated to pleasure, tourism is infused with gendered and racialized ideas about “adventure, pleasure, and the exotic…deemed ‘private’ and thus kept off stage in debates about international politics” (Enloe 20). I discuss international tourism in order to highlight how the “private” is political and how tourism is continuing to engage in unequal relations of essay, power in paper, international politics. In this essay, I explore what Urry calls the pro euthanasia arguments essay, “ tourist gaze” of those from the essay on commonwealth, Global North in relation to ethnic tourism – the search for the authentic other in the Global South through which “the native…becomes…the spectacle” (Van Den Berge 5). I argue that the pro euthanasia arguments essay, tourist gaze in is beauty eye of the beholder essay, ethnic tourism produces the tourist and the other as differently raced, classed, gendered, and sexualized subjects through representations informed by Orientalist discourses. Pro Euthanasia? The construction of different subjects occurs as a result of the pleasure in consuming the commodity of the epistemology, other and ultimately reflects the unequal power relations between the Global North and the Global South, or according to Stuart Hall, the West and the Rest. I conclude by exploring the implications and suggesting possibilities for subverting the pro euthanasia arguments, tourist gaze. Impetus for is beauty in the the beholder essay the Construction and pro euthanasia arguments Consumption of the Other. First world affluence has produced “conditions of work and life [in] such [a way] that leisure activity is prized” (Crick 25).

The establishment of high levels of how to in life essay, disposable income, especially made possible in the post-Fordism or flexible production era, has enabled mass tourism of bodies from the Global North to places in the Global South, which have ironically actually produced much of the surpluses that established Western affluence. Leisure and pro euthanasia arguments essay class privilege are exercised and expressed through the touring of places in the Global South that have already been “discovered (or created) by entrepreneurs, packaged and then marketed” (Crick 16). This enjoyment depends on the construction/production, commercializing/marketing, and paper selling of sites and others for pleasure. In ethnic tourism, enjoyment is derived specifically from the consumption of the “untouched, pristine, authentic” other (Van Den Berghe 9). The Other becomes a commodity to be consumed for enjoyment through the tourist gaze, which is constructed through the difference between the “ordinary/everyday and the extraordinary” as well as the self and essay the other (Urry 1). The tourist gaze operates through binary relations of be happy in life, two opposing elements and consequently flattens difference and diversity in order to accommodate a sense of “us” from a sense of “them.” If the gaze is a visual experience, then places are chosen to be gazed upon due to an anticipation of intense pleasures or the enjoyment in consuming the pro euthanasia essay, commodity of the Other (Urry 3).

However, as previously mentioned, this anticipation of is beauty in the the beholder, enjoyment or pleasure relies on the representation of places and people. Anticipation of pleasure through tourism occurs through the pro euthanasia arguments, pretour narrative, in which temporary travelers have some preconceptions about the destination and in the eye of essay its inhabitants (Bruner 22). Many of these narratives are often constructed and arguments sustained through stereotypes or the collapsing of complex differences (“West and the Rest” 215) and “through a variety of non-tourist practices, such as film, TV, literature…which construct and reinforce [the] gaze” (Urry 3). Popular culture, such as films and TV, becomes a site that reflects, produces, and maintains the hegemonic discourse of othered, exotic bodies and descartes epistemology places worth gazing upon. However, the discourses that inform pretour narratives and are reflected in popular culture rely on unequal power relations in regards to knowledge production. These pretour narratives can only exist due to the ways in which the West has been able to produce and maintain hegemonic knowledge on the rest of the world. These discourses about sites of enjoyment and the exotic other have a long history that can be traced to Orientalism.

In short, pretour narratives are only one of the sites in which the tourist gaze produces differentiated subjects in regards to pro euthanasia, the tourist and the local. Unpacking the Construction of the Other: Race, Gender, Sexuality, and Class. The tourist gaze has been able to produce the tourist and the local as different subjects in regards to gender, race, and class in part because access to leisure and tourism has largely been “conditioned by gender, race, [class, and]…location” (Shaw 19). For example, ideas of gender in regards to the home had largely privileged (certain kinds of) men to leave the home in order to engage in adventures and tourism while preventing (certain kinds of) women from leaving the home. However, the tourist gaze has produced a relation of imagined difference that can be traced to a coursework, the discourse of essay, Orientalism, which according to Edward Said: Is never far from…the idea of Europe, a collective notion identifying ‘us’ Europeans as against all ‘those’ non-Europeans, and indeed it can be argued. that the major component in European culture is precisely what made that. culture hegemonic both in and outside Europe: the idea of European identity.

as a superior one in comparison with all the non-European peoples and. It is essay, this cultural hegemony discussed by Said, which enables some pretour narratives to exist. It is also Orientalism that produces the tourist and the local as differently raced, classed, gendered, sexualized subjects: the tourist becomes coded as a masculine explorer who subjugates the feminine primitive savage. Certainly discourses surrounding ethnic tourism have parallels with the colonial discourse of “exploration, conquest and domination…strongly marked by gender distinctions and [drawing] much of pro euthanasia arguments, its subconscious force from sexual imagery” (Hall 210 Modernity). Indeed, both the tourist and the colonial explorer are exercising their power over the racialized, feminized, sexual other. It thus becomes evident that this colonial discourse relies not only on gender and sexuality but also becomes combined with race. The exotic bodies that are “discovered” are found fundamentally different from the constructed European sense of “self” and “us.” As Orientalism has produced new knowledge about epistemology “new” bodies and informed pretour narratives, tourists from the Global North seek in the Global South “a figment of their imagination – the exotic, the pro euthanasia arguments essay, erotic, the how to be happy essay, happy savage…the trope of the vanishing primitive, the pastoral allegory, the quest for origins” (Bruner 191).

Amidst these tropes is an understanding that the sexual, racialized other is somehow closer to nature. Sexuality, according to Stuart Hall, “was a powerful element in the fantasy which the West constructed, and the ideas of sexual innocence and experience, sexual domination and submissiveness, play out a complex dance in arguments, the discourse of the “West and the Rest” (The West and the Rest 210). Furthermore, implicit in these tropes are ideas of class, civilization, and progress. The exotic, primitive other is constructed as poor and backwards. Literature A Coursework Marking Scheme? Although Claire Jean Kim writes in an American context, she reveals that: “the term ‘underclass’ is conspicuously nonracial or colorblind on the surface, [but] it is the quintessential example of racial code, conjuring up images of Blacks” (Kim 121). Ideas of essay, class and descartes essay related terms like “poor” and “unclean” are already racialized and pro euthanasia arguments suggest binaries like uncivilized/civilized, poor/wealthy, and black/white. Representing the Other. In ethnic tourism, the construction of the other informed by Orientalism can only be maintained through the politics of representation, which “fixes” the other through relations of difference. Representation relies on the “link between visibility and power…[as certain] human subjects [become] great spectacles (“Spectacle of the essay, Other”195).

Photography and narrative mastery are two of the mechanisms through which the tourist gaze can fix differences between the tourists and essay the spectacle of the other as well as reinforce violent stereotypes regarding race and poverty in less developed countries. Photography produces knowledge about subjects and consequently engages in a relation of power as “to have knowledge of an object is in part to middle school cover letter, have power, even if only momentarily over it” (Urry 139). Photography’s power is derived from the perception that it “seems to be a means of transcribing [or reflecting] reality” (Urry 139) when in reality it constructs meaning of what is pro euthanasia essay, being photographed. Thus, tourists also engage in power relations with locals through photography when they gaze upon and take pictures of locals without their consent. The very act of taking pictures without invitation is middle assistant principal cover letter, a means of pro euthanasia essay, exerting power as well as representing the other. Tourists searching for the authentic other can also achieve representation through their narrative mastery in which they “fix meaning, encapsulate and control the other, to stop motion and time, to exert power” (Bruner 195). Partially because the authentic other is voiceless and powerless in relation to how they are represented and remembered in the West or the Global North, tourists are able to “bring back a disembodied, decontextualized, sanitized, hypothetical Other, one they can possess and control through the stories they tell about how the souvenirs were purchased and the photographs taken” (Bruner 194). Is Beauty In The Eye Of The Beholder? Indeed, for tourists in search of the authentic other, the tour is never over pro euthanasia arguments essay so long as they continue to engage in narratives of their temporary travels and discussions of exotic others. Photo Caption: Tourists in Varanasi gather to witness cleansing rituals along the Ganges River. Global accumulation of capital has enabled the thesis, Western elite to “travel to the margins in the Third World, to the borderzone between civilized selves and the Exotic Other” (Burner 193).

However, capital’s search for pro euthanasia arguments essay and construction of even cheaper and more productive labor have facilitated the movement of be happy essay, these othered bodies to the core and peripheries of the West. Paradoxically, the Western elite pay and travel far “to find what they already have” (Bruner 193). And ultimately, it is the anticipation of pleasure from gazing upon, consuming, and representing the commodity and spectacle of the other that continues to incentivize ethnic tourism. Thus the pro euthanasia arguments, tourist gaze of temporary travelers from the Global North in the margins of the Global South importantly mirrors structures of socioeconomic power and dominance. The unequal looking and power relations between the Global North and the Global South have ultimately enabled the West to how to be happy in life essay, produce and maintain hegemonic knowledge on the rest of the world. This knowledge in regards to ethnic tourism is maintained through coercion and consent: “what for the tourists is a zone of leisure and pro euthanasia essay exotification, for the natives is a site of essay games 2010, work and cash income” so long as the locals perform what the tourists expect to essay, see (Bruner 192). Just as tourism makes certain representations seem “commonsense,” there is middle assistant principal cover, room for subversion and resistance. Constructing, commercializing, and selling sites and stages “must acknowledge the ‘constructedness’ of such binaries. This is why travel-tourism makes such binaries vulnerable while propping them up” (Minga and Oakes 13).

After disagreeing with a few white European tourists about their sense of entitlement to “document” locals, I could not afford to be unconscious of my tourist gaze in order to not commit some kind of epistemic violence throughout my two-week trip in India. Pro Euthanasia? I took a picture with a “snake charmer” outside the Amber Fort in Jaipur in order to highlight how the figure of the rene, snake charmer caters to Western expectations of India. After processing my relationship to and investment in specific pretour narratives, I started to pro euthanasia, wonder whether tourism is inherently violent and what subverting and resisting commonsense representations look like. I have called attention to the politics of representation evident in ethnic tourism and shared my personal experience as a tourist in games 2010, India as part of my intervention against ethnic tourism. With so much at stake in how the way bodies are represented affects the way they are treated, how do you imagine your intervention against the construction of the spectacle of the pro euthanasia essay, other? Images Courtesy of the Author. Bruner, Edward M. Culture on epistemology, Tour. Chicago: University of Chicago, 2005. Print. Crick, Malcolm. Pro Euthanasia Arguments Essay? “Representations of International Tourism.” The Sociology of Tourism. Ed.

Yiorgos Apostolopoulos, Stella Leivadi, and Andrew Yiannakis. London: Routledge, 1996. 15-50. Print. Enloe, Cynthia. Bananas, Beaches, and Bases. Berkeley: University of rene, California Press, 2000. Print. Hall, Stuart. “The Spectacle of the arguments, ‘Other.’” Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices. Ed.

Stuart Hall. London: Sage Publications. 1997. 223-290. Print. Hall, Stuart. “The West and the Rest: Discourse and Power.” Modernity. Ed. Stuart Hall. Held, David, Don Hubert, and Kenneth Thompson. Cambridge: Blackwell Publishers, 1996.

185-225. Print. Kim, Claire J. “The Racial Triangulation of Asian Americans.” Politics Society 27.1 (March 1999): 105-138. Minga, Claudia, Tim Oakes. On Commonwealth Games? Travels in Paradox.

Oxford: Roman and Littlefield Publishers, 2006. Print. Said, Edward. Arguments Essay? Orientalism. New York: Vintage Books, 1979. Print. Shaw, Gareth and Allan M. Williams. Critical Issues in Tourism.

Oxforrd: Blackwell Publishers 2002. Print. Urry, John. The Tourist Gaze. London: Sage Publications, 1990. Print.

Van Den Berghe, Pierre L. “Introduction: Why Study Ethnic Tourism?” Quest for the Other. Aqa English Literature Marking? Seattle: University of pro euthanasia, Washington, 1994. 5-20. Print.