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Barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage essay

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Barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage essay

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biography of famous Music has been found in barbara cultural baggage essay, all discovered cultures to date. Composers are individuals who write this music professionally. For most people, music is an important part of their lives and essay the their ability to express themselves and relate to barbara ehrenreich baggage essay, one another. Below is a list of the top composers of casual work all time. Cultural Baggage? They have been selected for their unique styles, innovation in music, historic impact and popularity. Ph D Research? Known For: Baroque instrumental concerto. Antonio Vivaldi was a very noteworthy composer who made hundreds of musical creations. Although originally ordained a priest, he dicided to go with his passion in music. His most popular works were concertos in that of the Baroque style.

Known For: His innovations in musical style and barbara ehrenreich baggage how complex his music was. Bach came from essay welfare, a long line of gifted musical ancestors. Bach grew up playing a lot of organ and violin. He took various gigs at different churches throughout his career. His skills were highly regarded across Europe while he was alive. Ehrenreich Cultural Baggage? However, it was not until later in the 19th century that his talents were fully recognized. Known For: Deep influence on essay welfare classical music. Mozart was a child prodigy from the barbara baggage essay, start.

He began composing on the violin and keyboard when he was just five. In his lifetime he composed more than 600 pieces, many of which are considered to this day to be great works of musical genious. Known For: His Fifth and Ninth Symphonies. Beethoven is famous for being one of the greatest composers of all time. He was very talented from a young age and gained a reputation as an incredibly gifted pianist.

He achieved this success despite going nearly entirely deaf during some of his more creative years. Casual Work? Known For: Connecting romantic and classical composition. Although he only lived for 32 years, Schubert was incredibly able to become an outstanding and well-known composer. Although he was not all that popular during his life, his work was later appreciated much more in the years after his death. To this day he is still one of the top performed composers. Barbara Ehrenreich? Known For: Great compositions, especially #8220;Wedding March#8221; from #8220;A Midsummer Night#8217;s Dream#8221; Felix Mendelssohn was a muic teacher, composer, pianist and conductor. Papers? He composed his works during the early Romantic period, thus his music emphasized emotions and imagination rather than traditional structures.

However, he was decidedly more conservative in his stylings than that of his contemporaries. Known For: Influential piano composer. Chopin was a composer and ehrenreich baggage essay gifted pianist. He was also considered to be a child prodigy. Many of his works are well-known such as the Minute Waltz and a portion of his Funeral March Sonata Number 2. Known For: Intellectual and emotional compositions. Schumann was an influential and great composer of the Romantic era. Essay Uk? After leaving law school to ehrenreich baggage, focus on essay welfare his piano playing he later severely injured his hand and had to focus on composing music instead. Before the barbara baggage essay, injury it was said that he could have become one of the greatest piano players in all of Europe. He was known for his originality which garnered him great influence during the Romantic movement in Europe.

By the age of 9 he was already seen as a prodigy and was playing piano in concert halls. Known For: Incredibly detailed operas. Richard Wagner was a great but controversial composer of essay system usa his time. He was known for barbara essay his musical talent in creating intricate operas. Yet, to many, this was overshadowed by his antisemitic writings which later made him well-liked by Adolf Hitler. Known For: Writing several famous operas.

Verdi is considered to this day to be one of the best composers of operas in the 19th century alongside Richard Wagner. Some of his work has even been taken in by mainstream pop culture including the #8220;Grand March#8221; and #8220;Libiamo ne#8217; lieti calci#8221; (The Drinking Song). Known For: Being one of the greatest composers of the 19th century. Brahms is often grouped together with Ludwig van Beethoven and Johann Sebastian Bach as being part of the #8220;Three B#8217;s.#8221; He became famous during his lifetime and composed chamber ensembels, piano, voice, chorus and symphony orchestra. How To? Known For: Using portions of folk music from his homeland of baggage Bohemia as inspiration in his music. Dvorak was talented from a very young age. Application? He wrote his first composition at the age of 20 and was a skilled violinist and pianist. Ehrenreich Cultural Baggage? His most popular compositions are #8220;New World Symphony,#8221; the #8220;American#8221; String Quartet, #8220;Cello Concerto in how to a common, B minor#8221; and #8220;Rusalka.#8221; Known For: His opera creations are some of the most often performed in the world. Puccini created operas that are some of the most often performed in the world. Many people regard Giacomo Puccini to be the greatest Italian composer after Verdi. He was a leading individual in the realistic verismo style as well.

Known For: A top conductor and leading composer of the late-Romantic period. Barbara Essay? Mahler is known for creating very emotionally charged symphonies. He created 10 total in his lifetime. He was also the director of the Metropolitan Opera, New York Philharmonic and the Vienna Opera. Mahler#8217;s works were considered to ph d research papers, bridge the gap between the 19th century tradition and the modernistic style of the beginning of the 20th century. Known For: Considered to be the person who created musical impressionism. Essay? Known for his key role in developing Impressionist music, Debussy#8217;s style was said to casual work, be a reflection of the ups and ehrenreich cultural essay downs of his own life. His music was often without tonality and had a sensory component. Known For: His operas and symphonic poems.

Richard Strauss#8217; most famous works include #8220;Salome#8221; and #8220;Der Rosenkavalier.#8221; He was one of the top composers during the end of the Romantic era and the beginning of the modern era. While the Nazis were in research, power, Strauss was one of the few composers who was not banned because Adolf Hitler was a fan of his. Known For: Development and barbara cultural harmonic approach that advanced musical thought. Arnold Schoenberg is health care system usa known for his unique approach with development and harmony in his compositions. Cultural Essay? He truly influenced over three generations of other composers.

His music was made him a name as an innovator in health care, atonality. Barbara Cultural Essay? He also created the twelve-tone technique. Known For: His effects and instrumental textures as well as his melodies. Ravel#8217;s most popular classical compositions are #8220;Bolero#8221; and #8220;Daphnis et Chloe.#8221; He is the most well-known of all the French composers in history. He is how to a common app essay famous for saying #8220;The only love affair I have ever had was with music.#8221; Often thought to be one of the top composers of the 20th century, Stravinsky became popular from barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage essay, his initial works on three different ballets. His works helped to change the way other composers considered their usage of rythmic structure. Application Essay? Known For: Argued by many to be the greatest songwriter in American history.

Irving Berlin composed #8220;Alexander#8217;s Ragtime Band#8221; in 1911. It became a huge international success that started a dance craze around the world. He also made the popular songs #8220;White Christmas#8221; and #8220;Happy Holiday.#8221; Composer George Gershwin said that he was #8220;the greatest songwriter that has ever lived.#8221; George Gershwin created songs, film scores and operas that have become very recognizable such as #8220;Rhapsody in Blue,#8221; #8220;Porgy and Bess#8221; and #8220;An American in barbara baggage, Paris.#8221; He had a Lifetime Musical Achievement Award named after him and he is casual work one of only ehrenreich cultural baggage, four songwriters to receive the casual work, Congressional Gold Medal. Barbara Ehrenreich Cultural? Known For: Utilizing themes of American folk and jazz in his music. Known for his distinctive American themes and contemporary style, Aaron Copland created popular music for nearly 40 years.

When he was just in high school his teacher had him compose an organ concerto which was so good that it was played by the New York Symphony and university application uk the Symphony for Organ and barbara ehrenreich essay Orchestra in Carnegie Hall.

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My Father My Mentor Essays and ehrenreich cultural, Research Papers. support that is essential to human nature. Romulus, My Father , a biographical memoir written by Raimond Gaita, explores these . concepts of essay health care system usa, how connections to people and place, or lack thereof, can have dramatic and cultural essay, detrimental consequences on our wellbeing. This is particularly explored in the characters Christine and start a common, Romulus, who each experience an absence of barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage essay, belonging in a common app essay, their relationships with people and place. As well as this, Romulus, My Father demonstrates how belonging to place can be affected. Family , Interpersonal relationship , Jan Garbarek 976 Words | 3 Pages.

Essay: Dreams From My Father Barack Obama’s Dreams From My Father is exactly what it claims to be . by title, a story of race and cultural baggage, identity. Barack Obama comes from a diverse background, which he explores throughout the book. Having a white American mother and black Kenyan father , he has a different experience than the welfare majority of people in society when it comes to race and identity, however still it seems similar to the experience of many blacks as described in William E. Cross’s Black Psychological. African American , Barack Obama , Black people 1303 Words | 3 Pages. identification. The memoir, Romulus, My Father , by Raimond Gaita; John Guare’s play, Six Degrees of Separation; and Tim Winton’s . short story, Big World, from the collection, The Turning, explore the concept that Belonging is the driving force for the human condition. Each composer represents their varied perceptions of barbara, belonging in their texts, conveying that Belonging as a fundamental need we strive for in our search to create a concrete identity.

The memoir, Romulus, My Father , portrays the ways in which. Audience , Gaita sanabresa , John Guare 1440 Words | 4 Pages. factors, understanding being one of university essay, these. Without understanding of people, places, communities or the cultural essay larger world, one cannot hope to establish a deep . connection with these things. Ph D Research Papers? This concept is barbara ehrenreich, evident in the biographical novel, Romulus, My Father (RMF), by Raimond Gaita (1998), as well as the film text, The Freedom Writers (TFW), directed by Richard LaGravenese.

These texts both present the idea that the welfare state understanding associated with one’s heritage facilitates connection with others who. Concept , Erin Gruwell , Freedom Writers 1026 Words | 3 Pages. ROMULUS MY FATHER , THE ISLAND Belonging is about finding a sense of place in barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage, the world which can be due to a strong sense of . connection with others. For those who don’t belong and cannot find ‘their place’ they are faced with problems of alienation and loneliness from others or feel estranged or in conflict with the environment. These different aspects are reflected in the texts Romulus my Father , Raimond Gaita and The Island, Armin Greder. These texts portray the concept of essay usa, belonging and not. Australia , Island , Raimond Gaita 768 Words | 3 Pages. Romulus, My Father . An individual's capacity to belong is primarily dependent on their personal experience, and varies in . difficulty depending on the dynamics of each individual's personality and temperament. The landscape in which an individual resides has a definitive impact upon barbara ehrenreich baggage an individual’s sense of belonging. Furthermore, the specific place, in relation to where the individual literally resides, too influences ones sense of belonging.

In Raimond Gaita's biographical memoir Romulus, My Father. Australia , Culture of Australia , Raimond Gaita 967 Words | 3 Pages. often reflected and shaped through one’s own personal understanding of where they belong in a society. A sense of belonging is essay state, driven by both the external . and internal factors that exist around them. Raimond Gaita’s biographical memoir Romulus, My Father and Margaret Atwood’s poem “Further Arrivals” clearly demonstrate similar concepts of how a person’s sense of belonging may differ. Both texts construct related understanding of the harsh experience of ehrenreich, migration to casual work, Australia, the struggle to find. Emotion , Gaita sanabresa , Margaret Atwood 1284 Words | 4 Pages. “There is barbara cultural baggage, such hate and rage inside me now that I know I have the power to destroy and kill.” Do you think Loung’s hate and rage made her strong in the face . of adversity?

Discuss. The novel, First They Killed My Father , written by and told from the perspective of Loung Ung, is a chilling tale of a disturbed childhood, where the impact and influence of the essay communist government, the Khmer Rouge, fuels the anger and barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage essay, perpetual loathing of the regime which she claims to be the sole reason of the separation. Communism , First They Killed My Father , Khmer Rouge 1159 Words | 3 Pages. ‘An individual’s interaction with others and the world around them can enrich or limit their experience of system usa, belonging.’ This statement can be readily depicted . through various texts which include Raimond Gaita’s memoir, Romulus My Father and Universal Studio’s 2004 film, Hating Alison Ashley. Both of these texts involve various techniques that assist in portraying the concept of belonging to both an environment and to relationships. Belonging is a concept that is more complex than it first appears.

Eric Bana , Family , Raimond Gaita 2226 Words | 6 Pages. Essay- Community and barbara, Society Belonging is casual work, a paradoxical concept illustrating an individual’s sense of inclusions and exclusion simultaneously. This is baggage, . evident in Raimond Gaita’s memoir Romulus My father as the individuals Romulus, Raimond and Christine experience the dynamic changes evident in the concept of belong to place, society and how to start a common, community. Armin Greder also explores the fluid and dynamic nature of belonging through his picture book ‘The Island’ through the cultural baggage isolation of the protagonist. Australia , Foreigner , Immigration 1120 Words | 3 Pages. Romulus My Father and Tintern Abbey. can be seen within Raimond Gaita’s 1998 memoir ‘Romulus my Father ’ and research papers, William Wordsworth’s 1978 poem ‘Tintern Abbey’ as they . search through their past and barbara cultural baggage essay, discover their own individual sense of essay, acceptance to their story and barbara cultural essay, their world. The 1998 reflective memoir ‘Romulus my Father ’ is a written testimony to Raimond Gaita’s father after his death, and a journey of self-discovery as he recollects the many memories he shared with his father upon essay migration to Australia.

It offers the contrasting. Landscape , Lyrical Ballads , Natural landscape 1306 Words | 4 Pages. Belonging- 'Romulus, My Father' and 'Avatar' challenged by feelings of insecurity, but either way belonging shapes the way we all live our lives. Essay? This is a common app essay, represented thoroughly in both ‘Romulus . my Father ’ by ehrenreich baggage Raimond Gaita and ‘Avatar’ by James Cameron, both texts show that belonging or not belonging is an unavoidable activity and may take many different forms, some obvious and others hidden. ‘Romulus My Father ’ opens with an immediate sense of insecurity and danger, ‘pitchfork held tightly in both hands, knowing that he would probably kill his uncle…’. Barrier , Feeling , Human 1199 Words | 3 Pages. Raimond Gaita's Romulus, My Father Sujata Bhatt's Search for My Tongue. Raimond Gaita’s “Romulus, My Father ” Sujata Bhatt’s “Search For My Tongue” The need to papers, connect with our . contextual environment, particularly forging strong bonds of association with other individuals is common to humanity. Paradoxically however, individuals often have to compromise their own values and personal integrity into order to be accepted. This is the case with Romulus in the 1998 memoir Romulus, My Father , written by Raimond Gaita, who is compelled by the rest of 1950’s Australian. Australia , Culture , Integrity 1396 Words | 4 Pages.

Romulus My Father, Gattaca - Belonging. EVALUATE HOW BELONGING IS EXPLORED THROUGH ‘ROMULUS MY FATHER ’ ONE RELATED TEXT An individual’s ability to belong is based . on their capacity to reconcile their values to a larger group identity; whereas a failure to ehrenreich baggage, connect, due to a disparity in values, results in isolation. Raimond Gaita’s memoir Romulus, My Father , highlights the centrality of values in casual work, connecting through the barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage contrasting experiences of Raimond and Romulus where Romulus’ failure to belong is based on his refusal to acculturate. Andrew Niccol , Gaita sanabresa , Gattaca 1353 Words | 4 Pages. Dreams from casual work, My Father (Barack Obama) What is My Identity? Dreams from My Father archives Barack Obama’s journey, and struggles, to barbara cultural, find his . identity. How To? Obama quickly admits that race is an important part of himself, and cultural baggage essay, it is that quest of race and identity that pushes him to question his own uniqueness.

Ultimately spanning both worlds of the vastly different cultures of his life in America and his roots in ph d research, Kenya causes Obama confusion and self-doubt. It is through the steady love of his family that allows Obama to barbara ehrenreich baggage essay, truly find acceptance. African American , Ann Dunham , Barack Obama 841 Words | 3 Pages. Obama: Individual in the Community(Dreams of the, My Father) Alyna Torres QU 101 Professor Matt Tortora September 29, 2010 Dreams from My Father There are many barriers one must . overcome, and to accomplish this, one must find their distinctiveness and ehrenreich essay, take a key role in the community. Throughout the how to a common novel, Dreams from my Father by baggage our current president Barrack Obama, Barrack demonstrates the essay welfare state true meaning of barbara ehrenreich cultural, being an application essay uk individual. He is highly active in his community, despite the fact that he is part of the black community. The economic, social, and. A Great Way to Care , Barack Obama , Dreams from My Father 1916 Words | 5 Pages. Belonging - 'Romulus, My Father' and barbara ehrenreich, 'Pursuit of Happyness' seen in the strong relationship between a father and son. This concept can be clearly identified with reference to state, both Raimond Gaita’s elegiac . memoir ‘Romulus, My Father ’ and ehrenreich essay, Gabriele Muccino’s film ‘the Pursuit of Happyness’ which is casual work, based on the biography by Chris Garner.

In both texts, a strong sense of belonging can be recognised between a father and son and through the barbara ehrenreich cultural unconditional love they share with each other as a parent and child. Each father contributes so much to their sons’ lives. Emotion , Family , Gabriele Muccino 1158 Words | 3 Pages. Presentation: Barack Obama Dreams from My Father Barack Obama – “Dreams From My Father -A Story of Race and Heritance” Today I want to welfare state, introduce you United States President . Barack Obama’s first memoir, dreams from my father . It was first published in July 1995 as he was preparing to launch his political career and republished in August 2004. Ehrenreich? Author: Since my book is an autobiography I won’t tell you everything about the author, I just will give some personal facts about him.

Barack Obama was born in 1961 in papers, Honolulu, Hawaii to ehrenreich, Barack Obama Senior. Ann Dunham , Barack Obama , Barack Obama, Sr. 1586 Words | 6 Pages. Belonging- Black Swan Romulus My Father. memoir ‘Romulus My Father ’ and Darren Aronofsky’s film ‘Black Swan’. Good morning teacher and how to app essay, classmates. The text ‘Black . Barbara Baggage? Swan’ is a film directed by Darren Aronofsky. It is about a ballerina, Nina, who is elected for the main role in the classic ballet performance Swan Lake. She must play both the application essay white and black swan but can only dance the white.

She strives to belong in the position as the barbara baggage essay black swan and succeed in her role, but in doing so she spirals into insanity. My collage of pictures. Alice in Wonderland , Alice's Adventures in Wonderland , Darren Aronofsky 1479 Words | 4 Pages. Belonging in Romulus, My Father and This Is England. which in turn is based on society’s standards. It may serve as a process of welfare state, belonging, or alternatively, as a barrier. This concept is evident in the first . Ehrenreich Cultural Baggage Essay? scene of the film This is England, as 12-year-old Shaun enters his new school, wearing his fathers ’ old denim jeans. He stands helplessly among his classmates, most in ties, hats and casual work, uniform jackets. This juxtaposition immediately shows Shaun’s quickly formed perception of how one may belong in this environment, as a fight is initiated caused by.

Perception , Psychology , Raimond Gaita 917 Words | 3 Pages. Romulus My Father Related Text the Boy in the Striped Pajamas. the consequences of not belonging can be dire- resulting in the loss of identity, understanding and purpose. Cultural Baggage Essay? As a result it is a prominent feature of the . literary world. This is evident in the (1998) memoir by Raimond Gaita, “Romulus, My Father ,” Jodi Picoult’s novel My sister’s Keeper and John Boyne’s 2007 film, “The Boy in the Striped Pajamas.” Each of the how to start app essay texts directly explore ambivalent relationships which can create a sense of belonging through the connections established through a shared context. Interpersonal relationship , Marriage , Raimond Gaita 952 Words | 3 Pages. Comparative Analysis on Belonging of Romulus My Father and Revolutionary Road by ehrenreich Richard Yates.Pdf. The 1961 novel Revolutionary Road by author Richard Yates links strongly with the autobiographical recount Romulus, My Father , by . Raimond Gaita, and in casual work, so doing provides a greater understanding of the concept of Belonging. It charts the disintegration of the marriage of Frank and April Wheeler as they struggle against the oppressive conformity of suburban 1950s America. The texts together explore the processes undergone by the individual in their integration to barbara cultural baggage essay, society and it’s inherent cultural. Morality , Raimond Gaita , Romulus, My Father 1678 Words | 4 Pages.

Belonging Essay 'Romulus My Father', 'the Lost Thing' and a common, 'the Catcher in the Rye' Raimond Gaita’s memoir ‘Romulus My Father ,’ Shaun Tan’s ‘The Lost Thing’ and cultural essay, JD Salinger’s ‘The Catcher in health, the Rye.’ An . Ehrenreich Cultural Baggage Essay? individual’s interaction with others and of why, the world around them can enrich or limit their experience of belonging to an environment. Ehrenreich? ‘Romulus My Father ’ demonstrates this through the profound sense of the, acceptance that exists within Raimond. He delivers his observations in a reflective and thoughtful tone, particularly in barbara ehrenreich cultural, his recollections of his father , as he “loved him too deeply…. Demonstration , Feeling , I'm Crazy 959 Words | 3 Pages. Belonging: Romulus My Father and Becoming Jane Related Text. paramount in the development of ones identity and state, therefore the definition of the barbara cultural essay institutions to which they may belong. The fragility and labyrinthine . nature of belonging is how to a common, explored in Raimond Gaita’s Romulus, My Father through the contrasting characters of the essay narrator and his titular father in their experiences to assimilate to Australian culture and society. Contrasting, Julian Jarrold’s biographical drama ‘Becoming Jane’ illustrates the influences of society on the development of an individual’s.

Becoming Jane , Jane Austen , Julian Jarrold 1221 Words | 4 Pages. Belonging Essay, Romulus My Father, Yellow Wallpaper and Gran Torino. when we feel most comfortable, most connected to the people and environment that surrounds us. Application Uk? These connections are essential for us to come to terms with . who and what we are, as is seen in Raimond Gaita’s Romulus My Father . Gaita’s memoir here highlights the difficulties his father encountered in attempting to barbara ehrenreich baggage essay, establish himself amid the conservative and narrow attitudes of a common app essay, 1950’s Australian people having being relocated from his native home land. Although belonging is central to the discussion. Aristotle , Charlotte Perkins Gilman , Clint Eastwood 2172 Words | 6 Pages.

What Do You Think Are the Most Powerful Influences That Impact on an Individual’s Sense of Belonging?; Romulus, My Father. choosing. An individual’s sense of belonging is composed of many aspects and cultural, influences, the most powerful being cultural influences, and influences from . Essay Of Why? having a connection and affiliation to a place. This can be seen in; the memoir ‘Romulus, My Father ,’ by Raimond Gaita, in which Romulus’ culture is seen to have a large impact on his sense of belonging, as is his lack of connection to his new home in Australia. The poem ‘ We are going,” by Oogeroo Noonuccul demonstrates the importance of the influence. Australian Aboriginal culture , Bora , Culture 1203 Words | 3 Pages. and cultural contexts have all worked together to shape my understanding of belonging and not belonging. How would you feel if you were thrown . into an entirely different landscape to what you were used to? And were treated as an outsider just because of the colour of your skin, or where you were from?

You would feel neglected, alienated, alone. This is the sense of not belonging that is strongly illustrated in both the novel Romulus my father , by cultural baggage essay Raimond Gaita, and the song Oxford Town written by. Emotion , Interpersonal relationship , James Meredith 973 Words | 3 Pages. examination of Raimond Gaita’s memoir Romulus, My Father and how to start a common app essay, Shaun Tan’s wordless graphic novel, The Arrival a detailed . Cultural? understanding of belonging, especially in regards to the migrant experience, can be attained. A person’s identity and the, sense of self-actualisation are shaped by the evolution of their sense of belonging over ehrenreich essay time. In his reflective memoir, Gaita is writing about application essay his childhood with a man who he loves and is comfortable with. The title “Romulus, MY father ” shows ownership and a strong sense. DNA , Raimond Gaita , Romulus, My Father 829 Words | 2 Pages.

find a true state of belonging. This internal struggle, an individual may endure involves barriers that are needed to barbara baggage essay, be overcome in order to feel included, . as if these barriers are not overcome then alienation occurs. The memoir, Gaita’s “Romulus, My Father ” highlights the prevalent intense struggle of seeking belonging in a foreign country in Romulus, and welfare state, emphasizes the positive effect that finding a state of belonging has. On the contrary, Kath Walkers’ poem “We Are Going” represents an aboriginal. Australia , Raimond Gaita , Romulus, My Father 1488 Words | 4 Pages. to look for stable and loving care outside the ehrenreich cultural baggage family. Our president Barack Obama was born in Honolulu, Hawaii on August 4th, 1961. His . Ph D Research Papers? father , Barack Obama Sr., was from the Kenyan decent, and his mother, Stanley Ann Dunham was from the ehrenreich cultural baggage essay American Decent. Growing up, Obama mainly lived in Hawaii raised by essay his grandparents. He was abandoned by his father when he was little boy. His mother got remarried and they moved to Indonesia.

Barack’s mother wanted him to learn an English education so he. Ann Dunham , Barack Obama , Barack Obama, Sr. 1774 Words | 4 Pages. The Struggle to Belong and Find One’s Place Is Significant in the Lives of Some People. ‘Romulus, My Father ’ by Raimond Gaita.

Through Gaita’s employment of various writing techniques and cultural baggage essay, his recollection of past . Essay? events and adversities, the reader becomes aware of the many struggles of the characters, particularly to belong to the Australian culture and landscape. In the 2001 short story ‘Mate’, by Kate Grenville, this struggle is barbara ehrenreich baggage essay, again represented through intertextual references, dialogue and tone. Romulus Gaita’s struggle to belong is essay state, evident from an early age. Barbara Ehrenreich Cultural Baggage? “His father died when. Australia , Culture of Australia , Dorothea Mackellar 1464 Words | 4 Pages. world around them. The memoir Romulus, My Father , written by ph d Raimond Gaita and the graphic novel by Shaun Tan, The Arrival both . incorporate prominent aspects of the concept of belonging. Through their representation of barbara baggage essay, various elements in the text, ideas about family unity and the sense of connectedness with the environment both show how the experience of belonging is enriched, yet limited to a certain extent.

Through the interaction between Raimond and his father , Romulus, a sense of family relationship. Cousin , Ecology , Environment 936 Words | 3 Pages. The Area of Study 63 Sample response: Nonfiction Prescribed text: Romulus, My Father , Raimond Gaita, 1999 Related text: . Gary’s House, Debra Oswald, 2000 (drama) Statement about belonging and university application uk, understanding directly related to the question through the thesis statement Context Relationship of baggage, place to belonging is discussed, with supporting evidence from text Final statement in the paragraph sums up the pressures of place versus family in the quest to ph d research, belong – taps into. Family , Knowledge , Perception 1381 Words | 5 Pages. appears is fantastically demonstrated by the combination of techniques used in the novel 'Romulus my father ' by Raimond Gaita . and barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage, also in the song 'I must belong somewhere' by Bright Eyes. One of the casual work major aspects of belonging which is throughout the entire novel, is the belonging that Romulus has with his personal character. Gaita uses the ehrenreich cultural word “work” as a metaphor to represent the way his father believes that work and character lay hand in hand. Romulus gains the respect of many different people. Novel , Raimond Gaita , Romulus, My Father 947 Words | 3 Pages.

Belonging describes the state when one finally reaches an affinity, whether it is physical, emotional or otherwise, with an entity, which may be a community, . place or ideal. The importance of the desire to health care usa, belong can be seen in the texts, Romulus My Father by Raimond Gaita, Mao’s Last Dancer by barbara Li Cunxin and Fiddler On The Roof by Norman Jewison, all which explore potential barriers to affinity. These barriers can be described as the inability to make connections due to a different cultural background. Fiddler on the Roof , Israel , Jan Garbarek 1059 Words | 4 Pages. identity.

These ideas are illustrated in the biography Romulus, My Father by essay state Raimond Gaita, the film The Blind Side directed by . John Hancock and the poem ’Dermott’ by Colin Thiele. Family is barbara ehrenreich essay, one of the strongest sources of belonging that can be found and ph d, they act as the most supreme provider of ideas and morals from which one can base their life upon or form their identity on. Barbara Ehrenreich Cultural Baggage? In Romulus my father , Raimond’s relationship with his father is very important in Raimond’s development as he says; ‘I know. Family , Ignaz Semmelweis , Interpersonal relationship 1296 Words | 3 Pages. landscape. How To A Common? It is the physical, yet more importantly the barbara cultural essay psychological feeling of attachment. By understanding the landscape, society and family one comes . from a sense of belonging may be nourished. This portrayal of belonging is evident in essay uk, Romulus, My Father , (1998) by Raimond Gaita, Edward Scissorhands, (1990), directed by Tim Burton and Mao’s Last Dancer (2009) directed by Bruce Beresford. These texts emphasize the importance of understanding in order to nourish a sense of belonging within a certain. Culture , Edward Scissorhands , Europe 1210 Words | 4 Pages. Gattaca and Romulus Belonging Essay.

to achieve. Belonging can change over ehrenreich baggage time in one of casual work, two ways: with one’s search and acquirement of belonging, or with one’s deliberate or unintentional . alienation over time. This is clearly demonstrated in two texts: the novel/memoir, Romulus, My Father , by Raimond Gaita; and the futuristic, dystopian film, Gattaca, by barbara cultural baggage Andrew Niccol. In the memoir by Raimond Gaita, he effectively conveys the changing levels of belonging felt by Romulus throughout the essay welfare text. As an barbara ehrenreich essay immigrant or ‘New Australian’. Andrew Niccol , Australia , Gattaca 1082 Words | 3 Pages. Explore How Perceptions of Belonging or Not Belonging Are Influenced by Connections to Places.

experiences and memories in certain places is explored in casual work, the texts Romulus my Father a memoir by Raimond Gaita and barbara cultural baggage, Oranges and . Sunshine directed by Jim Loach. It is not a connection with the physical landscape that allows us to how to app essay, experience a sense of inclusion but rather connections built with people or communities that either heighten ones sense of affiliation or estrangement. Barbara Ehrenreich Essay? This concept is essay welfare state, portrayed in Romulus my Father through the character of Anna who is unable to form a connection with the. Gaita sanabresa , Jan Garbarek , Perception 1722 Words | 5 Pages. Barriers to Belonging - Romulus and World of Warcraft. acceptance and barbara baggage, self-worth. This is explored in essay of why the, the two texts I have studied – the memoir, “Romulus, My Father ” by Raimond Gaita . and the MMORPG “World of baggage, Warcraft” by Blizzard Entertainment. Both of these texts explore how culture, gender, race and tradition can all create barriers to belonging. Barriers to belonging can be broken down as fast as they are put up.

In the memoir “Romulus, My Father ”, this idea is papers, explored throughout the ehrenreich cultural essay book. For example, in the second chapter when Romulus is sent. Barrier , Blizzard Entertainment , Massively multiplayer online game 1010 Words | 3 Pages. influenced by a response to the memoir Romulus, My Father by Raimond Gaita, the care short story Two Friends by Guy de Maupassant and . translated by Roger Colet and the bildungsroman The Catcher in the Rye by J.D. Salinger. Through one of the fundamental relationships in life, the development of friendship, allegiances are formed, nurtured and barbara ehrenreich essay, forever bonding. In the course of this account of health, fragility, despair, loss and ehrenreich cultural essay, resilience, Romulus, My Father works to articulate an health system usa ethical understanding of. Friendship , Gaita sanabresa , Guy de Maupassant 1184 Words | 4 Pages. belonging in cultural baggage, society and essay of why, hence some are excluded naturally. This collated idea is portrayed in Raimond Gaita’s memoir Romulus my . father which is supported by George orwell’s 1984. Both texts emphasise the conundrum of belonging and how exclusion can be present with belonging as well as having the ability to fit in.

Gaita expresses the irony of belonging in his memoir Romulus my father exposing how morality has an cultural influencing factor in one’s belonging. Furthermore, Romulus’ nationalism for Romania is how to a common app essay, significant. 1946 births , Big Brother , Fahrenheit 451 933 Words | 3 Pages. throughout their life. This is conveyed through the memoir Romulus My Father by cultural baggage essay Raimond Gaita.

As Raimond recounts the story of . his father’s life, he explores the strength of family ties. Despite the start a common sometimes tumultuous nature of the Gaita family, there never ceases to be a strong sense of baggage, belonging between the individuals. Notions of belonging between Romulus and Raimond are conveyed through the passion of essay the, Gaita’s writing about his father and the emotive language of the barbara baggage essay text. Physical belonging is also. John Green , Life , Meaning of life 918 Words | 3 Pages. Aforementioned notions are clearly exemplified in Raimond Gaita’s memoir, Romulus, My Father (RMF), and Shaun Tan’s picture book, . The Lost Thing (TLT). One’s sense of acceptance is how to app essay, determined by their strength of barbara ehrenreich baggage essay, character.

Through RMF, Gaita recounts his family’s struggle to adapt to new life as immigrants to post World War II Australia. Essay Health System? Romulus’ “strength of character” is established by the high modality, “ my father valued truthfulness above most things”, allowing him to form a “lifelong friendship”. Individual , Raimond Gaita , Romulus, My Father 933 Words | 3 Pages. Belonging is a complex perception informed by an individual’s understanding of their own identity, and barbara ehrenreich cultural, their connections with other people and places. How To Start A Common? As . Barbara Ehrenreich Cultural? such it is an intensely personal and subjective concept; Raimond Gaita’s memoir ‘Romulus, My Father ’ represents belonging as a perception closely interrelated with one’s identity and wellbeing. Similarly, Penn’s 2007 film ‘Into the Wild’ and Judith Wright’s poem ‘Nigger’s Leap, New England’ explore the wider significance of belonging on a socio-cultural. Australia , Eric Bana , Identity 750 Words | 3 Pages. migration. To add on, I will inform you about he migration that occurred through out casual work, my relatives lives.

And finally, I will speak upon the . migration that occurred through out the movie Scarface that starred Al Pacino that played Tony Montana's role. My parents weren't born in the United States, but they were looking for cultural essay, better lives and opportunities, so they migrated from Haiti to the United States. My parents growing up in casual work, such a poor country that didn't provide much opportunity for them. Ann Dunham , Barack Obama , Democratic Party 1984 Words | 5 Pages. A Journey of Self-Discovery and barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage essay, Self-Initiation. because no one has just one thing that makes them who they are.

Creating one’s identity is a continuous labyrinth of essay usa, ideas, likes, dislikes, and other . Barbara Baggage? factors that somehow end at ph d research papers one person and affect their whole character. Barbara Cultural Baggage Essay? Having read Dreams From My Father : A Story of Race and Inheritance by Barack Obama over papers the summer, I found out how he formed his true identity through the knowledge he gained of the different events and episodes of his life. Some people find out ehrenreich, who they are at a very young age. African American , Barack Obama , Black people 2809 Words | 7 Pages. change your perspective on ph d research, the idea of Belonging. Ehrenreich Cultural Baggage? One must know who they are and where they belong in order for the community and for people around them . to accept the individual.

This idea is explored throughout Raimond Gaita’s memoir Romulus My Father as well as in uk, Shaun Tan’s picture book, The Red Tree, which reveals the effect closed communities can have on ehrenreich baggage essay, the individuals mind set, by university application essay dampening the self assurance and worth, one looses site of how to belong to their community. Both Gaita and. Accept , Human , Identity management 958 Words | 3 Pages. Prepared Remarks of President Barack Obama: Back to barbara baggage essay, School Event. the whole speech, and pathos when he tells about his own experience and expresses how he feels on this matter in the speech, which in general, makes it . easier to earn people's attention. “I know the feeling. When I was young my family lived in Indonesia for a few years, and my mother didn't have the money to send me where all the American kids went to ph d papers, school. Barbara Essay? So she decided to teach me extra lessons herself, Monday through Friday – at 4:30 in the morning.” Feelings are important to use, especially. 2008 Democratic National Convention , Barack Obama , Democratic Party 1117 Words | 3 Pages. Christina Gaita's Story Is a Chronicle of the Course of a Mental Illness That Leads to Her Tragic End.

Should Romulus Take Responsibility for His Part in how to app essay, His Wife's Descent Into Depression and Despair, or Is It the Deficiencies in Her Character Th. In Raimond Gaita's memoir ?Romulus, My Father ', it is clear that both Romulus and Christina share the barbara responsibility for her . Essay? descent into depression and despair. However Romulus and Christina alone are not the only ones to blame for barbara cultural baggage, other exterior factor influenced her spiraling descent into how to start, a mental illness. It is hard to say which of Christine's actions were caused by her, and which of them were caused by barbara ehrenreich baggage her mental illness. It was her actions, and no others that caused her to have the affairs. Childbirth , Great Depression , Individual responsibility 878 Words | 3 Pages. restorative force by which individuals reaffirm or transform their identities. Ultimately, it is the ability to form meaningful and sustaining relationships . Papers? that allows individuals to assess and affirm their values. Raimond Gaita’s memoir, “Romulus, My Father ” (RMF), Evan Hunters short story “On the Sidewalk Bleeding’ (OTSB), and “The Oasis”, a Shark Island Documentary, explore this notion through employing the universal themes of compassion, alienation and love as they enrich characters sense of hope. Interpersonal relationship , Love , Meaning of life 1048 Words | 3 Pages. Dreams from My Father : A Story of Race and Inheritance Summer . Reading Assignment 1. Explain the cultural baggage author’s purpose for writing this book?

The author of health care, this book is Barack Obama, and the reason I believe he wrote this book is to share his experience growing up and for people be able to understand his personal background. Barbara Cultural Baggage Essay? He shared experiences from being raised by his mother and grandmother while his father was living in Kenya. 2008 Democratic National Convention , Ann Dunham , Barack Obama 530 Words | 2 Pages. Romulus, My Father by Raimond Gaita Teaching notes prepared for VATE members by Bev Rangott . CONTENTS |1. |Introduction |Page | 1 | |2. |Ways into the text |Page | 3 | |3. |Summary of the text |Page. Bankruptcy in the United States , Raimond Gaita , Romulus, My Father 10082 Words | 34 Pages. why did Barack wrote a book for his father ? Dreams for my father Barack Hussein Obama was born in 1961, . in Honolulu, Hawaii. His mother was a white American girl from Kansas and his father a black man from Luo, a Kenyan tribe. At that time their union was unusual, so Barack had to ph d research papers, live with that combination of races.

He grew up with his mothers family far from his father and thus to his black origins. Barack had a hard time understanding his situation during his childhood. He was lost. African American , Barack Obama , Democratic Party 823 Words | 2 Pages. In the text Romulus my father , written by Raimond Gaita, the barbara cultural baggage main character of Romulus's life is marked by suffering. Gaita who . is the son of essay of why, Romulus, includes plenty personal and descriptive accounts of his father Romulus. Essay? Many of these accounts involve examples of how Romulus life was marked by suffering. Such suffering occurred throughout Romulus life by having to of why, move away from his homeland to Australia, being denied his love for education, having to work his hands to the bone in barbara ehrenreich cultural, order to ph d papers, scrape. Pain , Raimond Gaita , Romulus, My Father 529 Words | 2 Pages. Romulus, My Father (Belonging to landscape)

Concepts of ehrenreich cultural essay, belonging features in Romulus, My Father due to Raimond Gaita's connection to the Australian Landscape, his mother . and the, father's immigrant experience, their unusual family situation and also the values and ehrenreich cultural essay, beliefs Raimond was raised with. System Usa? Gaita uses an unbiased and objective tone throughout the retelling of his upbringing and by doing this he, displays techniques through quotes and symbolism in his desriptions. Romulus never fully adjusts to the Austraian landscape, he misses the. Australia , Raimond Gaita , Romulus, My Father 436 Words | 2 Pages. Book Report on First They Killed My Father Book Report on First They Killed My Father by Loung Ung The name of one of the books that I read this summer is called First . they Killed my Father by barbara ehrenreich baggage essay Loung Ung. I choose this book because it was recommended by an older friend and it was recommended to start app essay, me by my English teacher. My older friend told me this was a good book and he couldn't put it down. He also told me that it was a easy read and that I would like it.

My English teacher also told me that this book is good and barbara ehrenreich cultural essay, that I would be interested. Cambodia , First They Killed My Father , Khieu Samphan 614 Words | 2 Pages. Barack Obama: 'Dreams from My Father' Personal Response Number One Title: Dreams from casual work, My Father ‘A Story of Race and cultural, Inheritance’ Author: Barack Obama Genre: . Autobiography, Life Memoir Before Barack Obama was a Politician he was an author. Casual Work? ‘Dreams from My Father : A Story of Race and Inheritance’ is an barbara ehrenreich baggage Auto-Biography written by Barack Obama. The book describes Obama’s life in three parts, from his birth in Honolulu, Hawaii up to the final part of the book which includes his emotional and revealing trip back to his father’s homeland;. African American , Ann Dunham , Barack Obama 765 Words | 2 Pages. Belonging essay -George Orwell 1984 - Raimond Gaita Romulus, My Father. novels, ‘Romulus, My Father ’ by Raimond Gaita and welfare, ‘Nineteen Eighty-Four’ (1984) by baggage essay George Orwell. A sense of belonging can be . created through a range of significant events. However, at times, these events demonstrate the changing nature of belonging and the way in which challenging can both forge and break a sense of research papers, belonging between individuals.

Romulus, My Father details a number of very tragic events which emphasise the barbara ehrenreich importance of application, belonging between Raimond and his father . It demonstrates. Big Brother , George Orwell , Human 721 Words | 2 Pages. MY VACATION AT THE CITY I can still remember the time I went to the city with my family just to have a bit of relaxation since . we are over barbara ehrenreich essay and done with our periodical examinations. Ph D Research Papers? Hoping that we can spend some precious time together, I felt so excited while we are on ehrenreich cultural baggage, our way. I expected a lot of jokes and app essay, laughter, and full of satisfaction when we get there. After a long journey on ehrenreich cultural essay, a muddy and terribly devastated nautical highway, we reach the city, the only city and the capital of our province.

Barack Obama , Democratic Party , Dreams from My Father 773 Words | 2 Pages.

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Resume templates: EXPLAINING STEP BY STEP. Here we go into detail. With our step-by-step guide to find out exactly what you need to look for in the various points of ehrenreich essay your resume. Simple in pattern click on the links below in the right column and gradually build your own resume perfect. I wish you success.

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Free Resume templates and essay of why the, Basic information and thoughts to resume. The curriculum is an barbara cultural, integral part of an application. Casual Work! As a rule, includes these two pages – in students may already be sufficient page. Through the resume to a hiring manager can quickly get a first impression of a candidate. Moreover, he can this document refer to barbara ehrenreich cultural important information, which will enable him to care system usa match the requirements of a post to be filled with the profile of the candidate. In order for all this to happen to the satisfaction of the personnel in charge, a clear structure, and clearly structured information is an important point that a candidate should be considered when writing a resume. In addition, it is baggage essay, advisable if possible to focus only the important information and to dispense with the indication of unimportant and irrelevant to the job data. Thus, the applicant profile can be sharpened to a, on the other hand, a clean focus help ensure that relevant information is a common app essay, not read. These data / content should be found in your resume. In a resume are usually first the personal data of an applicant to find.

These data are clearly presented and structured in the space provided. The personal information should generally include the following information (see CV form on this page.): Full address phone number E-mail address Date of birth and place of birth Marital status Nationality (only if this can not be derived) In addition, this area of the document can be provided with a matching photo. On the “Personal Information” is followed (if it already exists) the career path of cultural baggage essay a candidate.In this area the previous work stations of a candidate are listed. The anti chronological order allows the reader easily to remove the current or the last professional position of the essay health care system, applicant. The indication of the respective data is carried out in a rule as shown below (see CV form on this page.):

date Job Title Company / Organization with place optionally industry and number of employees 3-5 activity provided (if possible, the barbara cultural essay, selection of these activities should be geared to the requirements of the how to start a common, new location) Each professional station gets this such a block within the CV. The career follows the section with information about the training. This is reported in ehrenreich baggage accordance with the professional positions with date, training or academic title, company / organization / school / college and training content. For a continuous representation of the data with respect to the formation should be presented anti chronologically. Below are some key points to essay of why the this block (see CV form on cultural, this page.): date Name of training Company / Organization / School / College with place optionally industry and number of employees where appropriate training content possibly final grade and welfare state, subject of the thesis. To highlight completed training, but a separate area can be created. Alternatively, these measures may be placed “training” in the field.

The training provided should not be too far back and be relevant to cultural essay the desired location, if possible beyond. then the casual work, next block form the “Special skills” of a candidate. This area offers the opportunity to make the recruiters on additional knowledge attention, which in turn are best if relevant for barbara baggage essay the intended location. Behind the “Special skills” to hide information about computer skills or computer skills, language skills, driving license and other skills that are of relevance.Additionally, it should be done for all knowledge, either a self-assessment or proof of the level of ph d papers knowledge. For examples relating to barbara cultural the presentation of such knowledge see the essay system usa, CV form on this page. In conclusion, even an area with interests and hobbies are inserted.

This area should, however, take up little space in your resume, because although it may round the barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage, first image of a candidate, but should not get too much focus. The most important information of the papers, applicant are in the overlying or preceding sections. When specifying hobbies and interests should be taken to barbara ensure that the mentioned pastimes no negative concerns about the future performance of an of why, employee wake (eg, extreme sports with a high risk of injury - This might fear the recruiter that the candidate could turn out often). In conclusion then follows the signature. This gives the barbara cultural essay, document nor a personal touch and is also often seen as assurance that the information supplied by the applicant are correct. Frequently asked questions about CV. Below you will find frequently asked questions and answers about the CV. Where the essay, CV is placed in ehrenreich cultural baggage essay the application folder?

At what point of the resume is on the order of the application documents? In classical Bewerbungsmappe the CV is arranged directly after the cover letter. If a cover sheet is used, it usually follows the cover letter – the CV is application uk, then added directly to the cover page in the application folder. If the application via e-mail, so the barbara ehrenreich cultural essay, resume is ph d, usually queued immediately after the cover letter in the application document. The application cover sheet (if present) is then usually in barbara cultural baggage the first place, even before the essay care system, letter. To create a resume, you can use, for example, the above templates and patterns as a basis.In order to work with a CV template of your choice, you need Microsoft Word from Word 2007. Alternatively, you can also use word processing programs such as OpenOffice or LibreOffice for creating your resume. However, please note that when using our templates in combination with the barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage, two programs latter can serious compatibility issues.

A curriculum vitae is ph d research, a tabular representation of your personal history. Ehrenreich Baggage! Earlier on this page you will find several examples and your CV. What should I consider when choosing a resume template? When choosing a resume template, it is advisable to check the filters: Suitable to the layout of the template for the substantive scope of my career and its representation?

Fits the original optically to the job, the company and the industry? Fits the bill to my personality? Should a CV template not 100% satisfied with your, so you can use it as a basis and adjust them to your needs. The above CV format for Word, you can use Word to edit from 2007 onwards. Both a content adaptation, as well as an adaptation of the design / layout is possible. In a (tabular) CV is casual work, a compressed and focused presentation of your previous career.Important information should already be clear as possible when flying over the life course for the reader. Data are for a point of barbara ehrenreich baggage essay no relevance, should either be omitted, or be represented if necessary as short and concise.

Use at the individual stations in essay your resume if possible bullet points to cultural essay present your relevant for the job qualifications and essay health care system, skills clearly and structured. A resume should not exceed two A4 pages as a rule. Barbara Ehrenreich! Depending on the length of the previous career may be sufficient an A4 page. At what point should I start on your CV? How far should I go back in essay chronological resume? In most cases, you can start on your resume from the secondary school. A visit to barbara ehrenreich essay an elementary school, all applicants in common, so that this station does not matter for filling positions. Chronological or reverse chronological CV – what order is suitable for the resume? As a rule, an state, anti-chronological, chronologically decreasing order for the CV is ehrenreich cultural baggage, well suited.This is for the reader the latest (and therefore often the most relevant) information easy to find. Why should my resume be consecutive?

Gaps in your CV often raise questions and to ph d the reader with the feeling that the ehrenreich, candidate is university application uk, trying to hide something. To get around this, a resume should therefore be possible without gaps. What can I write in CV unemployment rather than “unemployed”? active formulations are better suited than their passive counterparts for the CV. Instead of the passive phrase “unemployed” you could use “seeking work” on your resume therefore active formulations such as. My resume is too long – I can leave? To shorten your resume you can cut, for example, information on ehrenreich, qualifications or skills that are not or only of limited relevance for research the intended position, or optionally omit. If it is professional or educational stations, so you should indeed retain in any case – otherwise gaps would arise – but the possibility to reduce the number of bullet points or even completely dispense with bullet points.

The sections “knowledge” and “interests” are, usually best to cut the barbara baggage, CV. What font and size suitable for your resume? legible font with a serious effect are for the CV, as well as for all other application documents suitable. Examples of essay of why such fonts, for example Arial, Times New Roman, Open Sans, Verdana or Garamond. Sizes between 10pt and ehrenreich cultural baggage essay, 12pt are in terms of font size, depending on casual work, the selected font, usually suitable. For headings can optionally also a larger font size to be useful, if this is just for clarity. Generally it should be ensured that uniform fonts and font sizes are used in all application documents.

How can I write my resume? Where the CV is signed? The curriculum will be signed at the end. Depending on the visual preference either two blank lines may be added in the CV after the last station for the signature. This is followed by the place and date, as well as a handwritten signature. Alternatively, place and date left justified and the handwritten signature may be positioned flush right after the last station of the resume. For the signature a suitable writing tool (eg. Fillers in blue ink) is recommended.

If the resume submitted online, so you can sign on a white sheet of paper and then scan your signature. Where can I mention my driver’s license in your CV? Your driver’s license, you can specify within the section “Special skills” with the appropriate license categories. The photo is baggage, usually placed right-justified in research the curriculum vitae within the barbara cultural baggage, section “Personal data”. If a cover page is used with photo, can be dispensed with in of why the resume on a photo. What file format should I use for ehrenreich baggage essay my resume? The CV should always be sent as a PDF file. A Common! This file format has the advantage that it can not be readily changed. How can I save my resume as a PDF file and send it? Your resume example, you can save directly into Word as a PDF file.

To do this, simply change the file type in the “Save As” dialog on “PDF”. Please make sure that your resume previously as editable Word file (eg. “.docx”) Save to barbara ehrenreich baggage essay edit it again at a later date. You can then send your resume as an email attachment, or via file upload in an online application portal. Errors in your resume: where the casual work, pitfalls lie. If you apply the letter is barbara cultural, devoted the most attention and energy. The curriculum is however in casual work many cases quickly and according to the book checked. Ehrenreich Cultural Baggage! A mistake, because the devil is in the detail and the resume is more important, as many candidates is clear.

Too little concrete information on how to a common app essay, the recent activities Missing evidence cited activities Gaps in barbara baggage essay your CV Unrealistic-perceived language skills Improper Hobbies. Exaggerated clear layout customization Excessive distortion of her own style Too much text and tags on system, individual stations To elaborate layout suffered by the clarity Stilbruch between letter and cultural, resume Outdated application photo. Clear answer: No Fake degrees, academic titles purchased or never graduated workstations are not peccadilloes or white lies, but fraud. The can through to forgery rich and always has therefore a veritable ground for dismissal . Even after one has begun the job for a long time. At worst, the civil consequences entail.

From this type of CV-polish so you should strictly stay away. Against other cosmetic procedures is less objection: Chronic diseases , for example, which have no influence on the job, you do not need to mention. Essay! The same applies to baggage essay successful stays in an addiction clinic . Also you can move through skillful representation in ph d papers a slightly better light – for example, if your past successes will substantiate by numbers: Do these in cultural baggage essay absolute form is not quite as convincing, then make up percentages or refer to rankings. Were you in the job not the start a common, number 1? Then be stated precisely that you were among the top 5 of the company.

If you are not the barbara essay, absolute leader have worked, use similar comparisons as among the top three companies in the industry . So if you resume templates to use, please make absolutely sure this individualize by skillfully devising and arranging still suit their respective target companies.

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5 Benefits of Having a Small Business Mentor. As a small business owner or entrepreneur, you have a lot on barbara cultural, your plate. And whether you’re busy trying to establish your business or developing a growth strategy for your existing operation, it can be valuable to get an expert opinion from casual work a mentor. Below are some key reasons you should consider reaching out to a mentor. Above all, business mentors have “been there, done that.” They can offer you expert advice and barbara ehrenreich baggage essay guidance based on actual experiences — successes and failures included. The insight that business mentors can provide because of what they’ve been through with their business ventures, and over time, is ph d research papers, tremendously valuable from a practical standpoint.

Consulting with a business mentor can be a great way to gain a different, fresh perspective. It’s easy to get caught up with your ideas to essay, the point of questioning, confusion or second guessing – and having a sounding board in a business mentor is a great way to work through some of welfare state those kinks. You may also be presented with some considerations from a business mentor that you wouldn’t have come across otherwise. So it’s a great opportunity to barbara ehrenreich baggage, broaden your own outlook. With all that experience likely comes a vast network of how to start app essay industry connections. Your mentor can help open doors so you can meet people – potential partners, customers and decision-makers in your target market. Having an introduction from someone like your business mentor can help strengthen that new tie more than simply meeting someone randomly at an event.

If you find that you’re struggling with a particular task in cultural, your start-up activities or are facing an issue with employees, bookkeeping, etc. in your existing business – a mentor can help. Papers. Many business mentors have a particular area of advanced skills, so you can further your technical abilities while you gather bigger-picture insight. Through many organizations and programs (such as SCORE), consulting with a mentor is usually free, so you don’t have to ehrenreich cultural, worry about start a common fronting cash to benefit. You also don’t need to be concerned with scams, because business mentors are available for ehrenreich baggage essay, one primary reason – to start, help you succeed. But it’s a two-way street. Business mentors learn from baggage essay mentees as well, so the experience is mutually beneficial. If you’re just getting started down the care path to ehrenreich cultural, business ownership – or have been there for some time – and system usa are looking for some guidance, consider reaching out to a business mentor to ehrenreich cultural, help you along the way. You’ve got nothing to essay, lose and baggage essay a world of business insight to gain. Honestly, we have used the Internet (i.e. websites, business forums, etc.) as our business Mentor over the years. But nothing beats a real business mentor who will personally look at your business and give you the exact steps that you need to take and point out the exact errors that you have been committing. Getting a different perspective, especially when that 2nd perspective is free of the day to day grind, is highly valuable.

I also like #3, because connections can lead to partnerships or opportunities you wouldn#8217;t have seen otherwise. I believe the biggest boost to start-ups are mentor-ship. It does not even have to involve funding. Essay. Just someone who can give incredible advice to start ups. Having someone who has a different point of barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage essay view from you can open up many doors opportunities and university essay options when making decisions. But mentors are just that—to give advice, not orders.

Most of the decision-making will be under your responsibility and you have to face consequences on your own. The best thing with mentors, though, is they always have your support regardless of the barbara baggage circumstances. Thanks for casual work, sharing! If you’re just getting started down the ehrenreich baggage essay path to business ownership and are looking for university essay, some guidance, consider reaching out to barbara cultural baggage essay, a business mentor to help you along the way. Essay Care. Having a mentor or someone to bounce ideas off is crucial to your development of your business. When you are a small business you can feel like you are standing alone, when so many others have been there and done that before.

We tend to be so focused on barbara ehrenreich, what we have been doing, we tend to stop thinking outside of the box, which a mentor can give a different thought process or persepctive to the matter. A business mentor sounds like an incredibly helpful tool, especially in today#8217;s world.How would a business owner go about finding a reputable mentor? Good morning Ed. Any start up or existing business owner who needs professional and application uk free business mentorship should contact their local Small Business Development Center. We are located in every State and barbara ehrenreich cultural essay are part of the SBA. I am not really understanding what business mentor actually teaches you#8230; If I need to know how to market my business will it be some kind of profound marketing tips than?

Or business mentor only teaches you how he got investors and essay the how to essay, pitch? Awesome article. I would love for you to write an article outlining how to find and qualify a mentor. A good business mentor can pave the way for newbies. A new business owner can learn from the mentor#8217;s early mistakes and avoid similar pitfalls. And of course the mentor will be able to care, guide them down the right path.

It might be helpful to focus on a mentor that specializes in a certain aspect of the business. It might be a marketing mentor, or accounting mentor or start up mentor. I love the ehrenreich essay article! But, I must say I have contacted the SBA#8217;s mentor program, and the mentors acted like I was bothering them. Essay Of Why. I had 1 #8220;mentor#8221; at 2 different times.

And they did nothing to help me start, or grow my business. I thought menotrs were someone to guide you along the barbara essay way, to check up on you to essay system, see how things are going, and to give you advice. I thought mentors were what the article mentioned, but I have to tell the truth. I did not get mentoring from my so-call mentor. Maybe, it#8217;s because I wanted an online mentor. What do you think? OR maybe there are no mentors in Denver, CO? I have searched high and low for a business mentor. Can someone give me at least 4-5 ideas of where I may need to look?

I have tried SCORE and ehrenreich cultural essay have had no success to date. Application Uk. I would appreciate any feedback! Try this consulting and mentoring course http://courses.digitalacademy.biz Only if your problems concern marketing and promotion. One concept often overlooked is barbara baggage essay, a #8216;Personal#8217; Mentor. Essay. As a Small Business owner, you are often #8216;The Business#8217; and barbara ehrenreich cultural if you are struggling emotionally and mentally with the challenges of making the business a success then the business will suffer. Having someone, either in person or via a medium, that you can call on ph d research papers, for advice, inspiration or just good common sense is vital. For years I have followed the teachings of the late Jim Rohn for my personal life which has sustained me in my business life. Fully agree to have a Business Mentor but they might not be the same person you need for your personal support. Well I believe having a business mentor is very helpful, I mean he will guide you on how to barbara ehrenreich cultural, manage a business, gives you ways or maybe tips, an expert advice and thought you everything that you should know in casual work, running a business.

So i agree in barbara cultural, this article. Welfare State. Who knows? this will lead you to your achievements and success. Pingback: How to Handle a Mentor-Mentee Relationship Properly | Let#039;s win college. LiveChat Teams with BotEngine to Make You Available to Customers - Anytime. Spotlight: This Small Business Teaches Coding Skills to cultural baggage essay, Young People. Founded in 2003, Small Business Trends is an award-winning online publication for application, small business owners, entrepreneurs and the people who interact with them. It is one of the barbara cultural baggage essay most popular independent small business publications on university application essay, the web. Together with hundreds of expert contributors, Small Business Trends brings you the news, advice and resources you need. Small business success. delivered daily. Copyright 2003 - 2017, Small Business Trends LLC.

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The Surprising History of barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage essay Copyright and The Promise of a Post-Copyright World. (See also other available formats for how to a common the English, such as EPUB, Daisy, PDF, etc.) There is barbara ehrenreich cultural one group of people not shocked by essay welfare state, the record industry's policy of suing randomly chosen file sharers: historians of copyright. Ehrenreich Essay? They already know what everyone else is slowly finding out: that copyright was never primarily about paying artists for their work, and that far from health usa being designed to support creators, copyright was designed by and for distributors — that is, publishers, which today includes record companies. But now that the barbara cultural baggage, Internet has given us a world without distribution costs, it no longer makes any sense to restrict sharing in order to pay for centralized distribution. Abandoning copyright is now not only possible, but desirable. Both artists and audiences would benefit, financially and aesthetically.

In place of health system corporate gatekeepers determining what can and can't be distributed, a much finer-grained filtering process would allow works to spread based on their merit alone. We would see a return to an older and richer cosmology of creativity, one in which copying and borrowing openly from others' works is simply a normal part of the creative process, a way of cultural baggage essay acknowledging one's sources and papers, of improving on what has come before. And the old canard that artists need copyright to earn a living would be revealed as the pretense it has always been. None of this will happen, however, if the ehrenreich baggage essay, industry has its way. For three centuries, the publishing industry has been working very hard to welfare state obscure copyright's true origins, and to promote the myth that it was invented by writers and barbara cultural, artists. Even today, they continue to campaign for essay of why ever stronger laws against sharing, for international treaties that compel all nations to ehrenreich conform to the copyright policies of the state, strictest, and barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage, most of all to make sure the public never asks exactly who this system is meant to help. The reward for these efforts can be seen in the public's reaction to the file-sharing lawsuits. While most people agree that this time the industry went too far, the error is mainly treated as one of degree — as if the record companies had a valid point, but had merely resorted to excessive force in making it. To read the true history of copyright is to understand just how completely this reaction plays into the industry's hands. The record companies don't really care whether they win or lose these lawsuits. In the long run, they don't even expect to eliminate file sharing.

What they're fighting for is much bigger. They're fighting to maintain a state of mind, an ph d papers attitude toward creative work that says someone ought to own products of the mind, and control who can copy them. Barbara Essay? And by positioning the issue as a contest between the Beleaguered Artist, who supposedly needs copyright to pay the rent, and The Unthinking Masses, who would rather copy a song or a story off the Internet than pay a fair price, the industry has been astonishingly successful. They have managed to substitute the loaded terms piracy and theft for the more accurate copying — as if there were no difference between stealing your bicycle (now you have no bicycle) and research, copying your song (now we both have it). Most importantly, industry propaganda has made it a commonplace belief that copyright is how most creators earn a living — that without copyright, the engines of intellectual production would grind to a halt, and artists would have neither means nor motivation to produce new works. Yet a close look at history shows that copyright has never been a major factor in ehrenreich baggage allowing creativity to flourish. Copyright is an outgrowth of the privatization of government censorship in casual work sixteenth-century England.

There was no uprising of authors suddenly demanding the right to prevent other people from copying their works; far from viewing copying as theft, authors generally regarded it as flattery. The bulk of creative work has always depended, then and ehrenreich baggage essay, now, on a diversity of funding sources: commissions, teaching jobs, grants or stipends, patronage, etc. The introduction of copyright did not change this situation. What it did was allow a particular business model — mass pressings with centralized distribution — to how to start a common app essay make a few lucky works available to a wider audience, at considerable profit to the distributors. The arrival of the Internet, with its instantaneous, costless sharing, has made that business model obsolete — not just obsolete, but an obstacle to the very benefits copyright was alleged to bring society in ehrenreich cultural baggage essay the first place. Welfare? Prohibiting people from cultural freely sharing information serves no one's interests but the university application uk, publishers'.

Although the industry would like us to believe that prohibiting sharing is somehow related to enabling artists to make a living, their claim does not stand up to even mild scrutiny. For the barbara baggage, vast majority of artists, copyright brings no economic benefits. True, there are a few stars — some quite talented — whose works are backed by the industry; these receive the health care, lion's share of distribution investment, and generate a correspondingly greater profit, which is shared with the artist on better than usual terms because the artist's negotiating position is cultural baggage stronger. Not coincidentally, these stars are who the industry always holds up as examples of the benefits of copyright. But to treat this small group as representative would be to confuse marketing with reality.

Most artists' lives look nothing like theirs, and never will, under the current spoils system. That is why the stereotype of the impoverished artist remains alive and well after three hundred years. The publishing industry's campaign to preserve copyright is waged out of essay state pure self-interest, but it forces on baggage, us a clear choice. We can watch as most of our cultural heritage is welfare state stuffed into a vending machine and sold back to us dollar by dollar — or we can reexamine the copyright myth and find an cultural alternative. The first copyright law was a censorship law. It was not about protecting the rights of authors, or encouraging them to produce new works. Authors' rights were in little danger in sixteenth-century England, and the recent arrival of the printing press (the world's first copying machine) was if anything energizing to writers. So energizing, in fact, that the English government grew concerned about too many works being produced, not too few. The new technology was making seditious reading material widely available for how to start app essay the first time, and the government urgently needed to control the barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage, flood of printed matter, censorship being as legitimate an administrative function then as building roads. The method the government chose was to establish a guild of private-sector censors, the London Company of Stationers, whose profits would depend on how well they performed their function. The Stationers were granted a royal monopoly over all printing in England, old works as well as new, in return for keeping a strict eye on what was printed.

Their charter gave them not only essay exclusive right to print, but also the right to search out and confiscate unauthorized presses and barbara ehrenreich, books, and even to system usa burn illegally printed books. No book could be printed until it was entered in the company's Register, and ehrenreich cultural essay, no work could be added to the Register until it had passed the crown's censor, or had been self-censored by how to a common, the Stationers. The Company of Stationers became, in effect, the government's private, for-profit information police force [1]. The system was quite openly designed to barbara cultural baggage serve booksellers and the government, not authors. New books were entered in the Company's Register under a Company member's name, not the author's name. By convention, the member who registered the entry held the copyright, the ph d research papers, exclusive right to publish that book, over other members of the Company, and ehrenreich cultural essay, the Company's Court of Assistants resolved infringement disputes [2]. This was not simply the latest manifestation of some pre-existing form of copyright. It's not as though authors had formerly had copyrights, which were now to research papers be taken away and given to ehrenreich cultural the Stationers. The Stationers' right was a new right, though one based on a long tradition of start app essay granting monopolies to guilds as a means of barbara cultural control. Of Why The? Before this moment, copyright — that is, a privately held, generic right to prevent others from copying — did not exist.

People routinely printed works they admired when they had the chance, an ehrenreich baggage activity which is responsible for the survival of many of those works to the present day. One could, of essay health care usa course, be enjoined from distributing a specific document because of barbara essay its potentially libelous effect, or because it was a private communication, or because the government considered it dangerous and papers, seditious. But these reasons are about public safety or damage to ehrenreich cultural baggage essay reputation, not about property ownership. There had also been, in some cases, special privileges (then called patents) allowing exclusive printing of ph d certain types of books. But until the cultural, Company of Stationers, there had not been a blanket injunction against printing in health system general, nor a conception of cultural baggage copyright as a legal property that could be owned by a private party.

For about a century and a third, this partnership worked well for the government and for the Stationers. The Stationers profited from their monopoly, and through the Stationers, the government exercised control over essay the spread of information. Around the baggage essay, end of the university, seventeenth century, however, owing to larger political changes, the government relaxed its censorship policies, and allowed the Stationers' monopoly to expire. This meant that printing would return to its former anarchical state, and was of course a direct economic threat to the members of the Company of Stationers, accustomed as they were to having exclusive license to manufacture books. Dissolution of the monopoly might have been good news for long-suppressed authors and independent printers, but it spelled disaster for the Stationers, and they quickly crafted a strategy to barbara cultural baggage essay retain their position in the newly liberal political climate.

The Stationers based their strategy on a crucial realization, one that has stayed with publishing conglomerates ever since: authors do not have the papers, means to distribute their own works. Barbara Baggage? Writing a book requires only start a common pen, paper, and time. But distributing a book requires printing presses, transportation networks, and an up-front investment in materials and typesetting. Thus, the Stationers reasoned, people who write would always need a publisher's cooperation to make their work generally available. Ehrenreich Cultural Baggage? Their strategy used this fact to maximum advantage. They went before Parliament and offered the then-novel argument that authors had a natural and inherent right of ownership in what they wrote, and that furthermore, such ownership could be transferred to other parties by contract, like any other form of essay usa property. Their argument succeeded in persuading Parliament. The Stationers had managed to avoid the odium of censorship, as the new copyrights would originate with the author, but they knew that authors would have little choice but to sign those rights back over to a publisher for essay distribution.

There was some judicial and political wrangling over the details, but in the end both halves of the Stationers' argument survived essentially intact, and became part of English statutory law. The first recognizably modern copyright, the essay state, Statute of Anne, was passed in 1709 and took effect in 1710. The Statute of Anne is barbara ehrenreich often held up by casual work, champions of copyright as the moment when authors were finally given the protection they had long deserved. Even today, it continues to be referenced both in legal arguments and in press releases from the publishing industry. But to interpret it as an barbara cultural baggage essay authors' victory flies in the face of care system usa both common sense and ehrenreich cultural baggage essay, historical fact [3]. Authors, having never had copyright, saw no reason now to suddenly demand the rather paradoxical power to research papers prevent the spread of their own works, and barbara cultural, did not do so. The only people threatened by the dissolution of the Stationers' monopoly were the Stationers themselves, and the Statute of university application essay Anne was the direct result of ehrenreich cultural their lobbying and essay of why, campaigning. Ehrenreich Cultural? In the memorable words of the contemporary Lord Camden, the Stationers . Casual Work? came up to Parliament in the form of petitioners, with tears in their eyes, hopeless and forlorn; they brought with them their wives and children to excite compassion, and ehrenreich cultural baggage, induce Parliament to grant them a statutory security. [4] To make their argument more palatable, they had proposed that copyright would originate with the author, as a form of property that could be sold to anyone — anticipating, correctly, that it would most often be sold to a printer.

This proposal was a shrewd tactical move, because one of Parliament's concerns was to prevent the re-establishment of essay care usa a centralized monopoly in the book trade, with its attendant potential for a renewal of censorship by the crown. Benjamin Kaplan, professor of ehrenreich cultural essay law emeritus at Harvard University and a respected copyright scholar, describes the Stationers position succinctly: . Ph D? The stationers made the case that they could not produce the ehrenreich cultural baggage essay, fragile commodities called books, and thus encourage learned men to write them, without protection against research papers piracy. There is an apparent tracing of rights to an ultimate source in barbara cultural baggage essay the fact of authorship, but before attaching large importance to this we have to note that if printing as a trade was not to be put back into the hands of a few as subject of monopoly — if the statute was indeed to be a kind of universal patent — a [legal] draftsman would naturally be led to express himself in terms of rights in books and hence to casual work initial rights in barbara baggage essay authors. A draftsman would anyway be aware that rights would usually pass immediately to publishers by assignment, that is, by purchase of the essay care system, manuscripts as in the past. . I think it nearer the ehrenreich cultural baggage, truth to say that publishers saw the tactical advantage of putting forward authors' interests together with their own, and this tactic produced some effect on the tone of the usa, statute.[5] The Statute of Anne, taken in historical context, is the smoking gun of copyright law. In it we can see the entire apparatus of modern copyright, but in still-undisguised form. Cultural Baggage Essay? There is the notion of copyright as property, yet the property is essay really intended for cultural publishers, not authors. Application Uk? There is the notion of benefitting society, by encouraging people to write books, but no evidence was offered to show that they would not write books without copyright. Rather, the Stationers' argument was that publishers could not afford to print books without protection from competition, and barbara cultural, furthermore that printers could not be depended to reproduce works faithfully if given unfettered freedom to print. The corollary, they implied, was that without the prospect of university application essay uk reliable distribution, authors would produce fewer new works.

Their argument was not unreasonable, given the technology of the time. Barbara Cultural Baggage Essay? Making a perfect copy of a printed work required access to the original press and how to start app essay, compositor, anyway; if reliable reproduction were to be encouraged, then a single-holder copyright system had a certain logic to it. Barbara Ehrenreich Cultural Baggage? And the publishers would now be effectively forced to pay authors in return for exclusive printing rights (although in essay fact the barbara cultural baggage essay, Stationers had sometimes payed authors even before, simply to guarantee the completion and delivery of ph d research papers a work). Ehrenreich Essay? The authors who succeeded in selling this new right to printers had no particular motivation to complain — and casual work, naturally, we don't hear very much about the authors not so favored. The consolidation of barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage author's copyright probably contributed to essay welfare state the decline of patronage as a source of income for barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage writers [6], and even allowed some authors, though always a small minority, to support themselves solely from the royalties their publishers shared with them. The fact that a given copyright could only be held by one party at a time also helped prevent the proliferation of divergent variations, a problem that had vexed authors perhaps even more than plagiarism, as there was no easy method by which they could endorse or disclaim particular variations. But the overall historical record is clear: copyright was designed by the, distributors, to subsidize distributors not creators. This is the secret that today's copyright lobby never dares say aloud, for barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage essay once it is admitted, the true purpose of subsequent copyright legislation becomes embarrassingly clear. The Statute of Anne was just the beginning.

Having granted the premise that copyrights should exist at all, the English government found themselves under pressure to extend copyright terms further and casual work, further. In the baggage, long legal saga that ensued, what's important is not the casual work, particular sequence of barbara ehrenreich essay laws and verdicts, but the identity of the of why the, plaintiffs: they were just the sort of stable, settled business interests capable of sustaining litigation and lobbying over a period of decades — that is, they were publishers, not authors. They had proposed the author's copyright out of economic interest, and only after the crutch of a censorship-based monopoly had been taken away from barbara ehrenreich essay them. When it became clear that the tactic worked, they lobbied to strengthen copyright. And this is still the pattern today. Whenever the casual work, U.S. Congress extends copyright terms or powers, it is the result of barbara ehrenreich cultural pressure from the publishing industry. The lobbyists will sometimes trot out a superstar author or musician as an exhibit, a human face for what is essentially an industry effort, but it's always quite clear what's really going on. All you have to do is look at who's paying the lawyer's and lobbyists' bills, and whose names appear in the court dockets — publishers'.

The industry's centuries-long campaign for strong copyright law is not merely a reflexive land grab, however. It's a natural economic response to application essay uk technological circumstances. The effect of the printing press, and later of barbara ehrenreich cultural essay analog sound recording technology, was to make creative works inseparable from their means of distribution. Essay Care System Usa? Authors needed publishers the way electricity needs wires. The only economically viable method of reaching readers (or listeners) was the barbara cultural, bulk print run: to start a common manufacture thousands of identical copies at once, then physically ship them to various points of distribution. Before agreeing to such an investment, any publisher would naturally prefer to buy or lease the copyright from the author, and just as naturally would lobby the government for the strongest possible copyright powers, the better to protect their investment. There is nothing inherently exploitative about this; it's just straightforward economics. From a business point of barbara cultural baggage view, a print run is a daunting and risky project. Essay The? It involves the high up-front costs of a physical medium (be it dead tree pulp, magnetic tape, vinyl platters, or pitted optical discs), plus complicated, expensive machinery to imprint the content onto the medium.

There's also the unseen investment of vetting the master copy: because a flawed master can reduce the baggage essay, value of the entire run, publishers and authors go to considerable trouble to generate a polished, error-free version of the work before printing. There is little room for an incremental or evolutionary process here; the work must be brought to near-perfection before the public ever sees it. University Uk? If any mistakes are overlooked, they will have to barbara ehrenreich cultural essay be tolerated in the finished product, at casual work least until the process is started again for the next print run. The publisher must also negotiate prices and line up distribution paths, which is baggage essay not only a matter of bookkeeping, but of physical expenses, of trucks and trains and a common, shipping containers. Finally, as if all this weren't enough, the publisher is compelled to spend even more money on barbara ehrenreich, marketing and publicity, to the have a better chance of at least recovering all these outlays.

When one realizes that all this must happen before the work has generated a penny of revenue, it is little wonder that publishers argue hard for copyright. The publisher's initial investment — that is, their risk — in any individual work is greater, in economic terms, than the barbara ehrenreich baggage, author's. Authors by themselves might have no inherent desire to control copying, but publishers do. And in a world filled with publishers' royalty-supported marketing departments, authors, of course, need publishers all the more. The concentration of distribution revenues results, inevitably, in the familiar logic of an essay state arms race. The arrival of the cultural baggage essay, Internet fundamentally changed this equation. It has become cliche to say that the Internet is as revolutionary a development as the printing press, and it is.

But it is revolutionary in essay a different way. The printing press may have made it possible to ehrenreich turn one book into a thousand books, but those books still had to casual work travel from the press into the hands of readers. Physical books were not only the barbara cultural baggage, medium in which the content was consumed, they were also the medium in which it was transported to the consumer. Thus, a publisher's total expense was proportional to the number of copies distributed. How To A Common? In such a situation, it is reasonable to ask that each user bear a portion of the costs of distribution. Each user is, after all, more or less responsible for ehrenreich cultural her particular quantum of expense. If the how to start a common, book (or record) is in barbara cultural essay her hands, it must have gotten there somehow, which in application essay turn means someone spent money to get it there. Divide those expenses by the number of cultural copies, add in some amount for profit, and you arrive, roughly speaking, at the book's price. But today, the medium over which content is distributed can be unrelated to the medium in which it is ultimately consumed. The data can be sent over a wire, at essentially no cost, and the user can print up a copy at her own expense, and at whatever quality she can afford, on the other end [7].

Furthermore, it is no longer important to possess the ph d research, master; in fact, the concept of the master copy itself is baggage essay obsolete. To make a perfect copy of a printed work is actually quite hard, although making a corrupt or abridged copy is very easy. The? Meanwhile, to barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage essay make a perfect copy of a digital work is ph d research papers trivially easy — it's making an imperfect copy that requires extra effort. Thus the practice of charging the same fee for each copy, regardless of how many copies there are or who made them, is now unjustifiable. The cost of baggage producing and distributing the work is casual work now essentially fixed, no longer proportional to the number of copies.

From society's point of view, every dollar spent beyond the amount needed (if any) to barbara ehrenreich bring the work into existence in the first place is a waste, an impediment to the work's ability to the spread on its own merits. The Internet did something the Company of Stationers never anticipated: it made their argument a testable hypothesis. Ehrenreich Cultural Baggage Essay? Would creators still create, without centralized publishers to distribute their works? Even minimal exposure to the Internet is enough to provide the answer: of course they will. They already are.

Computer users are comfortable downloading music and making CDs at home, and, slowly but inevitably, musicians are getting comfortable releasing tracks for free downloading [8]. Papers? Many short works of both fiction and non-fiction are already available online. Printing and binding entire books on cultural baggage, demand is rarer, but only start a common because the equipment to do it is ehrenreich essay still somewhat expensive. That equipment is university essay uk getting steadily cheaper, however, and it's only a matter of barbara ehrenreich cultural time before the copy shop down the street has it. There is no fundamental difference between music and university essay, text, from a distribution point of ehrenreich cultural baggage essay view. As printing and binding technology gets cheaper, authors will see more and more clearly that they have the same alternative musicians do, and the result will be the same: more and ph d research papers, more material available without restriction, by the choice of the author. Some might argue that authors are different, that they are more dependent on copyright than musicians. After all, a musician expects to perform, and can therefore gain indirectly by ehrenreich essay, releasing recordings for free — greater exposure leads to more performances. But authors don't perform; they reach their audience only through their works, not in person. If they now had to ph d research papers come up with ways to fund themselves without imposing an artificial scarcity on their works, could they do it?

Imagine the simplest scenario: you walk into the neighborhood print shop and tell the clerk the Web address of the ehrenreich cultural baggage essay, book you want. A couple of minutes later, the essay, clerk comes back with a freshly printed, hardbound book, straight off the Internet. He rings up the sale. That'll be eight dollars. Would you like to add the one dollar author's suggested donation? Do you say yes? Perhaps you do, perhaps not — but note that when museums charge a voluntary admission fee, people often pay it.

The same sort of dynamic is at barbara ehrenreich essay work in the copy shop. Most people are happy to essay the pay a tiny extra bit on top of some larger amount, if they have their wallet out already and think it's for barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage essay a good reason. When people fail to make small, voluntary donations to a cause they like, it's more often due to the inconvenience (writing a check, putting it in casual work the mail, etc) than the money. But even if only half, or fewer, of cultural essay all readers were to make such donations, authors would still earn more than they do under traditional royalty schemes, and how to a common, furthermore would have the pleasure of barbara ehrenreich baggage essay finally being the readers' ally in distribution, instead of their enemy. This is not the only possible system, and essay the, it can easily coexist with others. Those not convinced by barbara ehrenreich cultural, voluntary donations should consider another method: the Fund and Release system (also called the essay, Threshold Pledge system [9]). This system is designed to solve the classic problem of distributed funding, which is that each contributor wants reassurance that others are also contributing, before putting in her own money.

Under fund-and-release, the barbara ehrenreich baggage essay, hopeful creator of a new work states up front how much money will be required to produce it — this is the threshold. An intermediary organization then collects pledges, in application essay uk any amounts, from the ehrenreich essay, general public. When the essay health, total amount pledged reaches the threshhold (or exceeds it by barbara cultural baggage, some standard percentage, to health account for bookkeeping and assumption of risk), the intermediary signs a contract with the creator, and the pledges are called in. Only at this stage, when there is enough money to achieve the desired result, is anyone asked to actually pay up. The intermediary holds the money in escrow, paying the creator according to whatever schedule they negotiated. The last of the money is paid when the work is completed and made publically available, not just to the contributors, but to the entire world.

If the creator doesn't produce, the intermediary returns the money to the donors. The fund-and-release system has some interesting properties not found in the monopolistic, copyright-based marketplace. The resultant work is available to barbara cultural essay everyone in the world, free of charge. Essay Of Why The? Yet the author was also paid enough to produce the cultural essay, work; if she needed more, she would have asked for more and seen if the market would bear it. Uk? Those who did choose to pay paid only as much as they were comfortable with, no more.

And finally, there was no risk for the contributors — if the ehrenreich cultural baggage essay, threshold is never reached, then no one pays anything. Not all methods will be so pleasantly high-minded, of course. A couple of of why the years ago, the established author Fay Weldon famously accepted money from Bulgari jewelry to barbara ehrenreich baggage essay write a novel that featured Bulgari products prominently. She did so, titling the book The Bulgari Connection. The book was originally intended as a limited edition to essay of why be given away at a corporate function, but having written it, Weldon took it to a publisher for general release.

Does this mean that in the future we'll have to scrutinize all creative works for signs of cultural baggage hidden corporate sponsorship? Perhaps, but this is nothing new — product placement was invented in the the context of ehrenreich traditional copyright, and has flourished there, as it probably would anywhere. Copyright is essay the neither the cause of ehrenreich cultural baggage corporate sponsorship nor its antidote. To look to the publishing industry as a force for decommercialization would be weirdly out of touch indeed. These are just a few examples of ways to support creative work without copyright. There are many other methods [10]; there were many even before the how to start, Internet made convenient, direct micropayments possible. Whether a given artist uses this or that particular scheme doesn't matter. The important thing is that with little or no friction to impede the barbara ehrenreich cultural, payment of tiny amounts, authors will find ways to make such payments happen on the scale they need.

Those economists who are enamoured of casual work markets as a solution to everything should be in love with the possibilities here (but, predictably, many are not, because they hate to see anything become depropertized). To see a glimpse of the future, it may be most helpful to look not at net-savvy musicians, but at software. Ehrenreich Baggage Essay? The flourishing Free Software movement is welfare state probably the best example we have today of a post-copyright world. Baggage? Free software (some also call it Open Source) is the brainchild of Richard Stallman, a programmer who had the idea of health system releasing software under a deliberately reversed copyright. Instead of prohibiting sharing, the barbara ehrenreich cultural, software's license explicitly permits and encourages it. A number of others soon caught on to his idea, and research, because they were able to share and modify each other's programs without limit, they quickly produced a large body of working code.

Some predicted that this initial success would quickly level off as the software increased in size and complexity and cultural, required centralized, hierarchical organizations to maintain. But instead of foundering, the Free Software movement has grown so quickly that even its own participants are surprised, and it shows no signs of stopping. It now produces software whose functionality rivals that available in the proprietary market. Essay? Free software is widely used by banks, corporations, and governments, as well as individual computer users. More web sites run the free Apache web server than run all other web servers combined. Free operating systems are now the fastest-growing segment of the operating system market. Ehrenreich Cultural Baggage? Although some free software authors are paid for welfare state their work (after all, their services provide a benefit to those who use the software, and some of those users are willing to pay for cultural essay it), others volunteer their time. Each software project has its own reasons for existing, and each programmer their own reasons for contributing. But the cumulative effect is a direct flaunting of copyright's entire justification: a thriving community of intellectual production now exists without enforcing copyrights, yet achieves substantially the same results as its mainstream counterpart.

According to the traditional justification of copyright, this shouldn't be happening. The software is essentially in the public domain; its copyright serves mainly to identify the original authors, and in some cases to prevent anyone else from imposing a stricter license. The authors have given up every exclusive right except the right to essay be identified as the authors. They have voluntarily returned to a world before copyright law: they enforce no royalties, and have no control over the distribution and modification of their works. The software's license gives everyone automatic permission both to use and to redistribute it. You can simply start handing out copies, there's no need to notify anyone or ask permission. If you want to modify it, you're free to do that too. You can even sell it, though naturally it's difficult to charge much, since you'd be competing with others handing out the cultural essay, same goods at no cost. A more common model is to encourage people to application download the cultural baggage essay, software for free, and instead sell services such as technical support, training, and customization. These models are not fantasies, they are the basis for profitable businesses that exist right now, paying real programmers competitive salaries to work on free software. But the point is not that people are paid to do it — some are, but many more are not, and yet write it anyway.

The real point is that a tremendous amount of free software is produced and maintained every year, at a rate that grows quickly even by the standards of the software industry. If this phenomenon were isolated to software, it would be explainable as an aberration — software is different, programmers are overpaid, and so on. But it's not just software; if you look carefully, there are signs of it happening everywhere. Musicians are starting to release their tracks online for free downloading, and the quantity of freely available writing on the Internet — starting with reference and non-fiction works, but now including fiction and poetry — long ago passed the point of measurability. Papers? Software is not fundamentally different from these other forms of information.

Like poems, songs, books, and movies, it can be transmitted digitally. It can be copied in whole or in part; it can be excerpted for ehrenreich cultural baggage essay use in other works; it can be modified and edited; it can even be satirized. The abandonment of copyright is farthest along in software mainly because programmers were among the casual work, first groups to ehrenreich cultural essay have Internet access, not because of application anything special about the nature of software. Gradually, creators in other areas are realizing that they too can disseminate their works without publishers or centralized distribution chains, by simply allowing the ehrenreich essay, freedom to welfare state copy. And increasingly, they are choosing to do so, because they have little to lose, and because it's the easiest way for their work to ehrenreich cultural baggage essay find its way to an appreciative audience. Far from being especially dependent on copyright law, creators gain the casual work, most by abandoning the copyright monopoly. Even in their early stages, these trends raise an obvious question.

If copyright is not really needed to stimulate original creation, then what purpose does it serve today? For it is quite clear that if copyright did not exist already, we wouldn't invent it now. We just finished building ourselves a gigantic copying machine (the Internet) that doubles as a communications device, and incidentally makes it convenient to transfer small amounts of money between people. Sharing is now the most natural thing in the world. The idea that artists are somehow harmed by it is demonstrated false every day, by the thousands of new works that appear online, credited and fully acknowledged by their authors, yet free for the taking.

If someone were to barbara cultural essay argue that creativity would soon dry up unless we immediately institute a system of strict controls over who can copy what, we could reasonably look on research, them as insane. Yet, in barbara cultural slightly more diplomatic language, this is essentially the argument used by the copyright lobby to press for ever stronger laws. Creativity is not what's at stake here, and in its more honest moments the publishing industry even tacitly admits this. Although for public relations purposes industry leaders make token declarations about the need for poor artists to earn a living, their most detailed and compelling statements are usually about the business effects of university application copyright. Larry Kenswil of Universal Music Group, the barbara, world's largest record company, was quoted in the New York Times of Jan. 5th, 2003, in an article about digital copy protection schemes, saying You're not buying music, you're buying a key. That's what digital rights management does: it enables business models. It's hard to imagine a more succinct statement of the industry credo. He might as well have said That's what copyright does: it enables business models. Unfortunately, not all of the propaganda put out by the industry is as straightforward and honest as Kenswil's.

The Recording Industry Association of essay America, for example, explains copyright this way on their web site at barbara ehrenreich baggage http://www.riaa.org/: You don't need to be a lawyer to be a musician, but you do need to university application uk know one legal term — copyright. To all creative artists — poets, painters, novelists, dancers, directors, actors, musicians, singers, and songwriters — the term matters dearly. To all artists, copyright is more than a term of cultural essay intellectual property law that prohibits the unauthorized duplication, performance or distribution of a creative work. Welfare? To them, copyright means the chance to hone their craft, experiment, create, and thrive. It is a vital right, and over the centuries artists have fought to preserve that right; artists such as John Milton, William Hogarth, Mark Twain, and Charles Dickens.

Twain traveled to England to protect his rights, and Dickens came to ehrenreich baggage essay America to how to start a common app essay do the same. Recognize that? It's a page straight out of the barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage essay, Stationers' playbook — an undisguised retelling of the ph d papers, copyright myth, complete with references to individual authors, designed to arouse our support for struggling artists valiantly fighting for their artistic integrity. Apparently, all those artists throughout history who did just fine without copyright aren't included in cultural baggage all creative artists as far as the RIAA is concerned. Casual Work? Professor Patterson's comments, about the barbara cultural baggage essay, Stationers' similar use of ph d research papers authors as a foil in front of the eighteenth century English parliament, are equally applicable today: They [the Stationers] did so by barbara ehrenreich, arguments intended to elicit sympathy for the author (conveniently ignoring their role in creating the poor plight of the author that they bemoaned) and avoided sound logic and reason. [11]. The next paragraph in the RIAA's introduction to copyright is ph d even worse. It's a brief — very brief — introduction to the origins of copyright law, heavy with the cadence of historical inevitability, but rather loose with the barbara cultural baggage, facts: Copyright law all started with the The Statute of Anne, the world's first copyright law passed by the British Parliament in 1709. Yet the principle of protecting the ph d research, rights of artists predates this. It may sound like dry history at first blush, but since there was precedent to establish and barbara cultural baggage, rights to casual work protect, much time, effort, and money has been spent in barbara cultural baggage legal battles over the centuries. This breathless summary is the copyright equivalent of Christopher Columbus sailed to how to America to prove the barbara ehrenreich cultural, Earth was round and make friends with the Indians.

Yes, much money has indeed been spent in welfare state legal battles, but the RIAA is careful not to say who spent it, nor are any further details given about the barbara baggage, principle of protecting the rights of research papers artists that is alleged to predate these developments. The rest of their page continues in a similar vein, with so many omissions, mischaracterizations, and outright lies that it's hard to imagine how anyone doing even a modicum of research could have written it. It is, basically, low-grade supporting propaganda in their ongoing campaign to convince the public that copyright is as fundamental to civilization as the barbara cultural baggage, laws of thermodynamics. The RIAA also indulges in one of the favorite tactics of the essay system usa, modern copyright lobby: equating illegal copying with the unrelated, and much more serious, offense of plagiarism. For example, Hilary Rosen, the (now former) head of the RIAA, used to speak at schools and barbara cultural baggage essay, colleges, urging the students to adopt the industry's views about information ownership. Here is university essay uk her own description of how she presents the case: Analogies are what really work best. I ask them, What have you done last week?

They may say they wrote a paper on this or that. So I tell them, Oh, you wrote a paper, and you got an A? Would it bother you if somebody could just take that paper and get an A too? Would that bug you? So this sense of barbara cultural personal investment does ring true with people. Since people who duplicate CDs do not usually replace the artist's name with their own, let's ask the question Hilary Rosen should have asked: Would it bother you if somebody could just show a copy of your paper around, so other people could benefit from what you wrote, and see that you got an A? Of course, the students would have answered No, we aren't bothered by that at all, which isn't what Rosen wanted to hear. The RIAA is extreme only in university application essay the clumsiness of their propaganda.

Their message is, in ehrenreich baggage essence, the same one offered by the rest of the copyright industry, which maintains a constant drumbeat of warnings that online content swapping will deprive creators of casual work their reputations and their ability to work, despite overwhelming evidence that copyright never provided them with much of a livelihood anyway, and that they would happily continue to create without it as long as they have a way to ehrenreich cultural baggage distribute their works. The campaign might sound harmless or silly when described as I have described it here, but because they are fighting for survival, with large budgets and how to a common, skilled publicity departments, the publishers have succeeded in shaping public opinion to a surprising degree. Consider this poor woman, from the barbara ehrenreich essay, International Herald Tribune of essay system Sep. 11th, 2003, in cultural baggage an article about the of why the, RIAA file-sharing lawsuits: One woman who has received a subpoena from the baggage, recording industry association said she had struggled to explain to her 13-year-old son why file-sharing was wrong. I said, 'Suppose you wrote a song and a famous rock group sang it and you didn't get paid,' said the mother, who declined to give her name because of her legal situation. He said: 'I wouldn't care. That would be awesome.' They're still just in that young age where money doesn't matter. The mother said she had better results when she compared taking someone's song to plagiarizing a school paper. (One can only hope the sensible 13-year-old manages to keep his head, when so many around him are apparently losing theirs.)

The combination of a still-sympathetic public and of why the, deep pockets has unfortunately allowed the copyright industry to exercise dangerous influence at the legislative level. Barbara? The result is a disturbing trend: mutually reinforcing physical and legal barriers that, while ostensibly designed to combat illegal copying, have the a common, inevitable effect of interfering with all copying. Cultural Baggage? Digital copy-protection schemes are increasingly enforced by your computer's hardware itself, rather than by research, malleable and replaceable programs. And the same companies that own content often also manufacture the hardware that makes distribution possible. Have you bought a computer from Sony? What about a CD from Sony's music division? That's the same company, and its left hand knows what its right hand is doing. With government cooperation, this combination becomes even more powerful. In the United States we now have a law — the barbara ehrenreich, Digital Millennium Copyright Act — that makes it illegal to circumvent a digital protection scheme, or even to produce software that helps others circumvent a digital protection scheme.

Unfortunately, since much hardware and software automatically imprints such schemes on any media it produces, the Act effectively stifles authorized copying and many other activities that would otherwise fall into university uk the category of fair use under current copyright law. It is vital to understand that these side effects are not accidents, not unexpected consequences of an otherwise well-intentioned effort to protect artists. Ehrenreich Cultural Baggage? Rather, they are an integral part of a strategy that, at bottom, has nothing to university application uk do with encouraging creativity. The purpose of this three-pronged industry effort — the barbara ehrenreich, publicity campaign, the legal campaign, and the hardware protections — is simply this: to prevent the essay welfare, Internet experiment from being carried out to completion. Any organization that is deeply invested in the concept of essay copy control cannot be pleased to see a system arise that makes copying as easy as clicking a mouse. To the extent possible, such organizations would like to see the same pay-per-copy model that we've been using for centuries continue, even though the fundamental physics of essay of why information have changed to cultural baggage essay make pay-per-copy obsolete.

Although the copyright lobby succeeds in getting new laws passed, and essay care, even in barbara baggage winning some court cases, these victories rest on a disintegrating foundation. How much longer will the public continue to believe in the copyright myth, the notion that copyright was invented to make creative work possible? The myth has been maintainable so far because it always had a tiny a grain of truth: although copyright was not inspired by authors, and was not enacted to casual work protect them, it did enable the widespread distribution of many original works. Furthermore, there are still many publishers (generally the barbara baggage, smaller or individually-owned ones) who behave with an admirable sense of the cultural stewardship, subsidizing unprofitable but important works with money earned by stronger sellers, sometimes even losing money outright in order to print things they think worthwhile. But because they are all bound by the economics of large-scale printing, they are all ultimately dependent on copyright. There won't be a dramatic battle between the barbara ehrenreich baggage essay, publishing industry and university application essay, the copying public, with a climax, a denouement, and a clear winner striding out barbara ehrenreich cultural essay of the dust. Of Why? Instead, what we will see — are already seeing — is the emergence of two parallel streams of creative work: the proprietary stream, and the free stream. Barbara Ehrenreich Cultural Baggage? Every day, more people join the free stream, of application uk their own volition, for all sorts of reasons. Some enjoy the fact that there are no gatekeepers, no artificial barriers. A work can succeed by its merits and word of mouth alone: although there's nothing to stop traditional marketing techniques from being used in cultural essay the free stream, there's less to ph d research subsidize them, so word of ehrenreich cultural essay mouth and peer-review networks are taking on ph d research papers, a greater importance there.

Others enter the free stream as crossovers from the proprietary, releasing a portion of their work into ehrenreich cultural essay the free domain as an advertisement or an usa experiment. Some simply realize that they have no chance of barbara essay success in start a common app essay the proprietary world anyway, and figure they might as well release what they have to the public. As the stream of freely available material gets bigger, its stigma will slowly vanish. It used to be that the difference between a published author and an unpublished one was that you could obtain the former's books, but not the latter's. Being published meant something.

It had an aura of respectability; it implied that someone had judged your work and given it an institutional stamp of approval. But now the difference between published and unpublished is narrowing. Soon, being published will mean nothing more than that an editor somewhere found your work worthy of a large-scale print run, and possibly a marketing campaign. Barbara Ehrenreich Cultural? This may affect the popularity of the work, but it won't fundamentally affect its availability; and there will be so many unpublished but worthwhile works, that the lack of a publishing pedigree will no longer be considered an automatic strike against an author. Although the free stream does not use traditional copyright, it does observe, and unofficially enforce, a credit right. Works are frequently copied and health system, excerpted with attribution — but attempts to steal credit are usually detected speedily, and decried publicly. The same mechanisms that make copying easy make plagiarism very difficult. It's hard to secretly use someone else's work when a Google search can quickly locate the original. For example, teachers now routinely do Google searches on representative phrases when they suspect plagiarism in student papers. The proprietary stream cannot survive forever, in baggage the face of such competition.

The abolition of of why the copyright law is optional; the real force here is barbara baggage creators freely choosing to essay uk release their works for unrestricted copying, because it's in their interests to do so. At some point, it will be obvious that all the interesting stuff is cultural essay going on in the free stream, and people will simply cease dipping into the proprietary one. Copyright law may remain on the books formally, but it will fade away in practice, atrophied from casual work disuse. Or, we can sit back and allow this process to be halted, by permitting manufacturers to build in ehrenreich cultural baggage essay hardware protections that interfere with our ability to copy legitimately; by allowing the copyright lobby to capture our legislatures, to the point where we are constantly looking over essay health care our shoulders for the copyright police; and by hesitating to use the free stream to its full potential, because we've been taught a false story of what copyright is all about. We can, if we choose, have a world where concepts like out of print or rare book are not only obsolete, but actually meaningless.

We can live in a fertile and vibrant garden of constantly evolving works, created by people who wanted deeply to make them available, not mandated by a publisher's market research. Schools would never be forced to barbara ehrenreich essay stay with out-of-date textbooks because of the essay health care system, per-copy prices set by publishers, and your computer would always let you share songs with your friends. One way to get there is to question the copyright myth. Copying isn't theft, and it isn't piracy. It's what we did for millennia until the invention of copyright, and we can do it again, if we don't hobble ourselves with the antiquated remnants of a censorship system from the sixteenth century.

This article is released under free copyright, and may be redistributed, excerpted, and modified without restriction. If you distribute a modified version, please adjust the attribution accordingly. [1] These events can be read in any history of copyright. A good online resource regarding their legal implications is Copyright And `The Exclusive Right' Of Authors http://digitalcommons.law.uga.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1342context=fac_artchop Journal of Intellectual Property, Vol. Ehrenreich Essay? 1, No.1, Fall 1993, by Professor Lyman Ray Patterson, Pope Brock Professor of Law at the University of Georgia and a noted copyright scholar. His description of this earliest copyright is welfare state concise and revealing: The event in the history of Anglo-American copyright that led to barbara ehrenreich essay the shaping events of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was the casual work, Charter of the barbara cultural baggage, Stationers' Company granted in how to start 1556 by Philip and Mary . Ehrenreich Baggage Essay? The Charter gave the stationers the power to make ordinances, provisions, and statutes for the governance of the art or mistery of [s]tationery, as well as the power to search out illegal presses and books and things with the power of seizing, taking, or burning the research papers, foresaid books or things, or any of them printed or to barbara essay be printed contrary to the form of any statute, act, or proclamation . The power to burn offending books was a benefit to the sovereign (a weapon against unlawful publications), and a boon to the stationers (a weapon against competition).

The book-burning power thus shows the real motivation for casual work the Charter, to secure the barbara, allegiance of the stationers as policemen of the press for the sovereign in essay an uncertain world. (Note that the Company actually received its royal charter on May 4, 1557; thus one sometimes sees 1556 and other times 1557 as the date for the incorporation of the Company of Stationers.) [2] An Unhurried View of Copyright, Benjamin Kaplan Columbia University Press, 1967, pp. 4-5. [3] Patterson, in [1], goes so far as to barbara baggage say The characterization of the statutory copyright as an author's copyright, however, is one of the great canards of history. [6] Five Hundred Years of Printing pp. 218-230, S. H. Steinberg, Penguin Books, 1955, revised 1961. [7] When I started this article, I assumed such developments were a few years away from casual work commercial viability, but I was wrong: the print-on-demand service newspaperkiosk.com launched (note: it later apparently folded, but then came lulu.com, which is still going strong). [8] See www.mp3.com, for cultural baggage essay one example. (Although many of the offerings on the site are nominally copyrighted, it's more a legal reflex than anything else. The tracks are meant to be freely downloaded, listened to, and shared -- and system usa, that's exactly what people do with them.) [9] The original version of barbara cultural baggage essay this article called this the Threshold Pledge system. However, Brandt Cannici of strayform.com, who independently invented the same system, came up with the much better name Fund and Release , and application uk, I now try to use that term instead.

[10] For a description of one funding technique, and a survey of barbara baggage essay others, see The Street Performer Protocol and Digital Copyrights by John Kelsey and application uk, Bruce Schneier, at http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/673/583. [11] Patterson; see [1]. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sat, 2006-05-27 13:24. Thanks for this brilliant treat. Very illuminating and inspiring. I love it. I like the idea of barbara baggage essay uncovering this copyright myth. Die Gedanken sind frei, as we say or sing it in German, meaning thoughts are free. Thank you very much!

Spread the word. Copyright is the of why the, nemesis of free toughts. Submitted by barbara ehrenreich essay, Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2007-06-17 04:24. For me Copyright is system like Sony and Microsoft anti trust companies.We can benefit from working together not against each other.Law suit in America loose some 500 billions dollar a year. Essay? Imagine how many book we could be buy with that kind of money. Most of the laws around us are for the benefit of the few.I will pay gladly 15$ to ph d papers an author if I have to. There's to many distributor and middle man in this world. And we have to pay taxes on top of that.And the barbara ehrenreich cultural essay, lawsuit profit not the individual but the corporation. So long live the internet. Live free and prosper that my saying.

Submitted by welfare state, Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2008-05-22 13:41. Apart from the middle man and ehrenreich cultural, distributors its probably Lawyers who benefit the most from these **laws**. You can neither create, implement or enforce the ph d research papers, copyright without them. One only barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage essay has to look at the case of RIM ( Blackberry ) in Canada who was forced to pay 600 Million to what was in essence a group of 30+ lawyers who pro bono backed a patent that was actually overthrown in court ( but not before RIM was told to pay ). This is university application not an isolated example where a claim jumper has been given a ridiculous patent by the patent office ( who frequently revokes them after they are challenged ) My uncle, who is somewhat of an economist, likes to ehrenreich essay say that lawyers are one of the very few professional groups who do not contribute to the gross national product of a country. I am not against lawyers, they are a useful bunch. But like many government employees ( which they are not ) when allowed, too many of them actively attempt to health care system usa overvalue their services within the scope or measurement of a country's forward economic progress. Submitted by barbara ehrenreich baggage, Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2008-06-08 12:14. I agree very much with the previous poster. How many lawsuits are brought up about the copyright a year.

The millions of dollars which are thrown at law companies around the world to up hold a 'companies' intellectual rights is pathetic to say the least. The only person who truely has a right to claim stack is the writer, producer artist. I qould pay my way to anyone who does work for barbara baggage essay me. If they provide a service like my electric or water company I pay them. But what do these middle men companies do? They look out for essay health themselve and ehrenreich cultural baggage essay, only themselve. It is time the power was taken away from the big corperations and casual work, given back to the people who really deserve to be paid. Those who created it in the first place. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2008-06-09 14:34. Today, I note that RedHat Founder Bob Young also weighed in on the copyright issue : A new open source software group has added its voice to the opposition against cultural the Conservative government’s ( Canada )impending copyright reform bill. Lulu CEO Bob Young likens the legislation to the banning screwdrivers because they could be used by burglars.

Young said the proposed bill will cater too heavily to the content industry and not to the engineers and software developers that are going to be most severely impacted by the new laws. The proposed anti-circumvention legislation, he said, is similar to barbara ehrenreich baggage making the use and uk, ownership of screw-drivers and pliers illegal because they can be used to commit crimes such as burglary. Incidently, this entire conversation takes place within a Canadian Context. “The copyright philosophy behind the U.S. DMCA is that it’s illegal to do what software engineers do every day of the week and what they’ll have to continue to do in order to build better technology for all companies,” Bob Young, spokesperson for the Canadian Software Innovation Alliance (CSIA) and a former founder and CEO at Red Hat Inc., said. Barbara Cultural Baggage? “The biggest concern is ph d research we’re going to have law substitute for good technology.

We’re crafting these laws without having anyone from the technology industry engaged in ehrenreich cultural baggage the process.” The complete article is here itworldCanada.com. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2008-09-21 17:48. Responding to: I'm not sure the copyright industry uses [the term, intellectual property] deliberately to confuse people Given the way in research which the industry is definitely trying to muddy the waters by equating copyright infringement with theft, I think it is reasonable to cultural baggage assume that they are deliberately relying on the loaded nature of the term, intellectual property, as part of the same general drive to entrench the idea into university application uk the public consciousness that copyright is a morality-based system. Why? Because the term inherently draws on existing conceptions of property in order to imply that creative works are naturally owned by their creators, who therefore have an inherent right to assert such ownership and control the works' distribution. The term attempts to cultural baggage link creative works with personal and essay state, real property, the ownership and control of which already tends to be perceived as being the product of a natural right that results from barbara cultural baggage its possession.

This leads us on to one of the other big things the industry never admits: while it likes to imply that creators of works are both the natural and legal owners of them (prior to transferring that ownership to corporations, of course), in fact neither is the case. How To A Common App Essay? They don't own the works legally because copyright law does not assign such ownership to *works*; the property that copyright law creates is the copyright itself. And they don't own the works naturally because it is impossible for *anyone* to own intangible things like songs or films or novels. If I sing you the song I just wrote I can't possibly exert any dominion over those sound waves - it's not like I can tell you to unhear the song and give them back to barbara ehrenreich essay me - and such dominion is necessary for anything to be described as property in any meaningful sense. So not only do I think the industry is deliberately using intellectual property as part of the same semantic manipulation as arguments like, copying songs is stealing music, they're also using it to create a class of health care property that does not exist legally and cannot exist naturally.

[lightly edited by the site editors] Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2009-01-30 10:01. Thank you very much for this useful article and the comments. I love this site as it contains good materials. if it looks like a socialist and acts like a socialist. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Tue, 2009-06-02 03:22. SO if someone would be kind enough to explain to ehrenreich me how robbing the most successful artists (however small you'd like to imagine that demographic is. )of their copyright-afforded paychecks, in essence dragging them back down to how to start a common the level of cultural essay a common street performer is in anyway NOT tantamount to how to start app essay wealth distribution and forced socialism? . Ehrenreich Cultural Essay? i assume any such answers will themselves carry the same wretched stink of patchouli and idealism that the article immediately reeked of -- but i am willing to be surprised. i would also love to hear the reasons why freely-released works and proprietary works can't coexist in casual work harmony? under evil, oppressive copyright, people are still able to self-publish, to blog, to post their creations for everyone. for free, if they wish. everyone has the ehrenreich cultural essay, RIGHT to not utilize copyright. so what's the problem?

is it just good old-fashioned JEALOUSY that's given rise to this copyright abolitionist movement? a few artists make money, where most of the talentless, indiscernible, AVERAGE masses do not? could that be why, despite the fact that the collected works of britney spears, steven spielberg, and j.k rowling have absolutely NOTHING to a common app essay do with the failed, hobbyist or otherwise obscure artists, you still want to strip them of their rights? even though their considerable wealth has as much to do with you, as your considerable obscurity has to do with them? well how dare they be successful! the cultural baggage essay, abolitionists say. A Common? artists shouldn't be rich! if they wanted to get rich they should have gone into investment banking! i have a second job to pay the bills, so should steven spielberg! if i haven't gotten rich from art then OBVIOUSLY IT IS AN INJUSTICE AGAINST HUMANITY THAT ANYONE ELSE HAS! manufactured conflict, born out of jealousy. check. i think most people familiar with the internet would agree -- that an equally minuscule portion of derivative works end up being worth their cost in bandwidth (let alone actually matching the quality of the creations they ripped off. Barbara Ehrenreich Baggage? err, i mean derived from). I would go so far as to say it's an EVEN SMALLER fraction in sum than those artists who actually pull in a substantive royalty check every now and again. given the rarity of a derivative work's merit, why then should the most successful artists give up their rights in favor of an even smaller minority of derivative artists who so rarely produce anything worthwhile? by your own socialist logic, they shouldn't. furthermore, when you state that very few artists actually make their living through copyright you of course completely ignore all the artists who make their living INDIRECTLY through copyright via upfront payments doled out by those companies who directly make money through copyright. and despite whatever fantasy you've convinced yourself of, that's a pretty substantive body of health system usa people you are discounting and seeking to dismantle; especially when you consider the countless corollary jobs in the music and film industries who also indirectly benefit from the trickle down effect of copyright. not all content creators are created alike. some are more successful than others as some voices are more inclined to a wider appeal than others. there's room for the hobbyists and the professionals to coexist peacefully so long as they respect each other. as much as your views disgust me, i wish you luck with your creative commons endeavors and hope that one day you stop trying to prosecute those of us lucky enough do this professionally, who DO BENEFIT FROM COPYRIGHT, and who, above all else, DO NOT want to become investment bankers in order to feed our families. Re: if it looks like a socialist and acts like a socialist. You are living in a fantasyland of imaginary economics. Copyright doesn't pay for most creativity, and was never designed to.

Furthermore, copyright is precisely a state-granted monopoly, an interference with an otherwise free market. I'm not sure socialism is a bad thing, but you seem to think it is, and copyright is barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage essay much closer to it than freedom-to-copy would be. Start A Common? The latter would mean a truly free market, rather than the monopoly landscape we have now. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2009-12-09 20:42. Yeah I get it. I understand what your saying. Sorry, I am a creative professional. I would, and will copyright my work. Yes I want to get paid for it. It's my job why shouldn't I? I think it's dumb to just give away everything you work hard for.

That is what you are doing when you choose to not protect your work. You leave it open for ehrenreich cultural essay everyone including pirates. You know I could literally take Sita Sings the essay, Blues right now burn it on to DVDs, distribute it, sell it, and heck why not claim it's mine. How do you like that? I would earn all the barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage, money and essay, attention from the sales and you get nothing. You wouldn't even have a legal claim. Why should anyone credit the artist who fails to barbara ehrenreich cultural copyright? Hell, not to ph d papers mention why should anyone even donate when you give it to public domain? I wouldn't. I'd steal public domain and not credit the creative. Too late to change your mind now.

It's on ehrenreich essay, the internet now. Things placed freely on the internet get distributed freely forever. Plagiarism is both easily detected and easily prosecuted. It's unrelated to essay health care system copying -- when people download songs from the Internet and share them with their friends illegally, do they remove the barbara, artist's name and how to app essay, replace it with their own? No, they don't.

Copyright isn't about credit, it's about copying. That's why it's called copyright, not creditright. Submitted by ehrenreich cultural essay, Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2009-12-14 12:41. No it is of why not! Ever hear of P2P? It is related to copying. I know a lot of kids who do change the names of music around just so they are not caught with an illegal download. Ehrenreich Cultural Baggage Essay? Also you can change your IP which make tracking thieves and pirates impossible.

Learn about the internet. Copyright is about credit and the protection of creativity that is why it's called copyright. It's people like you that make it impossible to make a living as professional creative in this world. Your the reason why rates and royalties shrink. You give away something for free not only will everybody take it, they will expect you to give away your work for free all the time. Please quit trying to supress creativity the the protection thereof. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2011-03-23 06:37. We are living in a world where bleach-blonde fashion bimbos make a good living blithering about nonessential crap on of why, their free-to-access blogs, and where you can sell bottled water at a thousand times the production price with a brand name alone. Now here's a tip; Evian doesn't feel their market ended when the Soda Streamer was introduced and artists who have amassed a faithful fan base have managed to sell the same work they gave away for ehrenreich cultural baggage essay free in health care usa the millions. Trent Reznor alone netted a gross 5 mil in one year from the sale of one measly record alone, which he'd already given away to all and sundry for free.

Tiger Woods doesn't recoup the cost of living and travel from his tournaments. Which doesn't prevent his every step from going ka-ching as another thousand bucks drops into his pocket from Nike and ehrenreich essay, Adidas. Or did until he mishandled his brand. Copyright doesn't work in any reality. It's as simple as that. At least where noncommercial filesharing is concerned, most IP laws are completely incompatible with any paradigm which allows the university, ownership of a computer or a mass media communications medium like the internet. Ehrenreich Cultural Baggage? If you want to how to start put an end to copyright infringement your one and only way of doing so in any practical way is by removing the internet and barbara ehrenreich cultural, computers altogether. End of story. What that means is simple. To live as an artist, find another revenue model which actually works in the real world.

If you can't manage to do so simply don't quit your day job. Honestly, I've had it up to ph d here with straw man arguments and outright lies. 99% of ehrenreich cultural essay what we call culture was created entirely without the benefit of copyright law so your arguments have no basis in fact. What's even more laughable is that you think some small cadre of pirates (people like you, indeed, heh) are sitting around ruining your entire life and livelyhood. Essay Of Why? I'm afraid it's a bit worse than that. Human nature itself is what you're up against. I humbly submit to you that any system where enough people voluntarily will follow your paradigm on copyright is barbara ehrenreich a system where theorethical communism also becomes a practical possibility. I.e. for all intents, a world where humanity has ceased to be recognizably human.

No, managing to essay of why the live from being an artist alone isn't like a 9-to-5 office job. It's about being outstanding in barbara cultural your field, much like a professional athlete. Essay? If you have that quality earning revenues through your brand will be no problem. If you don't, find another field to earn your way in. It's that simple. Submitted by barbara essay, Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2011-03-23 06:45. And I'll tell you something else. Socialism fails at all levels simply because it assumes that human nature can be changed.

Copyright fails because it does the same. Capitalism, at it's most basic level is founded on one assumption and one alone; The law of Supply and Demand . If you can obtain or manufacture a copy of anything for literally no cost at all then the monetary worth of said copy becomes zero as the supply is de facto infinite whereas the health care system, number of consumers with the demand for said product is limited. Copyright, in essence, shares more of old stale socialist ideals than anything else, right up to and including the ehrenreich cultural baggage essay, view on controlled information. Which is true for almost any IP law in general. The idea that IP belongs under a capitalist system at all is nothing more than a convenient excuse thought up by special interests who were deathly afraid of having to act under a market paradigm in casual work the first place. So what you're saying is: copyright laws are causing people to strip attribution information from works. That sounds like an argument against copyright, not for barbara essay it. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2010-02-03 01:24. I am a creative professional. I would, and essay care system usa, will copyright my work. Yes I want to get paid for it.

It's my job why shouldn't I? I think it's dumb to just give away everything you work hard for. (ed. note: Is comment spamming now a creative profession? You did just give your creative work away for free. Barbara Essay? And then I removed the university application essay uk, commercial link.) Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2008-01-03 10:55. I agree with yo, article is realy useful.

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on barbara cultural essay, Wed, 2008-03-26 10:59. typo in the promise of a post-copyright world Submitted by care, Anonymous (not verified) on Sat, 2006-08-05 21:48. hi, just a quick comment to point out a typo. in the para where you mentioon fay weldon, it reads: Not all methods will be so pleasantly high-minded, of course. Barbara Cultural Essay? A couple of app essay years ago, the barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage essay, established author Fay Weldon famously accepted money from Bulgari jewelry to write a novel that featured that featured Bulgari products prominently. note that that featured is repeated. Re: typo in app essay the promise of a post-copyright world Thanks for pointing it out! Fixed now. Submitted by cultural baggage essay, Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2008-01-28 11:19.

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2006-08-14 07:36. I've just recommended this article on essay, my blog www.digitalproductions.co.uk, and added the site to my list of 'principles'. Note that the www.digitalartauction.com once reached prototype stage - this enabled a member of the ehrenreich, audience to propose a retail price and pledge to how to start purchase the barbara baggage, work if so priced (or lower). Casual Work? The artist could then choose the retail price that maximised total revenue. A far simpler version of this site has been created www.quidmusic.com. I'm currently working on a general purpose engine (free to use) that can support these sites and those that anyone else can think of: www.contingencymarket.com. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2008-06-15 11:23. It certainly sounds good in theory, any updates on progress with that model - is it commercially viable?

The Digital Art Auction has now been implemented by a company called PropagateLtd. The Contingency Market will be demonstrated by a site called 1p2U.com that lets readers pledge a penny to ehrenreich a blogger each time they publish a new article. Essay Welfare State? I expect this to happen early 2009. microPledge.com is essay another site worth checking out (based on the Street Performer Protocol). As to whether these things are commercially viable, time will tell. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2008-06-27 10:48. A misunderstanding with our domain registrar has caused Propagate Ltd to move its web site from PropagateLtd.com to LiberateIP.com. Sadly, until we can afford domain arbitration, the obsolete domain name will lead you to an ad-ware/mal-ware site run by essay of why the, a Russian cyber-squatter. :(

Jeffry R. Barbara Ehrenreich Cultural? Fisher. President, Propagate Digital Content, Limited. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2007-03-21 00:11. I would think that the university essay uk, notion of Free software as essentially public domain would come as a surprise to Richard Stallman. Without copyright, the single most important requirement in the GPL -- requiring a program's source code to ehrenreich baggage essay be made available whenever it is copied or distributed in executable form -- would be unenforceable. While its true that some other Free software licenses (BSD, MIT, etc.) use copyright in the largely insignificant ways that you mention in your article, that is not true for all of them, and certainly not for casual work the GPL.

To point to Stallman and his Free software movement and say, See, these guys don't need copyright! is disingenuous at best. Re: Essentially in the public domain? guyjohnston already said exactly what I would have said. Free software (open source software) does not depend on copyright's existence in any fundamental way. The fact that in an armed world everyone needs guns is not an argument in favor of guns in barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage essay general! Also: not everyone would agree that the of why, requiring a program's source code to be made available whenever it is copied or distributed in executable form is the single most important provision in the GPL. It's certainly been a controversial provision, but when I watch the dynamics of GPL'd software projects, I do not see them differing significantly from other open source (but non-GPL'd) projects. Do you, and if so how?

In an essay about copyright in general, detouring into the details of one clause of the GPL would have brought no benefit to the reader. I think that at the level of detail at barbara essay which I was writing, the the, description essentially in the public domain was both accurate and barbara cultural essay, appropriate. Re: Essentially in the public domain? Submitted by how to start a common, Anonymous (not verified) on barbara ehrenreich baggage, Fri, 2010-05-14 01:00. Requiring a program's source code to be made available whenever it is copied or distributed in executable form is indeed the key provision in the GPL. Essay The? While some may chose the GPL over other licences for no reason other than it's popular and they don't know better, others explicitly chose the GPL in order to restrict how the software may be used.

For example, Bruno Haible chose to barbara cultural baggage essay license libgmp uner the essay health, GPL because, in his own words, Building libgmp.a was just too hard work. Barbara Ehrenreich Essay? Other people shouldn't get it for free. The GPL is actually against the stance expressed in this article. It grates to hear Stallman described as originating open source both for that reason and because software for state personal computers and its source code had been freely distributed for many years before Stallman came along. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sat, 2007-03-24 12:37. This is cultural baggage a copy of my post about this article from Slashdot, but I think the critical commentary is worthy of cross-posting: I'm replying to this post because of this statement (the rest of the parent spends its time either misinterpreting what I said in my last post (http://politics.slashdot.org/comments.pl?sid=227979threshold=1commentsort=0mode=threadcid=18470807) or putting words in my mouth, and care, I think my original post speaks for itself).

The article that it's linked to is a very interesting one, it expands on the role of the Stationer's Log (which is a form of copyright protection predating the Act of Queen Anne), but it has a certain tunnel vision and spin that often appears in the extremist grass-roots anti-copyright movement, and I think that it's worth looking at it critically. When you'll read it, you'll find an important assertion: that authors didn't have copyright protection before, so why would they suddenly need it? This is baggage very misleading for a couple of health reasons: 1. It's a rather spurious historical argument, mainly because it's not taking the baggage essay, context of how to app essay society into account. In my original post, I noted that our modern society has three things - literacy as a norm, technology to reproduce art, and a focus on capitalism. The society of the Stationer's log had a growing literacy, and the technology, but capitalism was still emerging. Creative artists made their living not through proceeds of publication, but instead through a system of patronage where a noble patron would pay the artist a stipend to compose work in his/her honour. It wasn't a great system, partly because you had to baggage essay tow the of why, line your patron wanted you to, but at least it kept a roof over your head. Society is not a static system, however. By the time the first proper copyright act was written in 1709, a capitalist system was emerging, and by barbara baggage essay, the end of the 19th century, the patronage system was completely gone - it was now all capitalist. Ph D Research Papers? So, creators may not have needed a copyright system at cultural baggage the very beginning, but there are no wealthy patrons around today, and an author's income is derived from university royalties.

2. It is a very questionable moral argument, partly because it assumes that the situation was fair when the Stationer's Log was established, and it really wasn't. If I said that homosexuals have never had gay marriage in the past, and it didn't stop them from shacking up then, so why should they need it now? everybody would immediately see the injustice. The argument the barbara baggage essay, article makes is very much the essay health system usa, same. Cultural Essay? Correcting an injustice is always good. And there is this: Authors, having never had copyright, saw no reason now to suddenly demand the rather paradoxical power to university application prevent the spread of barbara ehrenreich baggage their own works, and did not do so. This is one of the most common arguments put into play for the abolition of casual work copyright, and it reverses the very idea of modern copyright. It's based on ehrenreich essay, the assumption that a creator, having taken a year or so to write a novel/paint a painting, etc., immediately wants to make certain that nobody ever sees it. What copyright does is allow the essay the, creator to set the cultural essay, terms by which the work is distributed, so that a publisher doesn't shaft him/her, and if a third party circumvents those terms, to be able to take some reasonable action against them.

It isn't prevention - it's creator's rights. It's also spin along the sames lines as marriage is a terrible thing because it keeps you from dating other people - basically, focusing on one negative while ignoring the context and all of the casual work, positives. So, when you read the linked article, please keep in mind that part of it is rhetoric, and facts are taken out of cultural baggage context. Care System? But, the historical details are quite nice, and fill in some of the ehrenreich cultural baggage essay, details quite well. Author, the EverQuest Companion, Garwulf's Corner, Diablo: Demonsbane.

Thanks for the long and thoughtful comment, Robert. We're certainly not trying for spin here, so let me address your points one by one: You say that patronage was gone by the end of the 19th century, and that there are no wealthy patrons around today, and an author's income is derived from royalties. This is just not true. Some author's livings may come from research royalties, but not all. Open up a lot of books and you'll see in the acknowledgements that the author thanks the Ford Foundation, or the MacArthur Foundation, or whomever. Patronage not only wasn't gone by of the barbara ehrenreich cultural, 19th century, it isn't even gone today! Not even a majority of writers earn their living through copyright royalties (although of essay of why the course assertions like that always end up getting bogged down in definitional issues, like who counts as a writer). It is barbara ehrenreich baggage essay not an accurate portrayal of economic reality to care system imply that most authors earn their living through copyright. They don't, and barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage, I think if you honestly consider the of why, lives of authors, you'll have to admit that. Barbara Cultural? Only by defining an author as someone who earns her living from royalties can you make it be true.

The fact that you are an agented author who earns income from royalties (taking that from your original post, not your comments above) is fine, more power to you! But it is not really connected to the argument I'm making in essay the essay. The important question for society is not Do some people earn significant amounts of money from copyright today? but Would the world suffer from a lack of creative output if copyright restrictions were much shorter and narrower? Unless you think it is the barbara ehrenreich, job of the government to enable a particular business model at application uk the expense of barbara ehrenreich essay other business models, in which case you might find the first question more compelling! But that's exactly what we're arguing against here.

For what it's worth, I am also a published author and a member of the Authors Guild, although, as you might guess, I strongly disagree with their lawsuit over Google Book Search. Regarding your point (2), I think you have a valid criticism of the essay there, and I should add to it some material better explaining the situation in the late seventeenth and state, early eighteenth centuries. The essay doesn't do a good enough job of barbara cultural baggage essay acknowledging that part of the purpose of the Statute of Anne was to give authors more power relative to printers — that is, to give authors a real bargaining chip that they could use to see to it that their books were printed as they wanted. In this, the Statue was successful, but note that in today's world of university application zero-cost distribution (which didn't exist then, of course) there are other, non-monopolistic methods of doing the same thing: tort law, for example. The method used by the Statue of Anne was appropriate for a world in which reliable reproduction was physically difficult to achieve and in which corrupt copies were difficult to track down: granting a statutory monopoly for printing makes sense when only the original compositor can possibly make more copies reliably anyway.

But in a world where perfect copying is the physical default (as it is on the Internet), and discovery and comparison of copies are easy, this long-term monopoly makes no sense. I also think it's spin (albeit unintentional) to talk of creator's rights in the way you do. I would say I'm talking about creator's rights too, namely, the right to build on the work of one's predecessors and cultural, peers. Here's an example. I like to play the piano, and currently I'm accompanying a singer in a cycle of songs by Franz Schubert (Die schone Mullerin). Or rather, the music is by Schubert, but the application essay uk, texts are by the poet Wilhelm Muller, who was still living when Schubert set the poems to music in 1823. Cultural Baggage Essay? In doing so, Schubert created one of the masterpieces of 19th century music; any singer who sings German classical song is at university application essay uk least familiar with the barbara ehrenreich baggage essay, set, and essay care, most have sung at least part of it. What if Schubert had had to enter into barbara ehrenreich cultural rights negotiation with Muller to set those songs? Today what he did would be a clear violation of copyright, unless he had the poet's permission. The poet might have demanded artistic veto power over casual work the settings, which in this case could have been fatal, because another composer (working in cooperation with Muller) had already set some of them once before, and Muller might have felt some loyalty to those original settings.

Of course, these concerns would only barbara cultural baggage have come up in casual work modern times; fortunately for posterity, Muller and barbara ehrenreich baggage, Schubert both lived at a time when artists were free to make use of each other's work. Schubert never asked Muller for ph d permission, and Muller apparently never even knew of Schubert's work, and even if he had, it would not have occurred to him that he had some kind of moral right to prevent Schubert from making new settings. So, it is not by barbara cultural baggage essay, any means obvious that creators should have the long-term power to control distribution or reuse of their work. Attribution? Sure, that's a no-brainer. Society is only harmed when people claim to have done something that someone else actually did.

But this isn't about attribution. It's about attributed copying and the right to make derivative works, without getting bogged down in complex negotiations that sap energy better spent on artistic concerns. There's no tunnel vision going on here; we're making a straightforward economic and social-benefit case. And I'm certainly not arguing that the Statute of Anne was a bad thing in its time. I'm simply saying we should understand it for what it was, in historical context , and of why the, that we shouldn't preserve its restrictions into an entirely different technological era. Submitted by barbara ehrenreich baggage, Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2007-04-30 04:02. Very powerful and inspiring article. Welfare? Thanks a lot! I recently listened to a podcast produced and made public by the Carnegie Council (http://www.cceia.org/).

Joseph Stiglitz was on, talking on barbara ehrenreich, making globalization work. I liked one of the passages a lot and thought it might be worth sharing: As another example, around the same time I was in Taiwan for a conference and I had a little time to go to a bookstore. Again, I had heard that Taiwanese publishers were engaged in a lot of pirating. Essay Health Care System Usa? As I walked through the bookstore, I had a little debate in my mind: Would I be unhappier if when I got to the bookstore they had pirated my book and had stolen my property, my intellectual property; or if they hadn't stolen my book, because if they hadn't stolen my book, that meant that my ideas were not being disseminated, they had ignored me. By the time I got to the bookstore, I had finished the debate and barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage, I decided that I really wanted them to ph d research have stolen my book.

And they had. So I actually felt very pleased. Academics believe in the importance of spreading ideas. Thomas Jefferson talked about it much more poetically than I can. It's in the Jefferson Memorial. Barbara? He said that knowledge is like a candle; that when one candle lights another it doesn't diminish from the first candle. Taken from http://www.cceia.org/resources/transcripts/5397.html.

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2007-05-06 22:54. First and foremost, I do not consider the demonisation and scape-goating of research corporations as a legitimate excuse for abolishing copyright. Ehrenreich? Life is more complicated than that. It isn't simply a case of the downtrodden consumer/artist vs. the essay, powerful and evil content publishers. It's not simply a case of what's good for the content publisher is bad for me. You can't convince me that it is wrong to sympathise because plays into the industry's hands. Such assertions are intellectually dishonest, and barbara cultural essay, often are used to hide sensible motivations behind the casual work, actions. For example, claiming copyright was designed by distributors, to subsidize distributors not creators is as disingenuous as claiming corporations are solely in the business of making money, or a human's purpose in life is to reproduce. While it is true on a certain level, it essentially covers up other equally important truths. One such truth is barbara ehrenreich essay that copyright was created, partially, for the artists, and for society and its culture.

Ultimately, it does not matter where the law came from, or who wrote it, as long as it benefits society, which I believe it does. As it stands, we have a diverse culture catering to many different tastes. Copyright law is diverse enough to allow for the big mass-producing music/movie/software industries, as well as the free software movement, indie music labels, and essay state, other free culture movements to compete. Artists have a choice of how their works are distributed, publishing corporations make money for their stockholders, and barbara ehrenreich cultural essay, consumers can pay as much or as little as they like for intellectual property, depending on university application essay uk, what they choose to buy/licence. The only problems facing copyright law at the moment are the copyright infringement and the less than heroic way the publishing industry handles it. The authors' suggestions for systems to replace the revenue stream generated by copyright are ideological and unrealistic. As the ehrenreich baggage, essay said: When people fail to casual work make small, voluntary donations to a cause they like, it's more often due to ehrenreich cultural baggage essay the inconvenience (writing a check, putting it in the mail, etc) than the money. If copyright were to be abolished, most of the of why, distribution would fall to P2P file-sharing networks. They would contain a huge and diverse range of artistic works, with precious little hassle involved in ehrenreich baggage acquiring them. Why would you go anywhere else?

These P2P networks are designed to be simple and to be easy. They are not designed to facilitate the transfer of money to the artist. In their current state (which would take some time to change), many of the health, musical tracks are tagged improperly, making it very difficult even to find the artist responsible, let alone paying. This system also relies on the moral discipline of the barbara ehrenreich, consumer, and each consumer's individual moral code. We take it for granted now that enough people would feel morally obliged to university application uk pay for cultural baggage their work, but without the essay care system, legal precedent, who can guarantee that will last?

After so many years of unrestricted copying, people would discover a more selfish side, as they realise that there is no direct benefit to them to pay for the work. Barbara Ehrenreich Cultural Baggage? This is usually prevented by the existence of ph d research papers a moral climate in which copying is frowned upon. As anyone can see, this is happening now, with moral dissidence on a similar trend to barbara ehrenreich baggage that of P2P file-sharing. This situation is the fault of the artistic publishers, who's error of degree, has alienated many potential customers. The threshold pledge system is similarly faulty. Welfare? It is simply another form of donation. The same problems still apply.Who is going to feel motivated to baggage essay go to the effort required to fund artistic works? How are people (in practise) going to justify paying for something that will instantly become free? Lastly, I'd like to how to a common point out barbara that the essay has misrepresented the Free Software movement.

Free Software relies on copyright to ensure that the essay welfare, source code is freely and easily accessible. It is a considerable simplification to believe that Free Software is barbara cultural baggage designed to how to start app essay simulate a world without copyright. In addition, Free software is only possible because of the lack of baggage essay capital required to casual work create software. This is a significant difference to music and movies, both of which require expensive equipment. Books are easier to create, but not nearly as easy to ehrenreich cultural baggage essay distribute, making them also significantly different. There is a reason why software has the most thriving free culture community. I'm sorry, but I think you're misunderstanding, and in casual work some cases, unfortunately, misrepresenting what I said in the article. First of all, any connotations you have about corporations, you bring yourself — I did not demonize them, I merely made the factual statement that copyright was designed largely by the printing industry to solve problems peculiar to that industry, not to subsidize creativity per se. Ehrenreich Essay? (Could you please point to this alleged demonization?) I likewise am not suggesting replacements for the revenue stream provided by copyright, because one of my main points is that copyright is not how most creative work is actually funded anyway. If we actually look at university the economic realities of most creators' lives, instead of repeating to ourselves the barbara essay, myths we've been told, we see a variety of university uk funding sources, of which copyright revenue is ehrenreich usually not even the most prominent.

This is true even for writers, who are often paid on a commission / piecework basis, by the way. You write that P2P filesharing networks are not designed to facilitate the transfer of money to the artist. Start A Common App Essay? Right. Isn't that exactly the point I'm making about copyright itself, that it's not designed to facilitate the transfer of barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage essay money to the artist? I don't mean that in some figurative sense, I mean it literally: copyright is a law, it was lobbied for papers and designed by a group of ehrenreich cultural baggage people, and the problem they were solving, while real, was not the problem of how to subsidize creative work. Re the casual work, Threshold Pledge system: Google for it, you'll find that people have used it to fund real projects. I think I am accurately representing the free software movement, and have written more on that here. That point has also been addressed in this comment and this comment on the article.

Regarding these assertions: This is a significant difference to music and movies, both of which require expensive equipment. Books are easier to create, but not nearly as easy to barbara ehrenreich distribute, making them also significantly different. If you really think copyright royalties are what's paying for most music, then you haven't spent much time in the music industry — try reading someone who has. Essay Welfare? About movies, you have a point: I don't see how the levels of cultural essay funding currently needed for Hollywood blockbusters can be achieved without restrictive (in the descriptive, not the pejorative, sense) copyright laws. Casual Work? On the other hand, I also don't think that's a very good justification for preventing people from sharing and ehrenreich, making derivative works freely. What policy choice makes those works preferable to the kinds of works that flourish when people are able to use everything around them without restriction?

As for books, I addressed distribution quite extensively in the article, I'm not sure if you just didn't see that or chose to ignore it. portability and essay system, fair use of music cd#039;s. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2007-05-07 22:38. the enigma of the lure of a portable media player that does not skip during everyday motion but recogizes fair use, would be solved by a gadget that carries the original cd, or its first copy, and its compressed music files stored in the device. the gadget periodically scans for the presence of the cdrom, but the music comes from the barbara baggage, compreseed file stored in start the device. this should satisfy both the media corporation and the user of the music product, and allow him/her fair use access to cultural it in his portable media device, even if the cdrom itself would have experienced skips, not to mention scratches and unwanted battery consumption. who knows if there will be a newfangled media in the future, but let's preserve the ph d papers, rights and anonymity of the user! source code is another issue involving more players. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2007-05-07 22:41. In donation-world, what is the motivation of the copy-shop to ask for an additional donation?

Or can they keep a portion of it? Do they have to say how much? How do you enforce this? Also, aren't you making an assumption that the barbara ehrenreich essay, copy shop will be necessary? Is that a valid assumption? I can already make CD labels or printed CDs that are, in my opinion prettier and nicer than what generally comes from a mass press. So where is the point of essay of why the enforced solicitation? Also, I think its likely that we will reach a point, in the fairly near future, of storage and barbara cultural essay, bandwidth ubiquity that it will be trivial to make and casual work, send a copy of a full length movie without really thinking of the cost. We're nearly there now.

Certainly that will be the case for books, since that's nearly the state we're at now. Hey, I got a great book I just finished, I mailed you a copy, in case you want to check it out. Ok, maybe I will, if I get time.. the barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage, 3-4 MB of text of papers even a lengthy book (the Wizard of Oz at Gutenberg is less than half a MB). So, that really makes the problem of enforced solicitation a bit tricky. Will my friend ever even hear about the way to cultural baggage essay send money back to the author? I guess maybe if you put it at essay health care system the front. Ehrenreich Cultural Baggage? But who reads the start a common, copyright notices in the beginning of books NOW? In the threshold world, I merely have an anecdote, since I have less problems with that method, though I still have to ask first one quest:

Who will pay for the first work of an ehrenreich cultural baggage author? (I know, its a bit tough for them NOW to get that.) Won't threshold escrows lead to situations of application essay And your next book BETTER have unicorns in it, or I'm withholding my donation! Its just patronage, again, really. And patronage produced fine works, but fewer people saw the results, and more than once a patron enforced their will on a work, to baggage its detriment. To be fair, though, modern works are often targetted to essay care system sell though, so I suppose it really isn't any better now, in that respect. So, the point is moot. Barbara Cultural Essay? But, patrons paid to own, at least initially. Some of course presented it as a point of pride to essay uk their surrounding communities (though, generally just to barbara ehrenreich essay others they felt mattered.) But my anecdote, which is state more of barbara essay food for though, is casual work that there is a certain church near me, that needs to get a new organ, and they're soliciting donations to get one, and annoucing how much they have already collected. It really didn't take them long to reach 95% of the amount needed to get the organ. but since, there the notice has sat, week after week, waiting for that last little bit to come in. Sort of a poker game to see which potential donator will fold first to bring in the last amount. Just something to ehrenreich essay think about.

Also, I think, perhaps, that the fundamental difference of casual work most software from other creative works is that its mostly often a tool, and people (and lets face it, corporations, under which a great deal of open source and even free software is written now) use their own tools. People don't always, or as often, use their own creative works. Sure, to barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage essay a degree they do, and there is always the old saw of the essay, authors that writes for their children, etc, etc, but what would motivate them to distribute? Ego (oh, call it a need to share with the barbara cultural essay, world around them if you must)? Perhaps, but that motivation exists now with the a common, current system. Removing the likelihood to GAIN substantially from distribution simply removes one reason why the barbara ehrenreich cultural, work would be propigated at casual work all. Making for less distribution, in all likelihood. Yes, with the technologies here and coming, the burden OF sharing is diminished, but I still know plenty of authors, particularly for whom for whatever reasons the possibility of remuneration for publishing doesn't really strike them, who keep whole books, chapter, plot, characters, and scene, in their heads, never having committed them to cultural essay paper, because the exercise of thought in creating the work alone was enough for of why the them.

I think that in a world where its unlikely they will profit from the distribution of a work, there would be more of these virtual books. In fact, I can't logically see how it would be any other way. Some concerns about your arguments. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2007-05-07 23:06. A passionate article about copyright, indeed. And it does argue well for the original motivations for establishing copyright law.

But I just can’t resist but to point to some “glaring” concerns, that I thing are presented as opinion: * First, even if the baggage essay, original motivation for establishing copyright was based on publishers’ greed, it does not mean copyright itself is how to start evil. This seems to be referred to again and again in the article. * This article somehow seems to portray “business” as a dirty word, opposed to creativity: For e.g. “That's what copyright does: it enables business models. is seen as something of an evil insider secret: “Unfortunately, not all of the propaganda put out by the industry is as straightforward and honest as Kenswil's” * The biggest issue of ehrenreich cultural essay course is about the issue of how to get rich from research creative works. I hope the author is not against getting rich from one’s works of the mind. This article keeps on pounding on “creativity” as if it’s the ONLY motivation for intellectual/artistic works like books or music. The author presents two possible methods (as a sample): donation-ware and pledge based. But the article fails to present any concrete evidence of their success. This is cultural baggage probably the usa, biggest practical concern. I admire the goodwill the author anticipates from the barbara essay, people out there – but is it really the truth?

Is there any significant evidence for it? If this is indeed true, why doesn’t Wal-Mart simply sell its items at the cost price (including distribution, marketing etc) + a voluntary donation to provide profits. There is plenty of essay system usa donation-ware software out there, and I haven’t heard of any millionaires from these yet. Firefox makes tons of money, but it’s from their Google ad revenue sharing agreement. The pledge based system in my opinion is barbara ehrenreich essay pretty problematic: making a pledge before even the work is created? (and therefore having little idea of what one is casual work actually paying the creator for) No thanks ! Now, I am not saying they are useless ideas: All I am saying is that they are unproven. Barbara? I have seen many get rich from proprietary software, but yet to see creators/authors/artists getting rich to any significant degree from university application essay uk relinquishing copyright. Ehrenreich Cultural Baggage? And arguing for getting rid of copyright (not credit right) based on unproven principles is application essay obviously not tenable.

* There are many other arguments that are simply opinions; I won’t elaborate on all of them. Baggage Essay? But in the end all I can say is that if what the author believes is true, then the system will simply auto-regulate as the article argues in the end. Now should we force it on essay, creators by barbara ehrenreich cultural, changing the copyright law? That I am not too sure about. I am myself in the process of writing a book and to be honest would feel uncomfortable if I am forced to relinquish my “rights” (open to debate of course), simply because the author feels I can make enough money from essay care system people’s benevolence. Re: Some concerns about your arguments. You write: The biggest issue of course is about the cultural, issue of how to get rich from creative works. Why is that the issue?

Why should we prohibit everyone else from copying and making derivative works, in research order that a few people (a tiny minority out of ehrenreich baggage all artists, by the way) can get rich? If you want to get rich, go into investment banking — that's what it's for. Essay Health Care? If you want to earn a living by being an artist, then by all means have a try, but don't think that you're likely to get rich from copyright revenues. You might as well play the lottery. I'm not against people getting rich. I am against us crippling important aspects of barbara ehrenreich cultural essay our society and ph d papers, justifying it on the grounds that it will enable some people to get rich. We don't justify other social policies that way; why should copyright be any different? Is this about getting rich or making a living? Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sat, 2008-09-20 22:57.

I agree that there are not too many people getting rich - as in any area of life. But don't forget that the barbara ehrenreich cultural essay, great majority of us want to make a living, and the sword of uk copyright cuts both ways. I am not an artist, my written work is cultural baggage essay purposeful and workmanlike at best, and designed to help me earn a living in another field. But I abide by current law and essay of why the, I wield this law to protect myself and my work. I have carefully crafted a website about evidence-based hypnosis. I have researched and acknowledged my sources and provided information as accurately and cultural baggage, interestingly as I can. My website brings me clients and builds my reputation. However, as well as practicing my craft, I do protect my work. It aggravates me beyond words when other sites go up with whole pages lifted from mine. Ph D Research Papers? And no, I am not flattered by cultural baggage, being copied.

I see no reason why someone else should brazenly benefit from essay uk my effort and barbara cultural baggage essay, I do something about it. It is casual work interesting to me that another writer here was flattered to see his book had been ripped off, and cultural essay, I am guessing that this difference in attitude comes at least in part from the difference in university essay purpose between us. Re: Is this about getting rich or making a living? You're talking about plagiarism, not copyright violation. Plagiarism is ehrenreich cultural baggage when people copy your work without crediting you. No one here is arguing in start a common favor of that, and in fact this site advocates strong legal protections against plagiarism where necessary.

If you use the words ripped off to barbara cultural essay refer to both copying with attribution and copying without attribution, then you're using the same term for of why the completely different things. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2007-07-27 07:25. Overall, I think you've written an excellent, thought-provoking article. Ehrenreich Cultural Essay? However, while I was reading, a couple of things came to mind: 1) In describing the genesis of copyright law, leading up to papers the Statute of barbara ehrenreich baggage Anne, I think you unreasonably give the impression that the whole thing was lobbied for essay health usa by publishers solely as a means of advancing their own self-interest by falsely advocating author's rights, and that Parliament simply fell for the ruse and passed the law. This overlooks the ehrenreich essay, significance of publishing syndicates like the welfare state, Conger, which was quite upfront in demanding that Parliament grant exclusive rights to cultural essay *publishers* so that they could prevent competitors from distributing works that the Conger considered it owned, having paid the author for them. (I think I'm also right in research saying that prior to the Statute of Anne, the barbara cultural baggage, courts generally backed up this state of affairs, but I'm not 100% sure about that part.) 2) Similarly, I think you do a disservice to Parliament by portraying it as simply going along with publishers' tale of their (and authors') woes, when I think it's fairer to say that in passing the Statute of Anne they were genuinely attempting to balance the interlocking interests of authors, publishers and society in general. It might be better to note that intent, but point out that the framework being used to make that decision was not very representative of the real writing-publishing environment, given that it was laid out for papers them by publishers, who of course had both the vested interest and the political capital to get Parliament to see things their way from the outset.

3) Your depiction of the cost of barbara essay digital distribution as, if not completely free, then as near to free as makes no odds is how to start far too facile. In reality, digital distribution still costs money, it's just that the distribution costs are minuscule in comparison to ehrenreich baggage essay the traditional costs of doing a print run, or pressing thousands of records. The essay would be much improved if this side of the argument were made more accurate and fleshed out better, because once that is established it lends greater weight to health system suggestions about what creators of works could do to make money, i.e. it makes clearer the extent to which they would need to barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage essay cover costs before being able to make a profit in a no-copyright world. Also, as a side note to this, you might want to check out economist Rufus Pollock's paper, Forever Minus a Day? Some Theory and Empirics of Optimal Copyright, which argues that as the papers, cost of production/distribution of creative works goes down, the copyright term length should, logically, also go down. Essay? I think it gels nicely with a lot of what you're saying. Anyway, as I said, I really liked the article and will be paying attention to the site from now on!

PS I also wrote the above reply that starts, Given the way in which the industry, but I forgot to essay add my name! Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on barbara cultural baggage essay, Fri, 2008-08-15 17:48. I've been wondering how the these and related issues affect things like Digital video instead of standard video. For example, Rob Springer, the award winning TV producer, predicted that web video would take over university application essay uk and become the norm, especially in the face of 'forced' conversion to the Digital TV box. In fact, he has a video addition product that he's also developed - Add Video To Website - given his views on the issue. Now, the ehrenreich, response of such forced conversions is always to the contrary of what is indented, and it is almost exactly the same in casual work the copyright market. By forcing people to use pre-determined channels of buying and selling (through distributors and copyright processes), one has to wonder if this helps promote the general good - which is distribution of knowledge - or if it simply helps a certain few gather more funds to ehrenreich oppose the next bill proposing reform to copyright laws.

Naive, idealistic, utopian craving for creative communism. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on casual work, Mon, 2007-08-13 02:08. I don't even know where to start. Maybe I'll pull some quotes from your (very interesting) article: But the overall historical record is clear: copyright was designed by barbara ehrenreich cultural, distributors, to research papers subsidize distributors not creators.This is the barbara cultural essay, secret that today's copyright lobby never dares say aloud, for once it is admitted, the true purpose of subsequent copyright legislation becomes embarrassingly clear. Who cares today what the state, historical record of copyright looks like? Distributors liked to be able to feed their families too, so a financial arrangement was made with the author.

Win/Win. Although some free software authors are paid for barbara essay their work (after all, their services provide a benefit to those who use the software, and some of those users are willing to pay for it. Totally hypocritical. You're implying that books provide NO benefit to those who read them. I can't tell you how much I benefited from of why Windows For Dummies.

And absolutely I was willing to ehrenreich cultural baggage pay for welfare state it. Why would I expect someone whom I've never met to ehrenreich baggage spend hundreds of app essay his own hours to write a book just so I can learn how to use my computer? If copyright is not really needed to barbara baggage essay stimulate original creation, then what purpose does it serve today? For it is quite clear that if copyright did not exist already, we wouldn't invent it now. I don't believe that your premise is ph d research papers correct, or at least I wasn't convinced of it by anything in the article. And nothing is ehrenreich cultural baggage essay quite clear here. Apparently, all those artists throughout history who did just fine without copyright aren't included in all creative artists as far as the RIAA is concerned. Could you name some of them?

Shakespeare? No. Of Why? Stravinsky? No. The Beatles? Thomas Jefferson? Ernest Hemingway? Tolstoy? Bill Gates? No, no, no, no, no. Since people who duplicate CDs do not usually replace the artist's name with their own, let's ask the question Hilary Rosen should have asked: Would it bother you if somebody could just show a copy of your paper around, so other people could benefit from what you wrote, and see that you got an A? Of course, the students would have answered No, we aren't bothered by that at all, which isn't what Rosen wanted to hear.

Why analogize with CDs when you are discussing a paper. The vocal performance and baggage essay, song-writing style would of course prevent, say me, from ph d research putting my name on a Stevie Nicks song. If there were no copyright laws, I can guarantee you that human nature would prevail and you would see one article 1,000 times, each with a different author listed. One woman who has received a subpoena from the recording industry association said she had struggled to explain to her 13-year-old son why file-sharing was wrong. I said, 'Suppose you wrote a song and barbara, a famous rock group sang it and you didn't get paid,' said the mother, who declined to give her name because of her legal situation.

He said: 'I wouldn't care. That would be awesome.' They're still just in that young age where money doesn't matter. (One can only hope the casual work, sensible 13-year-old manages to barbara essay keep his head, when so many around him are apparently losing theirs.) The arguments are becoming more and more naive. Of course a 13 year old would think it was awesome if U2 took a song he wrote and sang it in essay concert or put it on an album.

He's got no bills to pay, no mortgage, no problems! Not a financial care in the world. Ask a struggling, homeless, 60 year old jazz musician in New Orleans the same question. What do you think he would say? Sure!

Go ahead and let U2 get rich off of ehrenreich essay my music while I snuggle up in my cardboard box? You're asking for a Wikipedia of casual work great works. Don't like something someone else has written? Change a few words here and there and put your name on ehrenreich essay, it. Then sell it because it's the only one of it's kind. But it was an interesting read anyway! Re: Naive, idealistic, utopian craving for creative communism. Most of what I would say in response to your comment is already in the articles on this site.

But a few points deserve specific rebuttal: You seem to be claiming that Shakespeare somehow benefited from copyright, but he died almost a century before copyright was invented. I don't know what you were talking about regarding Thomas Jefferson, who made no money from copyright that I'm aware of (corrections welcome, of course). Leo Tolstoy deliberately released his works into the public domain later in life, precisely because of research moral concerns over baggage the unnecessary propertizing effects of copyright. In all, you may not have picked the best set of examples there :-). (Leaving aside the question of why Bill Gates is included in the list at all. Or is the accumulation of great wealth in itself supposed to be a justification for copyright restrictions?) Those of us who work in the open source software world have already fulfilled this so-called naive, idealistic, utopian craving for creative communism, and we seem to be doing just fine. And, as I mentioned, we don't have plagiarism problems. Also, I release non-software works onto the Internet, such that anyone could take them, change a few words, and release a new version (see producingoss.com, for example). Yet I do not suffer from plagiarism; I don't even worry about it.

It's been a non-issue. If someone were going to claim to have written something they didn't write, copyright wouldn't stop them, because they'd be claiming the copyright too anyway (as explained in uk more detail here and here). Of course books provide wonderful benefit to their readers; who would disagree? I love to read books; I write books too, and I like to get paid for doing so, and in fact am paid. I have no idea what made you think I was saying otherwise. Part of this argument is that there are plenty of ehrenreich baggage essay ways of paying authors that do not involve criminalizing other people who share with each other; you seem to have missed that part. The 60 year old jazz musician in New Orleans, living in university application a cardboard box while U2 gets rich off his songs, is barbara cultural baggage largely a creature of your imagination. The majority of musicians do not make noticeable money from copyright. And, if he existed, he would be in that cardboard box anyway if U2 didn't play his song.

But he would be somewhat better off if they did play it, because then at least he'd get the publicity (remember, attribution is a separate issue). By the way, I have had the experience of a publisher publishing one of university application my freely-licensed books commercially and not paying any royalties. And you know what? I was happy: they were keeping it in ehrenreich baggage print, and application essay, my reputation was enhanced. This is ehrenreich cultural baggage essay exactly analogous to how to a common the situation with your hypothetical jazz musician, but it happened to ehrenreich cultural essay me in health system usa real life. (Except for essay the part about living in research a cardboard box, but that was just a rhetorical device on your part: I don't think I actually have to live in a cardboard box to get the ehrenreich cultural baggage, points, do I?) The rest of your comments are already answered elsewhere on this site.

Submitted by care system, Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2007-10-08 01:27. In one of the replies above, you said: About movies, you have a point: I don't see how the levels of baggage essay funding currently needed for Hollywood blockbusters can be achieved without restrictive (in the descriptive, not the pejorative, sense) copyright laws. On the other hand, I also don't think that's a very good justification for casual work preventing people from sharing and making derivative works freely. What policy choice makes those works preferable to the kinds of works that flourish when people are able to use everything around them without restriction?

I've thought about this at some length. In fact, I've seen first hand how the non-compliance to copyright on sites like Youtube can greatly enhance the public awareness of filmmakers who would be little-known otherwise - of filmmakers whose works aren't even SOLD on cultural baggage essay, DVD (because there is a large financial risk involved in essay health care publishing unusual films, many such films are never released to the public after they have been made - or are never made in the first place). But here's the barbara ehrenreich cultural, thing. Free Software can be (is) a viable business model because it's the technical support, etc. that the buyer pays for. Book authors can easily make money from self-publishing their books; they can make it impossible to copy their works if they wish (all they have to do is not release the complete text online, and make the book hard to state scan by printing close to the centre). Perhaps they can also make money through some kind of donation system, but they will continue to have a choice in the foreseeable future. Barbara? Musicians have, and always will have, the live performances which will be their bread butter.

Even if it becomes impossible to stop the spreading of their albums online, this might actually be a boost to them because it'll mean higher concert attendance. But film. I don't know. What do YOU see as the future for film as an art form in a world where copyright not a factor? It is very different from the other things you mentioned in certain ways. There are so many variables that it's hard for essay state me to sort them all out. here are some thoughts, anyway: -We are rapidly approaching the barbara baggage essay, point at essay of why which there will be absolutely no information loss between a 35mm film and a digitized version of the film.

It is already not all that difficult to download a perfect copy of a film over the internet. (in fact, we're there already, but I mean that soon this technology will be cheaper and more accessible) -Filmmaking, even on a small scale, more often than not requires the organization of many different people and is generally not an easy thing to do well. In this, it is similar to software development. -Unlike software development, you can't make money by servicing the product (at least, I see no way to do it). -Like music, there might be a way to make money through performance. You would have to cultural commit to keeping every single copy of it on ph d research papers, 35mm film for ehrenreich baggage theatrical showings and not digitize it (or only digitize a reduced quality version of it, or only part of casual work it, or digitize it but guard it very carefully to prevent it from spreading). This would be a return to the pre-VHS business model, and would actually seem to ehrenreich cultural essay put more power in the hands of distributors than is currently the case. -On websites like Newgrounds.com, thousands of hobbyists submit 100,000 often bizarre, mostly awful films. It doesn't really give me great hope for the idea of hobbyism as the future of filmmaking. Newgrounds did pay a few of its more prominent artists for their films - their number can be counted on single digits. -Websites like Atomfilms exist which serve to promote artists who would be seen as too risky by research papers, the mainstream industry. However, these websites depend on the ads before the film.

It's just another model that depends on controlling the distribution venue. -Many of filmmakings' greatest artistic triumphs occurred in places where the filmmakers had a consistent wage AND were not afraid to experiment and do what seemed right. I talk about the subject a bit over here: This raises a somewhat different question - is it actually more efficient for a society to provide some base level of stable funding for filmmaking, and allow the filmmakers to decide with their colleagues what they should be making, and baggage, who should be given what budget? If filmmakers were given a small but steady wage, and the films they made released into the public domain or CC license, this would allow them to experiment more AND make their connection with the casual work, public stronger (because they would judge the success of one of barbara ehrenreich their own films based on the public reaction rather than how much money it made, which is often dependent more on marketing, distribution and plain chance than the film's quality). Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2007-11-05 07:32. I think the solution for movies (and specifically: making enough money from movies to sustain the costs of making them professionally) in a post-copyright world may lie in start the approach to business models applied. How about a business that sustains itself by providing a richer experience for the audience? Would people pay more money (or indeed pay ANY money) to enjoy a movie, if they can view the barbara ehrenreich cultural essay, movie at home, downloaded for free? Yes I think so, if the application, experience they get for barbara cultural that money is viewed as greater. An example or two: Would you pay money to see the film in a well crafted environment (such as a modern movie theatre), with superb sound and picture quality?

Would you pay if the event was a premiere, with the producer/writer/director/whoever doing a short introduction and taking questions after the show? Would you pay if it wasn't a premiere, but instead you got a personal copy of the film to take home, with a printed leaflet (akin to a theatre programme), all in nice wrapping? In short, would you pay to get an enriched experience, rather than just the movie, downloaded to your home network. Well, not everybody would, but I think a lot of people would pay for the richer experience. If these examples alone are enough to essay welfare sustain an industry resembling today's Hollywood or Bollywood, I don't know - most likely not. But I think the examples point to barbara the solution; industries which have hitherto relied on the concept of copyrights (and their enforcement) to protect their business models in the face of university a technology shift which threatens to render that model obsolete, are just prolonging the barbara baggage, death struggle on the road to the inevitable solution: Change your business model when the old one doesn't work, or perish. I think it's that simple. Welfare State? Mankind is barbara cultural baggage essay not known for a lack of creativity when it comes to finding new ways of making money.

A movie industry (with all the creativity floating around that scene) surely will find not a way to do it, but probably a full plethora of ways of bringing you (the audience) great entertainment while making a buck. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2008-06-12 22:27. With the start app essay, growing Bollywood film industry, I am starting to wonder how much of an issue copyright is in India? Indian cinema is ehrenreich cultural baggage blowing up big, and with the internet around, it would be so easy to download these. Perhaps this leads to greater exposure and familiarity with Bollywood etc.

This could help the essay care usa, industry grow even more on an international scale. the way of the future? Actresses like Aishwarya Rai and Katrina Kaif are already growing to be household names and they are primarily from Bollywood films. I know Indian cinema already 'borrows' Hollywood films and injects their own song and ehrenreich baggage essay, dance to appeal to Indian audiences. This seems like a breach of copyright to how to a common app essay me. The future of copyright infringement will be an cultural essay interesting one (especially with YouTube and the like) Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on ph d papers, Fri, 2007-11-16 19:11.

This message is licensed under the terms of creative communism. And don't try to cultural essay stop me from licensing everything under the terms of ph d research papers creative communism. Steal this message if you want, claim as your own, I don't care, but don't try to impose copyright restrictions (or any other restrictions) on it. The copyright notice at the bottom of barbara cultural baggage this page seems similar to creative communism already, so it is a good start. I will make new computer system and other products, and it will be open-source and stuff, so that the general public is benefit instead of bad people (an example of bad people is the MAFIAA, the essay, Music And Film Association of America).

When everybody start using creative communist software then companies with too much money (because they are greedy) will be no longer. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2007-11-16 19:12. Oops, I forgot to write one thing, it includes not only computer systems and software, but also music, movies, books, and other stuff. The physical property are own by whoever purchases it (or makes it themself), but intelectual properties will be free for everyone. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2008-07-10 06:05. And now with things like the DMCA are coming to Canada and that sort of thing really scares me. It's the whole overreach thing that is essay a big issue. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2007-12-23 11:12. Thank you for the link to this page. I’ve been studying IP for a while and, much to my embarrassment, didn’t know about much of ph d what you spoke of in your talk. I’ve never felt comfortable with copyright law primarily, I think, because law school taught us to look at cultural baggage it in the terms of how it allegedly protects authors despite the fact that it quite obviously does next to barbara baggage essay nothing in that respect. (Personally, the only use I’ve ever had for copyright has been to essay of why use it to try to decrease the control which publishers have over barbara an MS once it has been sent to them.)

Stopping to think of copyright law solely in terms of how it supposedly protects authors has enabled me to feel as though I'm finally beginning to understand it. That's the kind of reaction every writer hopes for — thank you so much, Nandita. Indeed, you'd better watch out: that kind of essay health usa comment might cause us to ask you later if you want to help with any of ehrenreich baggage essay our projects :-). It's interesting how students of copyright law are rarely taught copyright's history (for what it's worth, many other students have made comments similar to university essay yours). The students are never exposed to the notion that copyright was designed to subsidize replication, not creation, or that it was designed around a particular set of technological constraints, constraints that do not hold today. This may have something to do with the fact that today's professors came of age in a time when their own publications, including books, were distributed via traditional mass print runs. Thus they have real-life experience with copyright, but mediated by essay, their dealings with publishers. Since this was all mostly off the Internet (online distribution of academic papers being still in its infancy), those professors tend to see copyright as a law that enables the distribution of their ideas; that's how the publishers present it, after all, and in a printing-press-based world, it's a reasonable assertion. But this all probably informs how the professors teach copyright.

Even then, as you pointed out, many of them have complaints about the research papers, amount of control the publisher gets over the manuscript. I even know a professor who can no longer obtain copies of his own book: it's out of print, but the publisher won't let anyone else print it either. (This may be a familiar story in academia, I don't know.) I wonder how long the categorization of barbara copyrights, patents, and trademarks together as intellectual property law can hold up. They're all quite different from each other; there is probably some similarity between copyrights and patents, but there's hardly any meaningful similarity between them and trademarks. Yet somehow these things all got lumped together as IP. Because copyright-based industries are always careful to mention them in the same breath (see Bill Hilf's marvelous conflation while answering a question at the end of this presentation, for example), the public gets fooled. If I had a dollar for every time I talked to university uk a complete stranger about copyright and barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage essay, heard them ask Well, but don't you think trademarks are important? , I'd surely be able to fund QuestionCopyright.org from the proceeds. It would be better if law schools and other academic institutions treated them as unrelated fields of study. That would do a lot to alleviate the confusion (for the pro-copyright industry, a welcome confusion) that surrounds them now. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Tue, 2008-01-22 19:32.

First of welfare state all, thank you for barbara ehrenreich the great article. You have made your point very well. I just wanted to make a quick comment about your statement Abandoning copyright is now not only possible, but desirable. Both artists and essay, audiences would benefit, financially and aesthetically. Recently, the broadway musical The Wedding Singer came to our Performing Arts Center here in town. Being a fan of the movie, my wife and I bought tickets right away. Cultural Baggage Essay? We attended the research, show and highly anticipated the 80's songs that were played in the movie.

To our surprise, they did not play one song from the barbara cultural, movie. In fact, they did not play any songs from the 80's at all. What a disappointment. I did some research after the show only to find out that because of copyright issues the show could not include any of the 80's songs. I think this is welfare state a perfect example of where Copyright completely ruined what could have been a terrific show and if the copyright could have been abandoned, both artists and audiences would have benefitted, financially and barbara cultural essay, aesthetically! Thanks for your kind words about the article, and for telling us about this incident (which may be a good candidate for inclusion in the Ghost Works Project, actually). Publication of scientific research. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sat, 2008-02-02 18:22. I enjoyed your article, and the obvious depth of thinking you have put into casual work your subject. I wondered if you have looked at the situation regarding scientific / medical research work?

In this world, a researcher does all the essay, work, then submits it to an academic journal, e.g. How To Start A Common? Nature, Lancet, New England Journal of Medicine etc. Barbara Cultural Baggage Essay? The author makes no money from the publication of the work, but the publisher does charge significant fees to anyone who wants to essay buy the work. Similarly if the researcher wants to read the works of his / her peers, he has to barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage pay the casual work, publishing house to ehrenreich baggage access those works. So basically, the publishing houses exist simply to restrict access to start app essay scientific works and make profits for themselves by restricting access to work made by the researchers.

It seems to essay me that these situations are very similar to those of artists and application, other creative people described in barbara ehrenreich your article. Re: Publication of start a common app essay scientific research. I'm glad you liked the article, thanks. Take a look at cultural baggage essay Public Library of Science -- they're doing wonderful work to start app essay address exactly the barbara ehrenreich, situation you described. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Tue, 2008-02-26 15:18. Recently I was discussing a relevant topic on ph d papers, a different forum, that of the anime industry and cultural baggage, fansubs, and I think, or at essay state least hope, that one of the posts I came up with there is actually of essay great use to this debate as a whole. I'll give a link after my post, but I think that it's best if I give an a common adaptation of my post first, and then provide a link to where I originally posted it. This article has been a strong influence for me in my thinking about copyright, and this post is no exclusion. First of all, I'll quote the words of Zac, the executive editor of Anime News Network, because what he said was crucial to barbara my post:- You know, the more I read up on copyright law, the more I agree it needs to start be changed dramatically.

But not in the way you're suggesting. Copyright law appears to have been written to help foster the creation of new art and the promotion of the sciences. Cultural Essay? What it doesn't do is protect a company's product, and casual work, that's what entertainment media is - a product. Episode #756 of Naruto is no different from a can of Coke, realistically speaking. It is a consumable product, created and cultural baggage essay, marketed much in the same way a can of how to start soda is. Because in the digital age it has no physical form other than bytes stored on baggage, a hard drive doesn't mean it's somehow less of a product - because people can classify entertainment product as art doesn't mean it somehow becomes less of a product, not part of the economy and system usa, not a business but instead some vague protected art. This argument isn't quite fully formed - I guess what I'm trying to barbara ehrenreich cultural say is that while copyright law protects ideas, concepts and images, an episode of Naruto is not just a collection of ideas, concepts and papers, images - it's a product, created to be sold to a certain demographic.

It is no more art than a candy bar. Copyright law seems to assume that there's this grand artistic community that needs protection in order to ehrenreich cultural baggage essay foster the creation of new works for the betterment of all but doesn't take into account the fact that entertainment is a business and these TV shows and movies are products. If we were to actually acknowledge this fact - that anime is not some grandiose art that deserves to health care system be seen by barbara cultural, as many people as possible but rather a commercial endeavor like any other business - the whole 'it's not theft if I copy it a zillion times and give it away for free to anyone who wants it!' argument loses steam. Distributing Naruto episodes online illegally should be regarded as being no different from ph d research papers having a magic machine that xeroxes cans of Coke and standing in front of the store handing both the Coke and cultural, the machine out to essay anyone who shows interest. Now, without further ado, the content of ehrenreich essay my post, adapted slightly, primarily to remove the core of referencing to university essay anime specifically, since the issues were generally applicable. Great stuff Zac! It seemed that the thread was dying, but you've just offered us this great post. When you discuss the writing of copyright law, I guess you mean current coypright law was written with that in baggage mind, because, as you can read in The Promise of casual work a Post-Copyright World, copyright in its initial form was written as a censorship mechanism, which was also used as a monopoly for ehrenreich cultural baggage the Stationers. Now, if you mean copyright as it was laid out in the United States First Amendment, then yes, that is how it was written.

However, is that the purpose it currently serves? I would say that this is evidently not the case; it is a tool of the RIAA, MPAA, etc., just as it was a tool of the Stationers. University Essay? It's a tool they're using to protect their profits, but sadly for them, it's not working too well. Now, I'll go onto the Coke xeroxing machine analogy, because I think it's an absolutely brilliant analogy to barbara ehrenreich cultural talk about, and I think I can use it to make something very convincing. If technology that could xerox a can of Coke were to exist, then what is the cost of producing a can of Coke?

Zero. Would this also mean that Coke is worthless? It seems so, doesn't it, but shortly I'll explain why that might not be the case. At this stage this seems like a horrible analogy to of why books and video of today, since video especially can be very costly to produce. But no, if you look deeper still, there is actually something you can draw from the analogy. Either something that can be copied indefinetely is valueless (infinite supply = zero price), as one could argue easily from an economic perspective, or there is something else to the product that has some kind of baggage inherent value. However, any value in ph d research papers such a product clearly cannot lie in the physical form of the product, and that is why it is essential that any digital product must, by necessity, be seen as having value of a different kind. Barbara Baggage Essay? And here, I propose two distinct types of value, value to society (social value, I'll call it), and the value associated with the act of creation (For want of a better term I'll call it creative cost). University Application? Consequently, whether it is art or not is irrelevant - in cultural baggage its mere nature it cannot have value in the same way as a tangible product, but only in an intangible sense.

The very idea of trying to attach a standard, non-zero economic value to the product itself in the case of something that can be infinitely reproduced is casual work clearly unsound. However, the barbara, other two types of value I suggested can be applied just fine. Now I'll apply the value system I've just fleshed out to your Coke analogy, arguing that even if Coke costs nothing to how to start a common reproduce (and hence produce, because the two things are equivalent in barbara this case (though this is ph d research not the barbara cultural baggage, case for essay other products), it is not worthless. Firstly, Coke has social value - it is capable of providing enjoyment to society, or at ehrenreich cultural baggage essay least that's what Coke advertises =D. Secondly, there is the value associated with the act of having invented Coke. Papers? Without the first Coke having been created in the first place, infinite reproduction would be impossible. Barbara Ehrenreich Cultural Baggage? In the case of Coke, the law attempts (or attempted) to the recognise this value by cultural baggage essay, giving Coca-Cola a patent for essay of why the their product. As for any creative work, it has those same two types of inherent value. There is the social value, and the creative cost. One can agree to barbara ehrenreich baggage essay this without accepting any creative work as art at how to a common app essay all; social value is benefit to society of any kind, it need not be artistic; many commercial works can still be said to be of value to society, even if that value is not artistic.

As for barbara ehrenreich essay creative cost, well, the fact that a television show costs money to create is undeniable, so it certainly possesses creative cost. In the case of care a written work, it can be done by a single person merely by spending time, but, as is all too often said, time is money. So, with this in mind, I'll return this to the issue of creative cost. It is barbara cultural baggage clear that not everyone who produces something that is a digital (or digitizable) product can offer it for research papers free, though that would be best for society. However, once something is produced, economics says that it would be completely and utterly stupid to prevent near-infinite reproduction when it's so damned cheap. Hence comes the issue, and it is the ehrenreich cultural essay, very issue copyright failed to solve - how do you foster the creation of things that have no tangible value, but have significant social value as well as creation cost? Copyright is a possible answer to this, but the fact is that it doesn't work. As far as I can see, there is no simple way to sort out casual work such a question from a legislative perspective without significant violation of civil liberties. Consequently, the true onus is on society as a whole to find ways of ehrenreich cultural baggage repaying the creative cost. In the case of businesses, their role in this affair is essay usa that they will need to cultural baggage make profit from the social value of casual work such a thing, rather than relying on cultural, the value of ph d research a physical product.

In the barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage, thread I said that a number of solutions to these problems already exist, and mentioned some of them, but that is unneccessary on this site. I'll return to the Coke-xeroxing machine to summarize - the presence of such a Coke-xeroxing machine could be seen as nothing other than a bonus to casual work society. Let me now change that Coke-xeroxing machine to cultural baggage essay a food-xeroxing machine (I admit I'm twisting Zac's argument slightly to get something yet more convincing out of it, and I apologize). That would be nothing other than an ENORMOUS benefit to society - it would alleviate world hunger in one fell swoop. The Internet should be seen in the exact same way. I believe a lot of what I'm saying is rather similar to what I read in this article, but I hope I'm adding something of value. Now a link to the original posts, though I think it's unneccessary:-

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on casual work, Tue, 2008-02-26 16:31. Having thought about this further, I think there's a slight correction I need to barbara make. When I use the analogy, I assert value in essay of why the the form of creative cost, and then I use two different examples of such, the cultural baggage essay, invention of Coke, and the creation of some kind of work. It makes for a good analogy, but I may have fallen prey to the whole grouping IP together fallacy. Now, Coke have chosen not to patent their formula, but the fact that the patent was available to them remains.

However, if it were something infinitely reproducible, then, in the same way it has for software, patent law would be subject to real, mainstream debate, which is a way in which we can only wish copyright would behave. A Coke xeroxing machine would, in fact, (or at least I would hope so) be seen as a whole new invention having merits of its own. Consequently, while parallels can be drawn between patent and copyright, that is not to a common say that the same course of barbara ehrenreich action should be taken for casual work both. While both are about providing incentive to creators, patent is indeed wholly different; and, more crucially, the essay, current patent system is viable, while the uk, copyright system certainly is not. The current patent system is viable?? . the current patent system is viable ? Those who have the most experience with it are the ones most likely to disagree with this statement :-). I tend to think that abstract economic analyses (I've made many myself, so I'm guilty too) of barbara essay creativity vs products vs distribution, etc, miss the main point: We've just built a world-wide copying machine.

It makes perfect copies every time, and welfare state, costs almost nothing per-copy. So, are we going to let ourselves use it or not? Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2008-02-27 07:32. I'm sorry, I was just afraid I'd made a mistake in barbara cultural drawing a parallel in casual work the way that I did, so I basically tried to cover my tracks as far as that parallel was concerned, and ehrenreich baggage essay, it didn't really help. Sure, one might say that the core principle is that we have this world-wide copying machine and it would make no sense whatsoever to limit its use, but I think analysis such as mine helps to understand how society can adapt to its presence. I think that what analysing the value behind products like digital media offers us at the least a viable outlook on how people can be reimbursed for their work, even an overall idea as to how a business can produce digital media and give it away for free. The basic principle for a business would be a simple one - harnessing the social value of the product to repay the creative cost, and make a profit as well. Sure, I understand what you're saying, but I also think we tend to fetishize familiar economic models -- indeed, we fetishize economic value itself, forgetting that economics is app essay as capable of adjusting to new policy as policy is to barbara cultural baggage economics. Here's another way to think about it: If it were the mid-1400s right now, but instead of inventing the printing press, Gutenberg had somehow invented the Internet, would anyone ever seriously have proposed anything resembling copyright law?

No, surely not. Free circulation of texts, etc, had been the norm up till then. Casual Work? The only restrictions were physical: how quickly and cultural baggage, how accurately you or your scribes could copy. There is no reason to essay care system usa think that the appearance of essay a perfect, global copying machine into essay welfare that environment would have led to barbara ehrenreich baggage essay an urge to restrict sharing (except for purposes of political censorship, of course, but that's not an papers acceptable motivation today). When the printing press (not the Internet) did appear, it had certain physical limitations, and economics and ehrenreich baggage, policy both adjusted to that. Now those limitations are gone -- not merely alleviated, but entirely obliterated. Economics can adjust again to the real world, as it should. To argue that we should preserve economics adjustments that were designed specifically around earlier physical limitations implies that either the adjustments or the limitations still serve some purpose, but if so, what? The mere preservation of a business model seems to me to be a weak goal. If the value we attribute to university copyrighted works today partly depends on ehrenreich, the monopoly restrictions of copyright, then where in this accounting do we figure in the negative number -- that is, the inverse value of essay of why the those who wished to cultural essay copy and make derivative works but couldn't? (Like Eldred, the publisher in Eldred vs Ashcroft, for example; see the Ghost Works article for another example. ) What bothers me is so-called economic analyses that leave out whole sides of the equations, and calculate value using the essay of why the, narrowly-defined formulas with which the publishing industry determines its profits.

Those don't represent value from barbara cultural baggage society's point of health system usa view, they only represent the value to one party in barbara ehrenreich baggage essay a multi-party transaction. If we're going to do economic analysis, let's do it for real, instead of letting the essay, terms be defined in such a way that the outcome is a foregone conclusion! Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2008-03-03 03:37. Well, I guess that's basically what I was trying to do - include a broader definition of essay value in my analysis, and see where that lead. It still gave me the same conclusions that you came up with - everyone with a stake in the issue needs to realise that the current copyright model is unneccessary, and ineffective. Yup. How To Start App Essay? Sorry, I get too caught up in tactics sometimes (and have been debating economists perhaps a bit too much lately -- it makes for cultural essay bad reflexes :-) ). I didn't mean to imply that you had come to a conclusion other than the one you came to.

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2008-07-11 16:13. I dont think that the current patent system is ph d research viable at ehrenreich baggage all. The way it is set up it only ph d research serves the purpose of making sure copyright lawyers drive mercedes instead of honda. Do you have any idea how much it costs to get pattent protection? Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on barbara cultural baggage, Wed, 2008-09-24 08:21. This is an interesting article, when it comes to japanese animation industry, the fansub community (represented by some web sites like AnimeSuki and Fansub-BT) are having some troubles with copyright owners when they translate unlicensed animes into different languages but it really helps the state, industry in choosing what anime they need to ehrenreich essay buy a license on a specific country. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2008-04-13 07:07. A friend and I were actually talking about the subject of Copyrights and she sent me a link to your article. How To Start App Essay? Very interesting points you've made and I have to ehrenreich say that my stance on the topic has changed considerably as a result of how to a common app essay your arguments.

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sat, 2008-05-03 21:25. Bingo this is exactly what I was after, answered a lot of questions I was pondering about. Cultural Essay? very neat paper definitely adding this to bookmarks as I'll be covering this subject more in depth next semester. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2008-05-23 09:52. The copyright of a work is initially assigned to the person(s) that created it. Selling the copyright (the work) to a publisher is one major way a creative person makes money from their work. University Application Essay? Prices publishers pay for copyrighted works have to do with their marketability just like any business. Ehrenreich Cultural Baggage? A song by start, the Rolling Stones will bring more money than a song by the local high school rock band. A new book by J.K.

Rowling commands a bigger rate than, say, a book by you. No one I know is making money off of what you call the barbara ehrenreich, free stream. It gets a lot of ink from Internet types but no creative person is making money on it. Suggested donation? the day I can buy my groceries with a suggested donation is the ph d research papers, day I'll allow a suggested donation for ehrenreich cultural essay my labor. Anyone else out there want to turn their paycheck into essay welfare state a suggested donation? how much have you made with your paypal donate button on barbara baggage, this site??

I am not the RIAA, I am not a corporation. What you are describing here would take away my ability to uk feed my family. And if you ever succeeded in ehrenreich baggage doing that you would soon see how fast your battle for copyright would become a personal one. I've made my living for about 15 years from the free stream. Submitted by essay care, Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2008-10-26 02:52. Obviously you are talking from a very personal point of view and no-one would deny your right to feed your family but there must be better ways of implementing copyright laws than the way they are today. With the reach of the internet, they simply are not enforceable anyway. Barbara? Anything you can get your hands on how to, in data form (words, code, music etc) you can get for free on the net and some countries do not respect the copyright of others so what are we to do?

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2010-01-18 06:16. copyright is not needed to barbara cultural baggage protect from application fraud. the best protection is knowing the reputation of those you work with just like all other businesses not protected by copyright. copyright will become obsolete as more authors and barbara essay, artists make their works of authorship(information) freely available on the internet as an advertisement for the sale of a packaging(physical object) or service(presentation or website or concert) which embodies the information. with millions of creative works being published every single day, modern musicians or authors should fear obscurity. far more than piracy. authors who insist on research, being monopolists of information will eventually fail and those who are able to get their information copied and in widespread usage will thrive. this is how things were before copyright existed. if copyright was abolished then the internet would become a vast source of cultural information for everyone to access and to casual work use and to barbara baggage essay benefit from as it should be in a free society. society has decided that it will not be deprived of the. free flow of information. this is called progress and of why, you cannot stop it. what society needs to do now is abolish copyright to stop the cruel and cultural, arbitrary punishment from copyright infringement. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2010-08-12 08:58. It's apparent that you have no understanding of the real music industry. You've obviously never sat in a room alone with a musical instrument and a blank page and emerge hours later with art so powerful it changes lives, encourages the hopeless or time stamps a special memory.

This act of creativity takes years or even decades to perfect. Your theory suggests that if I master quantum physics and just because I have the technology to move objects that were designed, created and manufactured by others who spent countless hours perfecting their skills, then it would be justified to casual work share with everyone for the good of the people. Ehrenreich Cultural Baggage? I find it amusing that advocates of free music and those who frown upon copyright law like, Chris Anderson, are still charging me for my Wired Magazine subscriptions. Your post sounds like a socialist agenda but please humor me and enlighten me step by step, (which I will outline the process for you below) as to how this aforementioned artist would be able to, not only support themselves, but underwrite the associated costs. Let's assume the artist is already established so we won't have the argument that, Well maybe this artist doesn't have what it takes. Artist writes a song that by today's standards feels like a hit.

The artist will need to start a common record the song and will either have to purchase a computer with recording software and learn how to engineer or go to the local recording studio, which is like the chicken or the egg scenario. Ehrenreich Cultural? Recording studios exists because the income artists receive from selling music flows back to papers other professionals like engineers, photographers, graphic design etc… This is why so many recording studios no longer exist. Artist pays modestly 20k to record one song, which includes the studio, an barbara cultural essay engineer, a mix engineer, 4 musicians, a producer, background vocalists etc. Depending on the song, this would be the bottom-line budget by today's standards. If strings, horns or specialty instruments are needed, that would be additional costs. Basic strings will cost 7500.00 to 15k per session. Essay? Lastly, travel costs for the artist would likely be added above this budget, so let's say the artist is all-in for 25k. Artist now goes on the road to promote the song. The travel cost associated with touring is complex and involves hundreds of people who depend on barbara essay, getting paid as well.

However, now that the song is finished and casual work, the artist is ready to promote the barbara ehrenreich, song, we give the song away for casual work free online. Please tell me how said artist gets paid or even recoups production costs. Ehrenreich Cultural? If you're telling me that word of mouth will make people go buy the music at essay care usa iTunes, that's not realistic. I have an artist with 60 million youtube views. We sold 50k singles last year because everyone knows they can get it for free on youtube.

Guess who's making the money there? Tell me how not only the artist, but the producer, writer, musicians, photographer, graphic designer, marketing department, booking agent and all others associated with making the one piece of music gets paid if we're to give it away? Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2010-08-12 16:53. Maybe that artist should make music for hire instead of making it without pay and then expecting people to barbara ehrenreich baggage essay pay him? You don't agree to care system usa do any other service before some form of payment is baggage established do you? Fund and release. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on welfare state, Mon, 2008-06-16 04:21. Just wanted to let you know that we posted a large part of your article at LawMatters.in.

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2008-06-18 13:53. Great articles and comments, how can I translate it in another language? I mean, am I allowed to translate it and post it on my web site if I send you the address and all? Re: Translation into barbara ehrenreich essay more languages. Free copyright means free copyright: you don't have to ask my permission to make translations. I'd appreciate it if you'd send back a link if you do, though, so we can point people to it. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2008-06-19 16:17. A distinction needs to be made between different kinds of welfare state media and creativity. Written material is extremely easy to duplicate and tag your name to as compared to more 'live' material such as music and video.

For example, a site such as Sean Nalewanyj - the barbara ehrenreich, guy's entire income is dependent upon the fact that he INDEED is the author of the program in question. Ph D Research Papers? If there was no copyright, tons of people could simply stick their name up on the program and start selling it. On the other hand, it is rather obvious that there is a HUGE difference between sharing content and copying content. As time goes on, I'm sure the distinction will become clearer and many of these issues will start dying down. Good article nonetheless! Re: A distinction needs to be made. You're confusing copyright with protection from plagiarism. They're unrelated: one is cultural essay about making copies, the other is about attribution.

Anyway, if someone is going to start a common falsely claim authorship of ehrenreich cultural essay a work, then they'll falsely claim the copyright at the same time. All the copyright laws in the world won't help the original author then -- the essay system, case needs to be prosecuted as fraud. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on barbara ehrenreich cultural essay, Wed, 2008-07-09 11:58. They're fighting to maintain a state of mind, an attitude toward creative work . You've got it in state a nutshell, right there. That's the crux of the issue. Until the creative community can foster a different state of mind, the barbara cultural essay, insanity of current copyright enforcement will continue. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2008-07-10 11:33. Copyright is a legal concept, enacted by governments, giving the creator of an state original work of authorship exclusive rights to it, usually for a limited time, after which the work enters the public domain. Generally, it is the right to copy, but also gives the copyright holder the right to be credited for the work, to determine who may adapt the work to other forms, who may perform the work, who may financially benefit from barbara ehrenreich essay it, and essay care usa, other, related rights. It is an intellectual property form (like the patent, the trademark, and barbara baggage essay, the trade secret) applicable to any expressible form of an idea or information that is substantive and discrete. i hope we get this prtected as we protect our kids and save this for welfare our future. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2009-06-03 07:24.

A century of censorship is hardly a limited amount of time. That means artists can live their whole lives without ever being able to participate in the culture they exist in. Your kids won't be able to create art that has anything to baggage essay do with the art owned by corporations during their lifetimes. Creative Commons and how to start a common, New Music Business Models. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2009-02-11 10:51. I offer all my songs under the Creative Commons because as an independent music producer I am well aware of the ehrenreich baggage, changing of the tides you have mentioned. The fact is that the essay state, Internet, Peer 2 peer networks are comparable to one big radio station that is great for promoting artists (my site increases in traffic daily), but bad, bad, bad for record companies. So whats my business model? Same as any blog, and my music gets the word out.

Re: Creative Commons and New Music Business Models. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on ehrenreich cultural baggage essay, Fri, 2010-10-22 17:43. What sort of donations do you receive on average per download? Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2009-06-21 01:17. You have made good article to share. Ph D Research? I will destribute it to my friends via email. I think in the today's modern industry of technology and internet it is almost impossible to stop unauthorised destribution. That is because everyone can place any content over the internet and barbara baggage, people will not pay any money if they are getting the application uk, same thing for free. However, i never knew the history of copyright and i surprised that the copyright is ehrenreich not for authors, but for destributor companies. End of something, but maybe not copyright. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2009-11-02 10:24.

I think you'll find that a large portion of creators who seek another way are abandoning, not copyright, but publishers. They retain their copyright, and health care usa, one of the big reasons is to protect themselves from barbara someone taking a copy commercial and then opening an essay health care expensive war against the sharers. Look carefully, for example, at the GNU General Public License (the copyleft) and you will see that it cannot operate without the cultural essay, existence of essay of why copyright *and its retention by the creator*. Other models are possible. There's nothing to prevent an barbara ehrenreich cultural author offering a limited-term exclusive license to publish his work while retaining copyright, including the right to essay care usa offer other licenses to others when the term of exclusivity has expired. Can that sort of agreement be used to optimize the benefit to the author? Beats me, but I'm sure that someone will try it, if it hasn't been tried already. But again it depends on the author's copyright -- he just uses it differently. Without copyright, there would be only *one* viable business model: the if you liked this, you might send me some money model.

Works for ehrenreich some, maybe not for others. Essay Care? Let's keep copyright and cultural essay, encourage creators to use it *ahem* creatively, and see what develops. There's a different axis for casual work free culture. End of something, but maybe not copyright. There are many business models that work without monopolizing content. We've documented real-life examples of some of them here (see the Sita Distribution Project results, for example). You're writing from the perspective that this is just a matter of the author's choice, that whatever the author chooses to do is okay, isn't it great how the Internet gives authors so many more possibilities today, etc. It is great, but the Internet also gives everyone more possibilities: authors, sometime authors, readers, filmmakers, composers, everyone.

The argument we're making is in essence a civil rights argument, not an economics argument: why should anyone (publisher, author, author's estate, etc) have a monopoly over barbara ehrenreich essay what you can do with your copies? Or what I can do? Given that there are so many more ways to casual work use copies now than there used to be, it doesn't make sense to barbara ehrenreich monopolize them. I wasn't sure what you meant about taking a copy commercial and then opening an expensive war against the sharers. Essay Of Why? Without copyright, how would one wage war against sharers? The GNU GPL and other copyleft licenses do not fundamentally depend on copyright; they could be implemented without copyright too very easily. See this article excerpt for more on that. Re: End of something, but maybe not copyright. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2009-12-09 10:48. I think the question here--and I'm curious about this, too--is how to make sure others follow the CC license, or whatever license the barbara cultural baggage essay, author uses.

For example, what would happen if Paramount Pictures decided to issue Sita Sings the Blues on a DVD and copyright it. Research? Then Paramount's lawyers started issuing Cease and ehrenreich cultural, Desist orders to the file sharers and how to start app essay, other DVD distributors. (This is a pretty extreme example, I know.) How is the CC license enforced? Who keeps somebody else from Copyrighting your work? I know Nina Paley is the author of Sita, but technically what could she do to stop this? I almost think she (or any other author) would then, oddly enough, rely on the existing copyright laws to baggage stop them. Is this correct? Just curious. Re: End of something, but maybe not copyright. Falsely claiming copyright or authorship is like any other kind of essay health care system fraud. What keeps me from claiming to be you?

It's difficult to do it successfully, and there's a good chance that if you catch me, you'll have me punished (and after all, proving your case is easy -- once a fraud is baggage essay detected, there's rarely any difficulty to prove it, since the closer people look, the more fraudulent the fraud appears). This dynamic is as true with copyright as with anything else. Another way to ph d research say it is, this has nothing to do with free licenses. Cultural Essay? If copyright were so easy to steal, then it would happen all the time for the traditional restrictive licenses too. Of Why The? The reason it doesn't is that fraud is barbara ehrenreich baggage essay hard to do right. Re: End of something, but maybe not copyright. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2009-12-16 10:00. Okay. I guess that makes sense.

BTW, I'm very much in favor of the Creative Commons license model, but, I just want to understand, legally, how it works.I know my example above about Paramount seemed abusrd, but there are smaller examples of welfare things like this happening. Ehrenreich Cultural Baggage Essay? I know of a company that colorized a 1936 public domain film, then tried to claim that it had restored the copyright on it--even the original Black and essay, White version. I don't know if it would hold up in barbara essay court or not, but cease and desist letters can scare distributors and websites away from essay of why the hosting material. In this case, they weren't claiming authorship, but they were claiming ownership. Now, I know we're not talking about Public Domain material here. Barbara Ehrenreich Baggage Essay? But, what exactly are we talking about? I am going to of why the make a film soon which I want to release for free with a CC-pro license. Barbara Baggage? Do I need to Copyright it first? Is there any other legal means to claim authorship?I don't mind doing so, but it does make me wonder about the wisdom of application essay abolishing all copyright laws, if, in the end, we still rely on them to legally claim authorship of our work. Would everything otherwise become Public Domain, with a hope that people abide by the CC license?Does my question make sense?

Re: End of something, but maybe not copyright. Your question doesn't make sense -- but it's not your fault, it's the fault of the rather confusing copyright system. First of all, you automatically get copyright for what you produce. You don't need to register copyright, or pay a fee; technically you don't even have to ehrenreich put a copyright notice on the work, though for various reasons your life will be easier if you do. It's automatically copyrighted by papers, you no matter what. What license terms you choose, though, is essay up to you.

(Remember, this is university uk not about claiming authorship. Ehrenreich Cultural? You claim authorship by putting your name on essay of why, the work. That's independent of ehrenreich cultural essay copyright. Even if you released the work to the public domain (i.e., explicitly gave up your copyright), you would still be the work's author. Tolstoy's works are in the public domain, not under copyright at all, but Tolstoy is still known as their author. So you have to how to app essay separate the idea of claiming authorship from claiming the right to barbara baggage restrict people from copying the work. Those are two totally different things.) Now, copyright is currently the uk, only mechanism the law offers by which you can enforce a sharing-friendly license (i.e., a license that says derivative works must be freely shareable too). So, use a copyright license, no problem. Cultural Baggage? Someday, as described in state that excerpt I referenced earlier, the law may provide you another way to barbara baggage encourage sharing, in which case you could switch to using that way.

Choosing a free license is not an university application essay uk endorsement of the barbara cultural baggage, copyright system. It is a use of the university application, copyright system to achieve something that copyright was not designed for. If there were no copyright in the first place, there would be no need for ehrenreich cultural your license to specify that sharing is okay, because sharing would automatically be okay in the first place. Re: End of something, but maybe not copyright. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2010-01-31 18:18. Proving fraud is not easy. Of Why? Ask a lawyer. Currently, the article The Street Performer Protocol and Digital Copyrights can be found at barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage essay http://firstmonday.org/htbin/cgiwrap/bin/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/673/583. Fixed now, thank you. I'm an undergraduate student who became interested in this issue after watching Nina Paley's Sita Sings the Blues which, I might add, was a brilliant film. Casual Work? Recently I have begun work on my term paper for a Social Sciences class on this subject, and I have been using this article as well as the video talk you gave as some of my references.

I am also planning my presentation on this topic, and want to cover all my bases. To that end, there is one question I have so far, specifically with incentives for creation and other methods of profit. You said that singers hold concerts which provide them with additional income, and there is Ms. Paley who has grants and funds. I'm not sure if you have already mentioned it, but what are alternatives for writers? Thanks in advance for your time, I hope it's an barbara ehrenreich baggage essay easy question to answer!

newspaperkiosk.com link is dead and essay of why the, seemed to be something else. Submitted by ehrenreich cultural essay, Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2010-04-21 04:56. A great and well-reasoned article. many thanks for laying these points down so clearly. However, http://www.newspaperkiosk.com/ is dead and now redirects to some domain name holding company, while search engines claim that it used to health care be a site for barbara essay Publication racks and newspaper kiosks for sale in durable hardwood (!) A current example of paper print-on-demand is www.lulu.com. Re: newspaperkiosk.com link is start app essay dead and seemed to be . Thanks, Martin. I'll make a note in the reference. Re: The Surprising History of barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage essay Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2010-05-21 01:11. Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . Thank you so much! We link to it from the translations list at the top now. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on a common app essay, Fri, 2010-06-11 04:25.

Well done admin! Removing the comments that showed the ehrenreich baggage essay, one fatal flaw in your plight for the use of essay health system copyrighted material?, let's all welcome hypocritical censorship as in sixteenth-century England. Do you remember what your comment said? Please repost if you have it (our editorial policy explicitly asks you to save copies, in ehrenreich essay case we accidentally delete something). The volume of spam comments we get insures that there will be occasional accidental deletions of non-spam. If you're volunteering to help us filter the spam, then you get to complain :-). Note that our comment policy (which is displayed when you make a comment) says we don't promise to publish every comment. Failing to publish someone's comment is essay care system not the same as censorship. Ehrenreich Baggage Essay? Electrons are cheap; you're free to get your own web site. Nonetheless, we wouldn't have knowingly deleted a good comment.

So if you still have yours, please repost. Submitted by health care usa, Anonymous (not verified) on barbara cultural, Fri, 2010-06-11 13:23. Do you remember what your comment said? Please repost if you have it (our editorial policy explicitly asks you to essay health save copies, in case we accidentally delete something). I do remember what my comments said, but I will gladly look up the posts from my original backups to confirm. The volume of spam comments we get insures that there will be occasional accidental deletions of non-spam. Essay? If you're volunteering to help us filter the spam, then you get to complain :-).

The volume of spam comments shows just how easy your site can be exploited, perhaps you should put your finger on the real pulse of the Internet and avoid such spam?. I will gladly volunteer to help with anything, but if you persist in deleting 'spam' comments from how to a common a comment poster along with responses by a resident artist (Nina Paley), just what exactly is accidental about that? Note that our comment policy (which is displayed when you make a comment) says we don't promise to publish every comment. Failing to publish someone's comment is not the same as censorship. The comment (actually plural) was (= comments were) published. You were clearly cornered, Nina Paley attempted two feeble counters, but she failed miserably. Electrons are cheap; you're free to get your own web site. I have my own website, in fact I have much more, please DO NOT use the loser response (so let's brush off the hecklers) when you are surely beyond that. Nonetheless, we wouldn't have knowingly deleted a good comment. Barbara Cultural? So if you still have yours, please repost.

I do not think a repost is a common app essay justifiable just yet, a stunning post which counters your basic principles is obviously just too much for you to grasp at ehrenreich baggage present. As an alternative, I'll give you time to rethink your basic strategy towards your goal. Trying to 'cloud over' the Bible quote with copyright is a very poor response, with your resources you should know that copyright on casual work, the Bible is in most cases restricted to 'derivative', my original (deleted) comments were in ehrenreich cultural fact copyrighted to me as the author of a 'derivative'. If you are going to essay of why fight for something, make sure you cover ALL bases against attack!, counter ALL attacks successfully and barbara ehrenreich baggage, you might just win. It's true: the admin accidentally deleted a comment thread including replies by me, in which I eloquently proved you, Anonymous, were a big fat poopy-head. Tragically, those comments are gone forever, leaving you with the false impression that I am a big fat poopy head. Oh cruel fate! Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2010-06-18 09:31. It's true: the admin accidentally deleted a comment thread including replies by me, in which I eloquently proved you, Anonymous, were a big fat poopy-head. It appears that your idea of eloquence is university application uk weak replies along with immature insults including what some would consider prejudice against people with weight disorders.

Your 'accidentally deleted' replies proved nothing about baggage me of course, but certainly proved something much more substantial about questioncopyright.org. Tragically, those comments are gone forever Fortunately those comments are not gone forever, because as someone who owns and maintains several websites - I backup EVERYTHING (especially any web pages with which I participate). leaving you with the research, false impression that I am a big fat poopy head. Unless you consider mind reading a part of your talents you have absolutely no idea what true or false impressions I have of you, but your entire post does leave an outstanding impression of professionalism for public consumption. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2010-07-22 06:39. Thank you very much for the free work shared in this website. I?ll pack some of barbara baggage essay your content and will sell this nice free work and make some profit. Yep, some people dont have time (or patience) to research dig your site, so I will offer a compilation and make mone with your free work, selling this compilation. Thank you again! Thank YOU!

Packaging and distributing books is a lot of work, and demands upfront monetary investment. Glad you're willing to take the barbara cultural, financial risk on health care usa, behalf of barbara ehrenreich baggage our message. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2010-07-22 08:47. No, no. No financial risk, no work either! I?ll just copy and past the application essay uk, work in barbara ehrenreich cultural a DVD or CD and sell it.

Or even setup a paid download. And I will ask you to essay of why the not get pissed, because I?ll use your work to ehrenreich cultural essay make money, but will never share it with you. Sue me! OOps, without a copyright law this will be quite impossible. :^) If burning DVDs and essay of why, setting up paid downloads is no work for you, great. Barbara Cultural Baggage? It's work for me. I say, go for it! Then come back and tell us how much $$$ you made.

I promise I won't sue - selling copies of my work doesn't violate the CC-BY-SA license. Seriously. How To A Common? Go crazy. I kid you not. Why are you still reading this? Get burnin' and sellin'! You've got big bucks to barbara ehrenreich baggage make!

Re: I?ll sell your free work Why give him $ when it#039;s free here? Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on health care system usa, Fri, 2011-02-25 10:03. I'll just download the entire article for free at this website instead of giving this. Jackass any of my money. Thank you for barbara ehrenreich a monumental and interesting body of work that we will be linking to. Re: I?ll sell your free work Why give him $ when it#039;s free here? Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2011-03-06 23:35. You appear to be missing the point of the article completely. The idea is that having the information spread freely is a good thing.

So if you want to make a copy and try to application essay uk make money off it, thats great! It means it will be seen and enjoyed by more people. Barbara Cultural? If you end up making lots of money from it, we would be HAPPY ( aside from ph d papers your attitude about it being rather hostile). The point is barbara ehrenreich cultural essay that sharing is good. Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Thu, 2010-07-22 08:39. Because this cause is clearly socialist, and as an artist that cant manage to pay the essay of why, bills with utopic ideas, I would like to ask what is the amount of barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage essay artists that jumped in to this cause? I mean REAL artists, that spends lots of casual work money and time studing his art? Any with children to grow up?

Any that pay taxes? If I would like to share my production freely, I dont need any change in the law, I just give it. Abolition of the copyright laws only benefit copiers (i.e. parasites). Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Tue, 2010-08-17 05:37. Actually, many libertarians and classical liberals question copyright on ehrenreich baggage, philosophical or economic grounds. A Common App Essay? For example, See N. Stephen Kinsella's essay Against Intellectual Property. In short, he believes the concept of intellectual property weakens both physical property, and basic freedoms like freedom of speech. Re: The Surprising History of barbara cultural baggage Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Fri, 2010-10-15 10:57. I enjoyed most of the article, but you have the Statute of essay Anne completely inside-out, and it really weakens your case.

Consider the ehrenreich, real story: First off, it's extremely disingenuous to refer to the Stationers' law as a copyright measure. It doesn't resemble what we think of as copyright in any way. True copyright began with the Statute of Anne, not the Stationers. The Stationers' publishing monopoly may have been based on censorship, but it also proved to be a highly efficient way to essay state encourage the barbara baggage, creation and essay state, distribution of books. Because it worked well, much better than patronage, by the time the Stationers' monopoly ended, the barbara essay, patronage system was on casual work, the way out. The monopoly had done a great deal of damage to cultural baggage the system, but with it gone, and essay welfare state, no strong, viable alternative, all that remained was anarchy. When anyone with a press could publish a written work, that frequently turned out to ehrenreich cultural baggage be exactly what happened.

And without regulatory laws and contracts to how to app essay keep them in barbara cultural essay line, they would publish their works under their own terms, frequently without any compensation to the authors. The simple truth is that authors asked for of why the a copyright law in ehrenreich cultural baggage order to keep the publishing houses from abusing expensive modern technology that wasn't generally available (the printing press) to their detriment and, quite frequently, their financial ruin. Once authors were able to harness the publishing companies, they could use the law to casual work suppress abusive publishers and be able to baggage maintain an income based on their work. Parliament passed it with a very important provision: the expiration date. Essay The? (Would a group of publishers seeking the restoration of a perpetual monopoly really lobby for one?) The idea is not to use copyright as an incentive to get authors to create works, but as an incentive to barbara cultural baggage essay get authors to enrich the public domain ; the same idea that's been used so successfully (originally, at least,) in patents. When you see the origins of copyright as a means to suppress the abuses of publishing companies rather than enable them, then the true scope of the abominations they've perpetrated over the last 40 years or so becomes clear. The Statute of Anne was developed for the explicit purpose of preventing wealthy publishing companies from abusing expensive modern technology to research papers the detriment of authors. (It even says so in the preamble.) And ever since then, they've been patiently working to cultural essay restore status quo ante.

The Digital Millenium Copyright Act finally brings things full circle: It was developed for the explicit purpose of permitting wealthy publishing companies to casual work abuse expensive modern technology, to the detriment of not only authors but the general public. That's the story that you need to be telling. The publishers have turned a legal tool meant to keep them under control into a tool by cultural essay, which they can control the rest of casual work us. The DMCA turns both law and barbara essay, common sense inside-out. DRM takes the control of a computer's functionality out start a common app essay of the hands of the computer's owner, overriding it and bending it to the will of barbara cultural baggage some other programmer, against the the owner's will. In any other context, this is known as computer hacking, and it's a serious crime. Instead, the DMCA arbitrarily declares that this is legal, and that it is in fact a crime for a computer owner to reassert their own natural right to control of their property by disabling or bypassing the hacker's DRM software. Copyright, as originally conceived, is a good idea, both for ehrenreich baggage authors and for essay society as a whole.

The only people it harms are the barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage essay, publishers, and this is by how to start, design. That's why they've spent so much effort to work on changing it ever since it was invented. We need to work to restore it, to roll back the abusive mutations that have been introduced to the law, not abolishing it and barbara ehrenreich cultural essay, leaving another power vacuum like the one that led to the creation of copyright law in the first place. Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on health usa, Sun, 2010-11-14 19:45. Hi, Anonymous; thanks for ehrenreich cultural essay your critique. (I'd love some sources for those points, if you have time to give them.) I don't completely agree, because there are important respects in which the original Stationers' monopolies really were like copyrights: they were treated as property by the Stationers themselves, within the health, Company. Barbara Cultural Essay? The resemblance is too strong to pass over unremarked. Also, the driving force behind the Statute of Anne was primarily the publishers, not authors. It is care true that some authors understandably felt abused by printers, and this shaped the barbara, statute, but there seem to have been very few authors -- who were not also Stationers, that is -- directly lobbying for the model in the Statute of Anne.

Indeed, it would have made much more sense for authors to argue for a mandatory royalty rate and some statutory protections as to integrity of content, rather than for a transferable monopoly. Yet we ended up with a transferable monopoly. Why? Because the model was designed for the sustainability of the publishing industry, not for authorship per essay se. Thus it seems to me more accurate to ehrenreich baggage say that the Statute of Anne was essentially a publisher-driven law that contained important concessions to authors and to the public domain in order to get passed.

Undoing both types of concessions has been the great project of the content industry in modern times. I think I actually agree with you that it was a good idea for how to start its time. But today, when we have a zero-marginal-cost, worldwide copying and editing machine, the opportunity cost of copyright is much higher -- even of copyright as originally formulated by the Statute of Anne. If instead of the printing press, the Internet had been invented in the 1400s, I do not think we would see a development like copyright, because it wouldn't make much economic sense. The right thing to barbara cultural essay do today is essay not simply to restore copyright to its former balance, because it was only balanced in world that is barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage now vanished. We need much more fundamental reform than that, to make copyright in research the Internet age compatible with freedom of speech and with people's clear desire to share information and art without artificial restrictions.

-Karl Fogel (too lazy to log in, so just signing here) Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and cultural essay, The Promise of a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sat, 2010-10-30 01:55. There's an amazing book by Eckhard Hoffner Geschichte und Wesen des Urheberrechts (ISBN-10 : 3930893169). Ph D Papers? I'm afraid it's not yet available in english, but hopefully it will be some day. Hoffner claims that the rise of germany from a rather insignificant agrarian nation to an economic super power during the 19th century is mainly due to the absence of copyright in germany during that time, causing an explosion of wisdom.

Hoffner gives numerous intersting examples and comparisons to other countries of that time. The book is just as eye-opening as this great article by barbara ehrenreich, kfogel. Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on start app essay, Sun, 2010-11-14 19:47. Thanks! Yes, we've been hearing a lot about that book. I'd like to read it. Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and essay, The Promise of a . By the way, in a world without copyright restrictions, you wouldn't have to hope that someday Eckhard Hoffner's book will be available in English. Instead, anyone who wanted to translate it could do so -- and probably would: see this article for more about what happens when spontaneous translation is essay permitted.

Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by barbara, Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2010-11-03 01:41. Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of health usa a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on barbara essay, Sun, 2010-11-14 19:48. Minor correction to of why above comment: though many articles on cultural baggage essay, this site are by Nina Paley, this one isn't (it's by Karl Fogel). Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . Yes! Karl Fogel wrote this article, not me. It certainly influenced me.

Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Tue, 2012-05-01 06:33. yes you are right. Re: The Surprising History of ph d research Copyright and The Promise of a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Wed, 2011-01-19 18:23. Well, there's so much here to comment on, but I would point out that despite all the talk about protecting the barbara essay, artist, I haven't heard of any artist actually receiving any payment from sync or mechanical rights. The recording companies keep these. In fact, Roger McGuinn of the Byrds testified before Congress that he hadn't received one cent of promised royalties from the Byrds' albums despite the albums being in print continuously for over 40 years! The record company keeps telling him that the records haven't made a profit yet, as if it would be logical to essay of why keep something in print for 40 years that hasn't made money! So now, McGuinn releases his songs over barbara ehrenreich the Internet and controls all of his rights and essay welfare state, collects all of barbara ehrenreich his money.

Copyrights use to be only 20 years like patents. Thanks to the movie and recording industries, they've pushed corporate copyrights terms to 95 (!) years and individual copyrights to 150 years (or more). And nothing new has entered the public domain since 1998, nor will it until 2018 (if there isn't another copyright revision). The whole idea of copyright wasn't to research tie up the rights so creative works would be squirreled away for a century. If a book publisher drops a book, the author can find another publisher. But if a record company drops an artist, it keeps their recordings forever. It's not right. These films and recordings are our national culture.

Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and barbara, The Promise of a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2011-02-06 20:53. So could I treat it like this: Authors have the right to keep secret. THose who want to share the essay state, secret should comply with the authors' terms and conditions. The terms and conditions was to be made in synergy with the law as a whole. Secrets that were made public by the authors were not secrets anymore. So the law should allow us to share whatever it is that's publicly available for free. Lie or dangerous modification of the free publication should be considered as fraud and so copyright infringement is not necessary. How about Marketability? What made us buy the things that we've bought? Don't people who gave us access to utility deserve payments?

So doesn't the creators of the internet deserve our money if we had access to ehrenreich cultural baggage good music because of the internet? I haven't paid anything to essay of why the them have you? Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and barbara ehrenreich cultural, The Promise of a . Submitted by welfare state, Anonymous (not verified) on Sun, 2011-02-06 21:09. 5. So the ehrenreich cultural baggage, law should allow us to share whatever it is that's publicly available for free. I should've said So the ph d, law should allow us to share whatever it is that's publicly available for free.

So if the authors demands payment for access, then it's not broadcasted, its exclusively available. Re: The Surprising History of Copyright and The Promise of ehrenreich cultural a . Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Mon, 2012-07-09 07:45. I would like to know your thoughts on lessening the time limit on copyright, as how it used to be; for a limited time of exclusivity where the research papers, creator made a profit then it went to ehrenreich baggage the public domain.

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The Most Anthologized Essays of the …

Edgar Allan Poe Poe, Edgar Allan (Literary Masters) - Essay. While the enormous popularity of Edgar Allan Poe's famous short stories and poems continues to highlight his creative brilliance, Poe's renown as the master of horror, the father of the detective story, and the voice of cultural, The Raven is something of a mixed blessing. Today, Poe is known, read, and appreciated on the basis of a comparatively narrow body of work, roughly a dozen tales and half as many poems. For the novice reader, these favored texts offer easy (but still challenging) access to Poe's most exemplary writing, entry into his uniquely terrifying world, and intriguing connections to welfare facets of barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage essay, their author's tragically disordered life. How To Start. The total effect of all this is compelling, and Poe himself would certainly approve. He wrote for the masses, using his learned artistry to reach the common people of his day and to then elevate their minds while intensifying their emotional reactions. Poe was not averse to the commercial sensationalism either: he wrote several hoaxes as news and later capitalized on baggage essay his personal notoriety for bookings on the lecture/recital circuit.

Along with Mark Twain and Ernest Hemingway, Poe ranks among the foremost literary stars in the firmament of popular American culture. A century and half after his death, Poe is instantly identifiable, stands without rival, and university uk, remains (with effort) immensely enjoyable. In his normal frame of mind, at least, Poe would have been deeply amused by the widespread adulation and fame he has enjoyed in posterity. The rub is that we may be tempted to stop here and neglect the breadth and the depth of Poe's contributions to Western Literature. Poe, in fact, wrote nearly seventy short works of barbara ehrenreich baggage, fiction. He is duly credited with creating the detective story genre and casual work, with transforming the ehrenreich cultural essay Gothic mystery tale of the Romantic Period into the modern horror or murder stories centered in the outlying regions of human mind and experience. But he also wrote several comic and satirical pieces, literary parodies, sketches, and experimental stories, including A Descent into the Maelstrom, and research, his novella, The Narrative of barbara ehrenreich baggage, Arthur Gordon Pym . His most famous poems—The Raven, Ulalume, The Bells, The City in the Sea—were enormously influential. These famous verses were behind a powerful wave of essay system usa, enthusiasm for Poe that arose among the leading writers of Europe during his own lifetime, spread thereafter around the world, and was sustained through the discovery of existential human condition themes in barbara cultural baggage his short stories generations later. How To Start A Common App Essay. But Poe also wrote three volumes of poetry during the first period of his literary career (1827-1831) that deserve our attention, as does his metaphysical Eureka: A Prose Poem and his verse drama, Politian . In terms of the hidden breadth of his accomplishments, during most of his career, Poe labored as an editor of barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage, literary journals and reviewer of fiction, verse, and non-fiction books. Among the latter, Poe wrote reviews on books of such diverse fields as medicine, natural history, archeology, philology, and economics. As for Poe's criticism of fiction and verse, there is an casual work, intersection with the often-overlooked depth of his work.

Poe developed a theory of composition that he applied to both his short stories and his poems. Its most basic principle was that insofar as short fiction and poetry were concerned, the barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage writer should aim at creating a single and total psychological/spiritual effect upon the reader. How To. The theme or plot of the piece is always subordinate to ehrenreich baggage the author's calculated construction of a single, intense mood in the reader's or listener's mind, be it melancholy, suspense, or horror. There are no extra elements in state Poe, no subplots, no minor characters, and no digressions except those that show the madness of deranged first-person (I) narrators. Ultimately, Poe took writing to be a moral task that worked not through teaching lessons, but in simultaneously stimulating his readers' mental, emotional, and spiritual faculties through texts of absolute integrity. Poe, moreover, judged others by these same standards. Barbara Cultural Baggage. By doing so, he is establishing the rules and methods common to New Criticism, the leading school of literary analysis in the twentieth century with its insistence that the care usa text must be interpreted as a self-contained unit apart from the critic's opinions of its author or the suitability of its themes. Access our Edgar Allan Poe Study Guide for cultural Free. Edgar Allan Poe was born in essay welfare state Boston on January 19, 1809.

His mother, Elizabeth Arnold Poe, was an actress who had attained some prominence as a leading lady. His father, David Poe, Jr., had pursued a somewhat less successful career on the stage, punctuated by alcoholic binges. Although the precise dates and other details are unclear, Poe's father apparently abandoned his family around the time of barbara cultural, Edgar's second birthday. We do know that his mother took Edgar, his brother, William Henry, and how to start app essay, sister, Rosalie, with her to Richmond, Virginia, sometime in 1811 and that she died there in December of that same year. Edgar was separated from his siblings and barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage essay, placed in the the care of barbara cultural essay, a childless couple, John and Frances Allan.

John Allan was an English/Scottish merchant who kept a tight hold on the family's purse strings but who also recognized the value of education. In 1815, he took his wife and stepson (Edgar was never legally adopted by the Allans) to ph d research papers England on barbara an extended business trip. In England, Edgar spent his early childhood at state, prestigious boarding academies, including the Manor House School of Doctor Bransby at Stoke Newington. Evidently, he was an excellent student: in 1819, John Allan wrote to his friend William Galt that Edgar is in the Country at school, he is a very fine boy a good scholar. It was while he was in England that young Edgar first became acquainted with the Gothic literature that was popular in Europe at the time. When Allan returned to Richmond in 1820, Edgar continued his education at private schools, studying Latin, verse, and oratory.

He was also an ehrenreich baggage, athletic youth, a superior swimmer, and marksman. But he was not popular. He was taunted by his peers as the son of actors (a disreputable profession) who occupied an app essay, odd status in the Allan household as an unadopted stepson. Barbara Ehrenreich Cultural Baggage Essay. Poe received support and encouragement from the of why mother of a classmate, Jane Stith Stanard, but she died of a brain tumor when he was fifteen years old. More so than Elizabeth Poe or Mrs. Allan, he looked upon this woman as his idealized mother, and essay, her untimely death was the apparent cause of his first extended period of psychological depression, during which he often visited her grave. Around this time, John Allan's trading firm suffered a series of financial setbacks, the company itself was dissolved, and Poe's stepfather took to extramarital affairs and to a common app essay the bottle. In 1825, however, John Allan inherited a large sum of money, and this abrupt reversal of fortune enabled him to enroll Edgar at the University of Virginia. Shortly before his departure for ehrenreich cultural baggage college, Poe began to essay health usa court a fifteen-year-old woman named Sarah Elmira Royster.

Whether the two were engaged before he left for college is unclear; that he was serious about his intention to marry Sarah is fairly certain. Barbara Cultural Baggage Essay. Poe entered the University of Virginia in 1826 at the age of university application essay uk, seventeen, concentrating on classical and modern languages. But he found it difficult to maintain a gentleman's life style on baggage the relatively meager allowance that John Allan furnished to him. He took to gambling and compiled debts of honor amounting to some $2,000, an enormous sum in the 1820s. John Allan refused to pay these debts; Poe left school and returned to how to start a common app essay Richmond, where he worked for a time in Allan's counting house. Barbara Ehrenreich Cultural. When he tried to essay welfare renew his courtship of Sarah Royster, her parents first told him that she was abroad; he eventually learned that his first fiancee had become engaged to another young man. Alienated from his stepfather and rejected by Sarah's family, the headstrong Poe set out on his own, moving first to barbara ehrenreich baggage Baltimore in of why March 1827 and barbara ehrenreich baggage, then back to the city of his birth, Boston, where he took the of why the first of several pseudonyms, calling himself Henri Le Rennet.

It was in Boston that Poe wrote the first poems that would eventually bear his real name. Without a regular source of income, Poe joined the barbara cultural baggage essay army at the age of health care, eighteen, enlisting under the fictitious name of Edgar A. Perry. He was initially assigned to duty with coastal artillery at Fort Independence in Boston Harbor and later transferred to Fort Moultrie on Sullivan's Island outside the harbor of barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage, Charleston, South Carolina. With his keen mind and still-sturdy body, Poe did well in the military, rising to the rank of sergeant major during his two-year stint. While he was stationed at Fort Independence, Poe prevailed upon a local publisher to print his first volume of verses, Tamerlane and Other Poems in 1827 under the name of essay of why, Edgar Perry. To these, he would eventually add six new poems for a volume that would be published in Baltimore under his real name at the end of 1829. By then, however, tragedy struck Poe's life once more. Baggage. In February 1829, Poe's stepmother, Frances Allen, died, the casual work third mother figure in his life to suffer an untimely death.Alienated from his stepfather and rejected by barbara baggage essay, Sarah's family, the headstrong Poe set out on his own, moving first to Baltimore in casual work March 1827 and then back to ehrenreich the city of his birth, Boston, where he took the first of casual work, several pseudonyms, calling himself Henri Le Rennet. It was in Boston that Poe wrote the first poems that would eventually bear his real name.

Without a regular source of baggage, income, Poe joined the army at the age of eighteen, enlisting under the fictitious name of Edgar A. Perry. He was initially assigned to duty with coastal artillery at Fort Independence in health system usa Boston Harbor and later transferred to Fort Moultrie on ehrenreich cultural baggage essay Sullivan's Island outside the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina. With his keen mind and still-sturdy body, Poe did well in the military, rising to the rank of welfare state, sergeant major during his two-year stint. While he was stationed at Fort Independence, Poe prevailed upon a local publisher to print his first volume of verses, Tamerlane and cultural baggage essay, Other Poems. By a Bostonian, in 1827 under the name of Edgar Perry. To these, he would eventually add six new poems for a volume that would be published in Baltimore under his real name at the end of 1829. By then, however, tragedy struck Poe's life once more. In February 1829, Poe's stepmother, Frances Allen, died, the ph d research papers third mother figure in his life to suffer an untimely death. The death of Frances Allan set the stage for reconciliation between Poe and John Allan. Baggage Essay. According to casual work some accounts, it was through Allan's influence that Poe received an appointment to the United States Military Academy at West Point.

He did enter West Point in July 1830, but a few months later, he learned that John Allan had. (The entire section is 2658 words.) Get Free Access to this Edgar Allan Poe Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to barbara ehrenreich essay unlock this resource and thousands more. Get Better Grades. Our 30,000+ summaries will help you comprehend your required reading to essay ace every test, quiz, and essay. We've broken down the cultural essay chapters, themes, and characters so you can understand them on essay uk your first read-through. Access Everything From Anywhere.

We have everything you need in one place, even if you're on the go. Download our handy iOS app for cultural baggage free. The Influence of Poe’s Life on his Work. Edgar Allan Poe is considered the father of both the university application uk horror genre and the detective novel. His stories of murder, revenge, and barbara baggage, paranoia are still popular more than 150 years after his premature (and mysterious) death. Many readers wonder where he came up with the ideas for his stories and what type of a man would write such horrifying tales. Poe's life was interesting. Born in 1809, his parents were actors, but he and his brother and sister were orphaned when Poe was two years old.

Poe was sent to foster parents in how to start Richmond, Virginia, named John and barbara, Frances (Fanny) Allan. This is where the Allan in Edgar Allan Poe comes from, but the Allans also affected Poe's writing. (The entire section is 1146 words.) Get Free Access to this Edgar Allan Poe Study Guide. Start your 48-hour free trial to ph d research unlock this resource and thousands more. The Debate Over Poe’s Use of Alcohol and Drugs. The characteristic themes in Poe’s work are those “of horror, terror, strange fantasies and psychological abnormalities.” 1 A myth has developed, over the years, which attributes these themes to barbara baggage the writer’s drinking and drug-taking. Before any comment can be made about the influences of drugs and alcohol on essay state Poe’s work, the facts should be reduced to their proper proportion.

Poe was not a heavy daily drinker and was abstemious for long periods of time. He drank in ehrenreich cultural baggage times of emotional turmoil, when excitement or crises overtook him. In his own words he drank not for pleasure but to escape from “torturing memories … insupportable loneliness … a dread of some strange impending. (The entire section is 1089 words.) Short Story Samples of research, Poe's Stylistic and Thematic Gifts. Edgar Allan Poe’s popular short stories “Ligeia,” The Cask of Amontillado,” “The Tell-Tale Heart,” “The Murders in the Rue Morgue,” and barbara ehrenreich baggage, “The Pit and the Pendulum” serve as fine samples of his stylistic and thematic gifts. Casual Work. Although Poe’s stories. (The entire section is 6080 words.) During his life, Poe was a prolific writer, who often published work, revised it, and then republished it under a different title.

Though his works were widely published in America during his lifetime, he remained relatively unknown as a literary figure until the baggage printing of his poem The Raven in 1844. Poe historians feel that his lack of fame may have been due to the misfortune of his trying to establish a literary career in America during the mid-1800s. J. Essay. R. Hammond writes that if Poe had been in England, he not only cultural baggage essay would have been paid more for his work with various publications but would have most likely enjoyed increased popularity of his works in the favorable English literary climate. (Hammond, pp. 17-24). (The entire section is 4079 words.) Dividing the world of mind into its three most immediately obvious distinctions, we have the Pure Intellect, Taste, and essay uk, the Moral Sense. Just as the barbara ehrenreich essay Intellect concerns itself with Truth, so Taste informs us of the Beautiful while the Moral Sense is casual work, regardful of Duty. Of this latter, while Conscience teaches the obligation, and Reason the expediency, Taste contents herself with displaying the charms:—waging war upon Vice solely on the ground of her deformity—her disproportion—her animosity to the fitting, to the appropriate, to the harmonious—in a word, to Beauty.

Poe began his editorial career with the Messenger in 1835. His contribution. (The entire section is 5202 words.) Frequently Asked Questions About Poe. Poe was never admitted to a sanatorium, nor did he ever seek professional help for a mental problem. There is, therefore, no clinical evidence that he suffered from any type of madness. But even if he had doubts about his own sanity, he would have been rational enough to ehrenreich cultural avoid treatment. In his day, lunatics were usually placed in essay prison-like asylums for cultural baggage essay keeps. The narrators of several of Poe's stories are mad psychopaths, and he had uncanny insights into the workings of the murderer's mind, including some ideas that were later validated by criminal psychologists.

But simply because he wrote about supernaturally horrible acts from the perspective of deluded narrators does not. (The entire section is 2264 words.) Edgar Allan Poe Homework Help Questions. The poem “Alone” by Edgar Allan Poe was not published during his lifetime. It was not until 1875 that the poem was verified as being an authentic Poe poem written in essay care system 1830 when Poe was only.

The narrator is a classic example of an ehrenreich cultural baggage, unreliable narrator, because he is telling the entire story himself and there is no objective narration to back up his assertions. Essay State. The first lines of the. Poe was the father of the modern-day detective story and also the short story. He also wrote primarily of the macabre and introduced his readers to ambiguity of the characters and places so they. Edgar Allan Poe uses many different elements of style in barbara ehrenreich cultural baggage his writing. Most commonly, he uses first person narration. You can find first person narration in many of his works, including The Raven. Edgar Allan Poe was an American poet, author, editor, and literary critic.

Poe wrote during the of why the Romantic period, and therefore, was considered a Romantic writer. Ehrenreich Cultural Essay. Within this period, he was most. Edgar Allan Poe. Edgar Allan Poe. Edgar Allan Poe.

Mark Twain, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Kate Chopin, Stephen Crane, Sherwood Anderson, Herman Melville, Jack London, Edgar Allan Poe, O. Casual Work. Henry, Bret Harte.